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Chapter 3 Using the Internet: Making the Most of the Web’s Resources

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0 Alan Evans • Kendall Martin
Technology in Action Alan Evans • Kendall Martin Mary Anne Poatsy Ninth Edition Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

1 Chapter 3 Using the Internet: Making the Most of the Web’s Resources
Technology in Action Chapter 3 Using the Internet: Making the Most of the Web’s Resources Chapter 3 presents an introduction to the history of the Internet, its structure, and how it is used. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

2 Chapter Topics The origin of the Internet
The Internet and how it works Communicating and collaborating through the Internet Web entertainment Conducting business over the Internet: E-commerce Topics in this chapter include: The origin of the Internet The Internet and how it works Communicating and collaborating through the Internet Web entertainment Conducting business over the Internet: E-commerce Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

3 Chapter Topics (cont.) Accessing the Web: Web browsers
Getting around the Web: URLs, hyperlinks, and other tools Searching the Web effectively Topics (cont.) Accessing the Web: Web browsers Getting around the Web: URLs, hyperlinks, and other tools Searching the Web effectively Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

4 Origin of the Internet Internet is a network of networks connecting billions of computers globally Developed while U.S. was in midst of Cold War with Soviet Union Created to respond to two concerns: Establishing a secure form of military communications Creating a means by which all computers could communicate The Internet is a network of networks that connects billions of computer users globally. The concept of the Internet was developed while the United States was in the midst of the Cold War with the Soviet Union. At that time, the U.S. armed forces needed a computer system that would operate efficiently and that was located in various parts of the country so that it could not be disrupted easily in the event of an attack. The Internet was created to respond to these two concerns: establishing a secure form of military communications and creating a means by which all computers could communicate. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

5 Origin of the Internet (cont.)
Evolved from Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) Vinton Cerf Robert Kahn First communication occurred in 1969 World Wide Web is subset of the Internet Common protocols enable computers to talk to each other Special links enable navigation The modern Internet evolved from an early U.S. government-funded “internetworking” project called the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET). ARPANET began as a four-node network involving UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. The first real communication occurred in late 1969 between the computer at Stanford and the computer at UCLA. Although the system crashed after the third letter was transmitted, it was the beginning of a revolution. Many people participated in the creation of the ARPANET, but two men who worked on the project, Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn, are generally acknowledged as the “fathers” of the Internet. They earned this honor because in the 1970s they were primarily responsible for developing the communications protocols (standards) that are still in use on the Internet today. Because the World Wide Web (WWW or the Web) is what we use the most, we sometimes think of the Internet and the Web as being interchangeable. However, the Web is a subset of the Internet, dedicated to broadcasting HTML pages and the means by which we access information over the Internet. What distinguishes the Web from the rest of the Internet is its use of: Common communication protocols that enable different computers to talk to each other and display information in compatible formats Special links that enable users to navigate from one place to another on the Web Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

6 The Internet and How It Works
Computer connected to the Internet acts in one of two ways: Client is computer that asks for data Server receives the request and returns data to the client Computers connected to the Internet communicate with (or “talk” to) each other in turns, just as we do when we ask a question and get an answer. Thus, a computer connected to the Internet acts in one of two ways: it is either a client, a computer that asks for data, or it is a server, a computer that receives the request and returns the data to the client. Because the Internet uses clients and servers, it is referred to as a client/server network. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

7 Communicating and Collaborating Through the Internet
Different ways to communicate Instant messaging Group communications Social networking Web and video logs Wikis Podcasts and Webcasts Think of all the different ways you communicate with your friends, family, professors, and business associates over the Internet. You can use instant messaging, group communications, social networking, Web logs and video logs, wikis, podcasts, and Webcasts to communicate via the Internet. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

