HOW IS A COMPUTER PUT TOGETHER? HARDWARE vs SOFTWARE BETWEEN THE INPUT & OUTPUT DEVICES ARE TYPES OF HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE : HARDWARE = Physical Components Parts you can touch SOFTWARE = PROGRAMS, CODE
How is a computer put together? HARDWARE HARDWARE (PARTS YOU CAN TOUCH) CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) (Box/Brain Of Computer) 3 PARTS: ALU - (Arithmatic logic unit)- used for math functions. CONTROL UNIT - The chip which directs the operation of devices controlled by the computer. STORAGE - Hard drives, floppy drives.
How is a computer put together? MEMORY PRIMARY RAM (random access memory) - TEMPORARY Short term requiring constant powersource. Volatile. What is seen on screen is stored in RAM. ROM (Read-Only Memory) -PERMANENT Cannot alter, programmed by the manufacturer. Tells computer what is there and how to access it (Mouse or Keyboard).
How is a computer put together? MEMORY SECONDARY Hard drives Floppy drives (Permanent memory) CDR-ROM. Magnetic Tape
How is a computer put together? SOFTWARE OPERATING SYSTEM ( Tells computer how to run system ) 1. DOS - (Disk Operating System ) - single tasking (allows only one function at a time). 2. UNIX : Used in major computer systems. (CPR at UCSF-Stanford Health Care). More difficult to use. Multitasking (allows more than 1 function at a time). 3. OS/2 : Clone of Dos. But multi tasking.
How is a computer put together? SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS 1. Word processing 2. Windows??? ( uses Graphic User Interfaces - GUI's or Icons, to quickly access other applications. 3. Spreadsheet : Excel, Lotus. 4. Database : Access, d-Base. OTHERS…………………………. INTEGRATED SOFTWARE PROGRAMS
COMPUTERS & ERGONOMICS ERGONOMICS: The scientific study of people and their working conditions, esp. done in order to improve effectiveness COMPUTERS require redundant functions in a stationary position - worst condition for body structures. WHAT CAN YOU DO???????????
CONNECTING the Hardware: COMPUTER NETWORKS NETWORKS: Connection of 2 or more computers to SHARE information STAND ALONE COMPUTERS LAN: Local area network. (Computers connected within an office) WAN: Wide area networks. (Computers in the HIT Lab connected to the internet. They can communicate with computers globally.
LAN vs. WAN COMPUTER NETWORKS LANs and WANS are relational. Ie: The campus computer system could be considered a WAN, unless connected to the internet, which would make them a LAN.
Ways to Connect Computers TOKEN : Identifies one computer from another. Allows multiple computers to be connected together, yet restrict access to information in network. ETHERNET: Ethernet is the most common type of connection computers use in a local area network (LAN). An Ethernet port looks much like a regular phone jack, but it is slightly wider. This port can be used to connect your computer to another computer, a local network, or an external DSL or cable modem.
Ways to Connect Computers FDDI – Fiber Distributed Data Interface: A standard for transmitting data on optical fiber cables at a rate of around 100,000,000 bits-per-second ATM – Newest – Asynchronous Transfer Mode which is a networking technology that transfers data in packets or cells of a fixed size. The technology was designed for the high-speed transmission of all forms of media from basic graphics to full-motion video.
Ways to Connect Computers Wireless - WiFi, BlueTOoth
DESIGNING YOUR NETWORK Simple Designs Token Ring All computers interconnected in a chain, can communicate. No server. If chain is broken, the other computer do not work. STAR NETWORK Computer can talk directly to each other without going through the chain. Uses a HUB – to connect all computers.
ADVANCED NETWORK DESIGNS CLIENT- SERVER SERVER ATTATCHED TO DUMB TERMINALS Dumb terminals cannot hold programs like a stand alone PC nor allows saving. Allows input. (now called Thin Client) Server is the traffic controller, holding all information on its hard drive and sending it out to dumb terminals. Cannot turn off server. Need a license for each terminal.
ADVANCED NETWORK DESIGNS VPN – Virtual Private Network WAN that uses tunnels through internet to a specific network on web Maintenance of the network done by ISP (Independent Service Provider)
NETWORK PROTOCOLS Rules for sending information over a network Developed by ISO (International Standards Organization) TCP/IP – Transfer between 2 devices on a network (transmission control protocal) IP – Internet Protocol – addresses information so it can be located FTP – File Transfer Protocol – between different types of computers HTTP – hypertext transfer protocol – web server to web browser.
Putting it Together: System Options ARCHITECTURE Mainframe – Dumb Terminals connected to one computer OPEN: Components developed by different vendors Can easily be connected via hardware/software for functioning CLOSED: Components from same vendor TURN KEY: System designed to take out of the box and use
Use The Internet??? What is the INTERNET?? A NETWORK of Computers ORIGIN: Department of Defense for communication NO ONE OWNS the INTERNET!!
INTERNET TERMINOLOGY ONLINE: connection between 2 computers Bandwidth - how fast information can be transferred URL: Uniform Resource Locator (used to access web pages) WWW: World Wide Web HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocal (http:\www.ahima.org Domain Name: Identifies a particular internet site Search Engine: Program that allows users to search KEYWORDS and return results
The WEB Categories of Information COMMUNICATION E- INFORMATION COMMERCE Shop on-line
How to Get ON-LINE Requires Computer or connection device When you connect to the Internet, you might connect through a: regular modem,modem local-area network connection in your office, local-area network cable modem (coaxial - 10MBS); twisted pairs (150 MBS); fiber optic (2 GBS) cable modem digital subscriber line (DSL) connection. DSL is a very high- speed connection that uses the same wires as a regular telephone line.telephone line
Connection bandwidth, is the amount of data that can be carried in a given time period over a network Modems Cable modems Cable modem services offer shared bandwidth between you and your neighbors. Cable modems are as much as 100 times faster than a dial-up Internet connection, running at a speed of 1 mbps, or about 20 times faster than a typical 56,000-bits-per-second (kbps)dial-up connection. Telehone Line Options T1 – special line that provides data transfer at 1.54 MBS ISDN – integrated services digital network- 128 KBS DSL service is a dedicated connection to your home = T1 line.
Internet Connection Logging on to Internet Explorer Internet Explorer Server WWW.ORG Server AHIMA files on Server AHIMA.org Think about it: What happens if one of the servers is not working? Other common SERVERS.com.net.edu.gov
Internet & Healthcare Why is the INTERNET significant to Healthcare? 1. Universal Format 2. Remote Access 3. Wide Area Network
THE INTERNET & THE CPR A medium to transfer and receive data, currently used by health care institutions as well as by the general public. Most likely will be the medium of choice for the CPR. Many legal and confidentiality issues are making the transition to a global CPR via the internet slow.