Presentation on theme: "Quiz – Chapters 1 through 3 Chapter 4 – The Income Statement Homework – P & L Report."— Presentation transcript:
Quiz – Chapters 1 through 3 Chapter 4 – The Income Statement Homework – P & L Report
Chapter 4 – The Income Statement
Upon completion of this unit, each student will be able to: Understand the role and functions of the Income Statement. Understand the profit or loss from the Income Statement. Prepare a Profit & Loss report based on sales and cost information.
More commonly know as the P&L (Profit and Loss Statement) and also know as an Operating Statement Details the Revenue – Expenses = Profit (or loss) for a specific time period…. Usually each month Compares these categories against budget The P&L gives you a clear picture of how well the restaurant is operating (or how poorly it is operating)
What is the amount of revenue achieved for the period? What is the level of expense being incurred for the period? What was the food cost and beverage cost, as a dollar figure and as a percentage of sales? Were payroll costs kept in line with the budget? How much $$$ was spent on advertising, rent and other overhead activities? What was the tax expense for the period? What is the amount of profit being achieved for the period?
Managers Owners Investors Others, including creditors, lenders and employees
Determine time period for the report Calculate total sales Calculate total costs Subtract total costs from total sales REVENUE – EXPENSES = PROFIT
Who would be responsible for preparing this report? Who are primary users of this report? Responsibility accounting: Revenues and expenses reported separately for separate areas of responsibility Uses: To report sales and expense history To report sales and expense forecasts To report sales and expense actual results To report sales and expense for a future period
Inflows of assets that result from the sale of products and services Interchangeable terms: income, revenue, sales Assets can be in the form of cash, check, credit card or promise to pay (receivables) Recognized: at the point of sale when the earnings process is completed when an exchange has taken place Separate by category to identify contribution
Distinct dining areas Banquets Catering Drive – through Carryout Delivery Lounge or bar Bakery Gift Shop Gift certificates and gift cards Merchandise such as t-shirts, caps, etc
Sales contributed by ÷ Total = Sales Revenue source Sales Percentage
Expenses – Costs incurred by the restaurant to provide food and beverage products and services to the guests. Direct Expenses- Expenses that are closely related to the products and services provided to the guests. Indirect Expenses- Costs include depreciation, interest expense, property taxes, and rent expense.
Also referred to as Cost of Sales in our industry Most managers are interested in knowing their food cost percentage, their beverage cost percentage and their overall cost of sales percentage…….WHY How do you do this???
Net income as reflected in the restaurants P&L, occurs when revenues exceed expenses. Gains- are increases in equity that do not result from revenues or investments by owners. i.e. Selling a piece of equipment or another investment at a profit. Losses- are decreases in equity that do not result from expenses or distribution to owners. i.e. selling a piece of equipment at a loss, or experiencing a natural disaster such as a flood or tornado.
An accounting system including financial statement formats and dictionaries of financial terms developed specifically for the restaurant industry, which can be used to drive the accounting system for a specific restaurant. National Restaurant Association & Deloitte & Touche, LLC produce annual report on statistics
Sample Income Statement Sample Income Statement(1).xls Explanation of Terms Explanation of Terms.pdf
Sales Cost of Sales (COGS – Cost of Goods Sold) Gross Profit Operating Expenses (Controllable Expenses) Occupancy Costs (Noncontrollable Expenses) Operating Income Interest and Taxes Net Income
Possible categories of Income Food Beverage Catering Vending Non-Food
Controllable vs. Noncontrollable Variable/Fixed/Semi-variable or Mixed Broken down into 5 main categories (some with several sub-categories) Food & Beverage Cost (COGS) Labor Costs (Salaries and wages) Payroll taxes, insurance, employee benefits Other Operating Expenses Occupancy Expenses Interest & Taxes
Direct Operating Expenses Advertising / Marketing Music & Entertainment Utilities General and Administrative Expenses Repairs & Maintenance Supplies Corporate Overhead Fees
Expenses associated with the physical space you occupy Rent or Lease Depreciation Insurance Taxes
Good Credit Liquid Assets Business Plan Resume Realistic Financial Projections Good Location Restaurant Startup & Growth magazine/Restaurant Owner.com
Taxes Payable by the Business Income Taxes : Federal, State, Local Property Taxes: State or Local and assessed based on property value Personal Property Taxes: Equipment, vehicles, construction in process Taxes Collected by Business for Government Sales Tax: Collected by business for the State, Local government and submitted by business Payroll Taxes: Withheld by employer from employees paychecks and paid to Federal and State. Can also include unemployment insurance, workers compensation and unemployment compensation.