8 Web 2.0 Describes evolved type of Web interactions between people, software, and data Classified as the social Web, in which user is also a participant Describes trend of new applications Hundreds of companies exist to help share, recommend, collaborate, create, and socialize Over time, our use of the Internet has evolved from passively using Web content created for us to actively creating, sharing, and collaborating on our own Web content. Web 2.0 describes an evolved type of Web interactions between people, software, and data. It can be classified as the social Web, in which the user is also a participant. Additionally, Web 2.0 describes a trend of new applications to combine the functionality of multiple applications. Hundreds of companies now exist to help us share, recommend, collaborate, create, and socialize. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

9 Social Networking Means by which people use the Internet to communicate and share information Facebook Twitter Networking in business community Finding and filling job positions LinkedIn is business-oriented network Marketing and communicating with customers Social networking is a means by which people use the Internet to communicate and share information among their immediate friends, and meet and connect with others through common interests, experiences, and friends. Social networking services such as Facebook (www.facebook.com) and Twitter (www.twitter.com) have become widely popular because they provide ways for members to communicate with their friends in a variety of means such as by voice, chat, instant message, and videoconference. Traditionally, networking has been helpful in the business community for the purposes of finding and filling open job positions as well as finding clients. The Internet, with its speedy connections and instantaneous means of communicating, facilitates such business networking as well as promoting more socially based networks. Professional, business-oriented online networks such as LinkedIn (www.linkedin.com) are helpful for members seeking potential clients, business opportunities, jobs, or job candidates. Like a true business network, LinkedIn helps you meet other professionals through the people you know. Now businesses use social networking for marketing and communicating directly with their customers. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

10 E-Mail E-mail is primary method of electronic communication worldwide
Written message sent and received over the Internet Fast Convenient More “private” Means of exchanging and collaborating on documents via attachments is the primary method of electronic communication worldwide because it’s fast and convenient. (short for electronic mail) is a written message that is sent and received over the Internet. can be a means of exchanging and collaborating on documents via attachments, as well as creating documentation of conversations. For social exchanges, often offers a more “private” conversation away from the very public exchanges on social networks. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11 E-Mail Etiquette Guidelines
Be concise and to the point Use spell-check Avoid texting abbreviations Include meaningful subject line Use emoticons sparingly to convey emotion Include signature line with basic contact or corporate information Following good etiquette maintains professionalism, increases efficiency, and might even help protect a company from costly lawsuits. Common guidelines include being concise and to the point, using spell-check, and avoiding texting abbreviations such as u, r, LOL, BRB, and others. Also, make sure you include a meaningful subject line. This helps recipients prioritize, organize, and categorize s, and identify contents later on after the has been read. One problem with is that the meaning within the message often can be misinterpreted. Therefore, some means of conveying emotion (when necessary) can be helpful. Often emoticons—simple strings of characters that reflect facial expressions—can help reflect the writer’s emotions. Use them sparingly to retain their effectiveness. Finally, include a signature line with your basic contact or corporate information. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

12 Types of E-Mail Accounts
client Accessible only from computer on which client software is installed Microsoft Outlook Web-based client Accessible from any device that can access the Internet Yahoo! Mail, Hotmail, or Gmail To read, send, and organize your , you can use an client. clients such as Microsoft Outlook are software programs running on your computer that access your Internet service provider (ISP), which acts like an electronic post office. However, with these clients, you are able to view your only from the computer on which the client program has been installed. Most high-speed providers and ISPs offer the services of a Web-based client so that users can look at their directly from the Web. Web-based uses the Internet as the client. Free accounts such as Yahoo! Mail, Hotmail, or Gmail are Web-based clients. Unlike client-based , which is accessible only from a computer on which the client is installed, Web-based accounts make your accessible from any device that can access the Internet. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

