Presentation on theme: "Internet History http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief-history-internet Hobbes Internet Timeline https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2235."— Presentation transcript:
1 Internet HistoryHobbes Internet Timeline https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2235
2 People, ideas, projects, and applications The history of the Internet is the story of people and their ideas, and the projects they worked on.It is not the story of any one person or projectIt is not the story of any single application, whether electronic mail, remote login, file transfer, the web, video, or machine-to-machine communicationOr even of ICANN or the IANAHowever, many people and projects made important contributions.This is an attempt at the story
4 1961: Leonard Kleinrock wrote on packet switching concepts His logic: Subsequently convinced Larry Roberts to look at packet switching as an alternative to circuit switchingHis logic:If the strength of a chain is that of its weakest link,Then the strength of a network is the strength of its last surviving path
5 1962: J.C.R. Licklider’s (MIT) "Galactic Network" concept He envisioned a globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site.“Wouldn’t it be cool if one could walk up to a computerand find the knowledge of the universe at our fingertips?
6 Also 1962:Paul Baran at RAND independently suggested that a packet-based network might be a useful way to build a survivable voice network,Baran was the one that suggested we call them “packets”. We do.
7 1965:Roberts and Merrill connected two computers – and found circuit switched analog telephone inadequate for their purposes
8 1967:Larry Roberts, DARPA program manager, started research on the concept of packet networking
9 1968:Roberts issued an RFP for research, which was soon awarded to BBNThe network BBN developed, called the ARPANET, had its first node with UCLA and Len KleinrockThe second node was at SRIThe first packet to cross the network went from UCLA to SRI – an attempt to log into a computer
10 1969:The RFC Series was originated as a way to share notes among researchers – Steve CrockerThe notes were called “Requests for Comments” in an attempt to downplay their importance.Later, vendors would joke that they were “Requirements for Compliance”, e.g., specificationsMany were in fact white papers, thoughts about what might be – and what might in the end not be - blind alleys…The ruminations of a a far-flung distributed research laboratory on topics they were just working out
12 Sliding WindowsEarly transmission protocols had crude ways, if any, to identify and recover from errorsMaster/SlavePoll/CallHalf Duplex (two way alternate)SDLC/HDLC made a giant step forwardFull Duplex (two way simultaneous)Using a sliding window, it could keep data being transmitted (or retransmitted) in one direction while being acknowledged in the other, and in LAPB, data continuously in transit in both directions.
13 1970: NCP prototyping and deployment on the ARPANET ALOHA, a satellite network based on random or semi- random transmission
14 1972 Louis Pouzin invented the datagram: A packet that contains all necessary state within itself and so depends on no external network stateOperating on a best-effort basis – it may be lost, duplicated, or reordered in flight
15 Also 1972: Robert Kahn demonstrated the fledgling ARPANET at ICCC The application that he demonstrated:Ray Tomlinson’s electronic mailOriginal telnet (remote login) specification (RFC 318)John Postel
16 Kahn’s Ground RulesEach distinct network would have to stand on its own:No internal changes could be required to any such network to connect it to the Internet.Communications would be on a best effort basis.If a packet didn't make it to the final destination, it would shortly be retransmitted from the source.Black boxes (IMPs) would be used to connect the networks;These would later be called gateways and routers.Gateways retained no per-flow state, thereby keeping them simple and avoiding complicated adaptation and recovery from various failure modes.There would be no global operational control.Sites were by definition autonomous. The only protocols they had to implement were IP and ICMP, and maybe TCP and UDP
17 1973 and on: Kahn/Cerf and TCP The original protocol combined the services of what we today call “TCP” and “IP”.It worked well for file exchange and remote access to time- sharing systems,But not some other applications, for which application control was more importantThe update process:Separated TCP from IPv4 (RFC 791, 792, 793)Added UDP for applications that needed itElectronic mail, remote login, and file exchange remained the “killer applications” for two decades or more
18 Starting in 1973:Development of concepts for a random local area network (one that didn’t cross a legal boundary) by Bob MetcalfThat was experimented with at Xerox PARC (PupNet)Resulted in the DEC, Intel, and Xerox specification for the Ethernet, 1981
19 1974:BBN Telenet: first commercial packet data service
20 Early 1980’s January 1, 1983: 1984: Cut-over from NCP to TCP/IPv4 Deployment of the Domain name SystemReplaced centrally-managed “hostfile” with a distributed and recursive system for namingNames originally translated simply to IP addresses or lists of names of mail servers
21 And then Al Gore… …Got Money Circa 1984, the junior senator from Tennessee started discussing his ideas of an “Information Superhighway”.He had five NSF-sponsored supercomputer centers, and he wanted to connect universities to themNSF-funded IP networking experiments:CSNET: an X.25 networkUSAN: a wide area Ethernet network over satellite56 KBPS NSFNETOther networks:NASA Science InternetCYCLADESCERN networksBITNET……Got Money
22 Regional networksThe NSFNET grew dramatically, as universities bought routers and connected first to it and then each otherChanged successively from 56 KBPS to T-1 to T-3States or other agencies built regional networks that connected to it: NEARNet, BARRNET, PSINET, NYSERNET, and many others
23 Commercialization of the backbone 1990:the ARPANET Core, having become irrelevant after 22 years of operation, was shut downFormation of the IANA at USC/ISIRecognition that IPv4 would eventually run out of address space – starting work on CIDR and IP Next GenerationInitial formation of Regional Internet RegistriesARIN, RIPE, APNICLACNIC and AfriNIC came laterSucceeding years:Many regional networks in time became commercial networks.And in turn replaced the NSFNET as the core network
24 Competing network technologies These existed in the 1980’s, interconnecting LANs (subnet and host)These existed and could interconnect companiesSNADECNETAppleTalkXNS Internet TransportXNS3COMUngermann-BassBanyan VinesNovell NetwareMIT ChaosnetSytek NetBIOSothersConnection-Oriented and Connectionless OSIAddress (NSAP) identifies network, subnet, and hostIPv4Originally identified network, subnet, and hostWith CIDR (1992), could aggregate networks to identify service providers
25 Changing applications Every 3-5 years, the Internet fundamentally changes in the payload it carries: SMTP, FTP, Network News, telnet1992: World Wide Web, multicast, experimental voice/video1995: WWW with multiple sessions in parallel, commercial Voice on IP2000: Peer to Peer file sharing in various forms2003: Web 2.0 applications like MySpace, Facebook, BitTorrent File Sharing2008: Cyberlockers replacing file sharing1990-present: Rise of video in various formsLately: Map/Reduce and Hadoop – data center distributed applicationsNext…Not that old payloads go away: we add new and sometimes dominant payloads in addition to the oldOn the commercial backbone, video is becoming dominant, primarily from Content Providers that colocate with an ISP’s POPs or data centersIn private networks (Smart Grid, Health Care, public and private safety, industrial automation) we see distributed telemetry and distributed control.Changing workloads - a normal thing
26 The Internet in 2013 The structure Kahn’s principles: Perhaps 10,000 networks offering communication or content services to othersRoughly another 50,000 networks interconnected using BGP routingBillions of users world-wideThe primary service of the network is connectivity.The Internet thrives on innovation, and fosters it.Each distinct network is autonomousCommunications is on a best effort basis.Routers are used to connect the networks;There is no global operational control.
27 Internet HistoryHobbes Internet Timeline https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2235