Cost CategoryDescriptionClassificationIs it a % or $ Cost of Goods Controllable Expenses Occupation Costs
Cost CategoryDescriptionClassificationIs it a % or $ Cost of GoodsOperating Cost Controllable Expenses Operating Cost Occupation CostsNon-operating Cost
Cost CategoryDescriptionClassificationIs it a % or $ Cost of GoodsOperating Cost & Controllable Controllable Expenses Operating Cost & Controllable Occupation CostsNon-operating Cost & Non-controllable
Cost CategoryDescriptionClassificationIs it a % or $ Cost of GoodsOperating Cost & Controllable Variable Cost Controllable Expenses Operating Cost & Controllable Variable Cost Fixed Cost Occupation CostsNon-operating Cost & Non-controllableFixed Cost
Cost CategoryDescriptionClassificationIs it a % or $ Cost of GoodsOperating Cost & Controllable Variable Cost% Controllable Expenses Operating Cost & Controllable Variable Cost Fixed Cost %$%$ Occupation CostsNon-operating Cost & Non-controllableFixed Cost$
Cost Category Classification Is it % or $ What Happens to $$ What Happens to % Cost of GoodsVariable% Controllable Expenses (Controllable) Variable Fixed %$%$ Occupation Costs (Non-controllable)Fixed$
Cost Category Classification Is it % or $ What Happens to $$ What Happens to % Cost of GoodsVariable%$$ Change Controllable Expenses (Controllable) Variable Fixed %$%$ $$ Change $$ Same Occupation Costs (Non-controllable)Fixed$$$ Same
Cost Category Classification Is it % or $ What Happens to $$ What Happens to % Cost of GoodsVariable%$$ Change% to Sales = same Controllable Expenses (Controllable) Variable Fixed %$%$ $$ Change $$ Same% to Sales same Occupation Costs (Non-controllable)Fixed$$$ Same% to Sales = change
CostSalesCost $$Cost % Variable & Mixed (%) Up Down Increase Decrease Stays the same Fixed ($)Up Down Same Decreases Increases
Set Standards Measure Performance Determine Variances Take Corrective Action Review Performance & Cycle
1. The profit and loss report is also called the A) balance sheet B) income statement C) bottom line statement D) statement of net worth 2. Which is the correct formula for calculating profit or loss A) Monthly sales x 12 B) Total costs – Total sales C) Total sales – Total costs D) Annual sales – Monthly costs
3 ) What is the final step in preparing a profit and loss statement A) Calculate total sales B) Calculate total costs C) Subtract total cost from total sales D) Determine what time period the report should cover 4) What information is included at the top of a profit and loss statement? A) Sales B) Costs C) Taxes D) Expenses
5) An operations Budget lists food expenses as $14,000. The P&L report for the period indicates food expenses were $18,000. What has occurred? A) Tolerance B) Variance C) Standard Deviation D) Corrective Action 6) What technique can be useful to determine the contribution of revenue from different areas? A) Adding all categories together B) Separating sales by categories C) Counting food and beverage sales together D) Subtracting merchandise sales from food sales
7) One use of the data found in the P&L report is to A) complete the operations staffing process B) aid management in developing training programs C) provide information on the managers salary D) analyze trends and identify areas for improvement 8) What term describes the excess of costs over sales? A) Profit B) Break-even C) Loss D) Standards
9) The first step in preparing an income statement is to A) name the manager preparing the report B) list the costs to be included it the report C) identify sales to be included in the report D) identify the time period covered by the report 10) What is food cost if ending inventory is $4,000, beginning inventory is $2,500 and food purchases were $15,000? A) $16,500 B) $17,500 C) $13,500 D) $19,000 11) What is prime cost?
12. An operations year-end income statement shows before tax profits of $210,000. Revenues for the year were $1,850,000. What were this operations expenses for the year? a) $1,430,000 b) $1,640,000 c) $2,060,000 d) $2,300,000 13. What is an example of a fixed cost? a) Utility services b) Salaries and wages c) Licenses and permits d) Repairs and maintenance
Read Chapter 5 in text book Complete Mikkis Steak House P & L