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Internet History Hobbes Internet Timeline

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Presentation on theme: "Internet History Hobbes Internet Timeline"— Presentation transcript:

1 Internet History Hobbes Internet Timeline

2 People, ideas, projects, and applications
The history of the Internet is the story of people and their ideas, and the projects they worked on. It is not the story of any one person or project It is not the story of any single application, whether electronic mail, remote login, file transfer, the web, video, or machine-to-machine communication Or even of ICANN or the IANA However, many people and projects made important contributions. This is an attempt at the story

3 The original concept: Survivable networks

4 1961: Leonard Kleinrock wrote on packet switching concepts His logic:
Subsequently convinced Larry Roberts to look at packet switching as an alternative to circuit switching His logic: If the strength of a chain is that of its weakest link, Then the strength of a network is the strength of its last surviving path

5 1962: J.C.R. Licklider’s (MIT) "Galactic Network" concept
He envisioned a globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site. “Wouldn’t it be cool if one could walk up to a computer and find the knowledge of the universe at our fingertips?

6 Also 1962: Paul Baran at RAND independently suggested that a packet-based network might be a useful way to build a survivable voice network, Baran was the one that suggested we call them “packets”. We do.

7 1965: Roberts and Merrill connected two computers – and found circuit switched analog telephone inadequate for their purposes

8 1967: Larry Roberts, DARPA program manager, started research on the concept of packet networking

9 1968: Roberts issued an RFP for research, which was soon awarded to BBN The network BBN developed, called the ARPANET, had its first node with UCLA and Len Kleinrock The second node was at SRI The first packet to cross the network went from UCLA to SRI – an attempt to log into a computer

10 1969: The RFC Series was originated as a way to share notes among researchers – Steve Crocker The notes were called “Requests for Comments” in an attempt to downplay their importance. Later, vendors would joke that they were “Requirements for Compliance”, e.g., specifications Many were in fact white papers, thoughts about what might be – and what might in the end not be - blind alleys… The ruminations of a a far-flung distributed research laboratory on topics they were just working out

11 Context: fledgling communications
Synchronous “start/stop” protocol patented 1966 IBM 3780/2780 Binary Synchronous Communication IBM 3270 Binary Synchronous Communication HDLC/SDLC development

12 Sliding Windows Early transmission protocols had crude ways, if any, to identify and recover from errors Master/Slave Poll/Call Half Duplex (two way alternate) SDLC/HDLC made a giant step forward Full Duplex (two way simultaneous) Using a sliding window, it could keep data being transmitted (or retransmitted) in one direction while being acknowledged in the other, and in LAPB, data continuously in transit in both directions.

13 1970: NCP prototyping and deployment on the ARPANET
ALOHA, a satellite network based on random or semi- random transmission

14 1972 Louis Pouzin invented the datagram:
A packet that contains all necessary state within itself and so depends on no external network state Operating on a best-effort basis – it may be lost, duplicated, or reordered in flight

15 Also 1972: Robert Kahn demonstrated the fledgling ARPANET at ICCC
The application that he demonstrated: Ray Tomlinson’s electronic mail Original telnet (remote login) specification (RFC 318) John Postel

16 Kahn’s Ground Rules Each distinct network would have to stand on its own: No internal changes could be required to any such network to connect it to the Internet. Communications would be on a best effort basis. If a packet didn't make it to the final destination, it would shortly be retransmitted from the source. Black boxes (IMPs) would be used to connect the networks; These would later be called gateways and routers. Gateways retained no per-flow state, thereby keeping them simple and avoiding complicated adaptation and recovery from various failure modes. There would be no global operational control. Sites were by definition autonomous. The only protocols they had to implement were IP and ICMP, and maybe TCP and UDP

17 1973 and on: Kahn/Cerf and TCP
The original protocol combined the services of what we today call “TCP” and “IP”. It worked well for file exchange and remote access to time- sharing systems, But not some other applications, for which application control was more important The update process: Separated TCP from IPv4 (RFC 791, 792, 793) Added UDP for applications that needed it Electronic mail, remote login, and file exchange remained the “killer applications” for two decades or more

18 Starting in 1973: Development of concepts for a random local area network (one that didn’t cross a legal boundary) by Bob Metcalf That was experimented with at Xerox PARC (PupNet) Resulted in the DEC, Intel, and Xerox specification for the Ethernet, 1981

19 1974: BBN Telenet: first commercial packet data service

20 Early 1980’s January 1, 1983: 1984: Cut-over from NCP to TCP/IPv4
Deployment of the Domain name System Replaced centrally-managed “hostfile” with a distributed and recursive system for naming Names originally translated simply to IP addresses or lists of names of mail servers

21 And then Al Gore… …Got Money
Circa 1984, the junior senator from Tennessee started discussing his ideas of an “Information Superhighway”. He had five NSF-sponsored supercomputer centers, and he wanted to connect universities to them NSF-funded IP networking experiments: CSNET: an X.25 network USAN: a wide area Ethernet network over satellite 56 KBPS NSFNET Other networks: NASA Science Internet CYCLADES CERN networks BITNET …Got Money

22 Regional networks The NSFNET grew dramatically, as universities bought routers and connected first to it and then each other Changed successively from 56 KBPS to T-1 to T-3 States or other agencies built regional networks that connected to it: NEARNet, BARRNET, PSINET, NYSERNET, and many others

23 Commercialization of the backbone
1990: the ARPANET Core, having become irrelevant after 22 years of operation, was shut down Formation of the IANA at USC/ISI Recognition that IPv4 would eventually run out of address space – starting work on CIDR and IP Next Generation Initial formation of Regional Internet Registries ARIN, RIPE, APNIC LACNIC and AfriNIC came later Succeeding years: Many regional networks in time became commercial networks. And in turn replaced the NSFNET as the core network

24 Competing network technologies
These existed in the 1980’s, interconnecting LANs (subnet and host) These existed and could interconnect companies SNA DECNET AppleTalk XNS Internet Transport XNS 3COM Ungermann-Bass Banyan Vines Novell Netware MIT Chaosnet Sytek NetBIOS others Connection-Oriented and Connectionless OSI Address (NSAP) identifies network, subnet, and host IPv4 Originally identified network, subnet, and host With CIDR (1992), could aggregate networks to identify service providers

25 Changing applications
Every 3-5 years, the Internet fundamentally changes in the payload it carries : SMTP, FTP, Network News, telnet 1992: World Wide Web, multicast, experimental voice/video 1995: WWW with multiple sessions in parallel, commercial Voice on IP 2000: Peer to Peer file sharing in various forms 2003: Web 2.0 applications like MySpace, Facebook, BitTorrent File Sharing 2008: Cyberlockers replacing file sharing 1990-present: Rise of video in various forms Lately: Map/Reduce and Hadoop – data center distributed applications Next… Not that old payloads go away: we add new and sometimes dominant payloads in addition to the old On the commercial backbone, video is becoming dominant, primarily from Content Providers that colocate with an ISP’s POPs or data centers In private networks (Smart Grid, Health Care, public and private safety, industrial automation) we see distributed telemetry and distributed control. Changing workloads - a normal thing

26 The Internet in 2013 The structure Kahn’s principles:
Perhaps 10,000 networks offering communication or content services to others Roughly another 50,000 networks interconnected using BGP routing Billions of users world-wide The primary service of the network is connectivity. The Internet thrives on innovation, and fosters it. Each distinct network is autonomous Communications is on a best effort basis. Routers are used to connect the networks; There is no global operational control.

27 Internet History Hobbes Internet Timeline

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