13 Instant Messaging Real-time, text-based conversations with others online Personal and business uses Students communicate with instructors IM services provide integration with social networks Chat with more than one person Many IM services offer audio chat Webcam allows video chats Instant messaging (IM) services are programs that enable you to communicate in real time with others who are online. Although IM is most often used for casual conversations between friends, many businesses use IM as a means of quick and instant communication between co-workers. Students also use IM to communicate with their instructors as well as their classmates. Most instant messaging services provide integration with social networks, enabling you to get updates from your Facebook, Twitter, and other social network accounts without logging into each individual site. If you want to chat with more than one person, you can hold simultaneous individual conversations, or if you all want to chat together, you can create custom IM chat groups. Many IM services offer an audio chat feature so you can speak with your buddies if you have a microphone and speakers. A webcam allows you to conduct video chats. IM isn’t just for casual conversations between friends and family, as more and more businesses are using it for communications between co-workers. Users set up a list of contacts, often called a buddy list. IM software detects the presence of members who are online. Examples include: AOL Instant Messenger Facebook Chat Yahoo! Messenger Windows Live Messenger Many of the popular IM services are proprietary, but universal chat services are now available to allow users to communicate no matter which service they use. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

14 Facebook Chat Instant messaging services such as Facebook Chat enable you to have real-time online conversations. Instant messaging services such as Facebook Chat enable you to have real-time online conversations. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

15 Weblogs and Video Logs Weblog or blog is a personal log or journal posted on the Web Single author Arranged as entries on single page Most recent entry on top Video log or vlog is personal journal that uses video as primary content YouTube most popular video-sharing site A Weblog, or blog, is a personal log or journal posted on the Web. Blogs are simple to create, manage, and read. Anyone can create a blog, and there are millions of blogs available to read, follow, and comment on. Several key characteristics define a blog. Blogs are generally written by a single author and are arranged as a listing of entries on a single page, with the most recent blog (entry) appearing at the top of the list. In addition, blogs are public. Blogs have searchable and organized content, making them user friendly. A video log (vlog or video blog) is a personal journal that uses video as the primary content. It can also contain text, images, and audio. Vlogs quickly are becoming a highly popular means of personal expression, and many can be found by searching the most popular video-sharing site, YouTube (www.youtube.com). Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

16 Wikis A Wiki is a type of Web site that allows users to change content
Wikipedia uses wiki technology so content can be updated continually Google Docs has wiki-like features Wiki technology is incorporated in course management systems such as Blackboard The viewer of a traditional Web site cannot change the content. In contrast, a wiki is a type of Web site that allows users to add, remove, or edit the content. Wikis add the extra benefit of tracking revisions so that past versions can be easily accessed at any time by any eligible reader Wikis provide an excellent source for collaborative writing, both in and out of the classroom. The popular collaborative online encyclopedia Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.org) uses wiki technology so that the content can be updated continually. Some Web-based document products, such as Google Docs (docs.google.com), have wiki-like features to promote online collaboration. Wiki technology is currently incorporated in course management systems such as Blackboard, to encourage collaborative learning in online courses. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

17 Podcasts A podcast is a clip of audio or video content broadcast over the Internet using compressed files Files that come to you through syndication Podcasts are available in a wide variety of topics and content A podcast is a clip of audio or video content that is broadcast over the Internet using compressed audio and video files such as MP3s and MP4s. The word podcast is a combination of broadcasting and iPod—not because you have to use an iPod but because iPods are the most popular form of portable media player (PMP) and because people download audio files to listen to on their iPods. However, you don’t have to listen to podcasts on a portable media player. You can listen to podcasts on your computer or even on a smartphone as long as the device can play the content Podcasts are files that come to you through syndication so you do not have to search for the current episode once you have subscribed to the series. Perhaps you are used to getting your news from a certain Web site, but the only way you can determine that new content has been added is to go to the site and look for the newly added information. In contrast, if you subscribe to podcasts, when the content changes, it is brought to you. Podcasts are available in a wide variety of topics and content. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

18 Webcasts A Webcast is the broadcast of audio or video content over the Internet Live or one-time events Not updated automatically Continuously feeds audio and video content Facilitates viewing and downloading of large audio and video files. Can be interactive, inviting audience response A Webcast is the broadcast of audio or video content over the Internet. Unlike podcasts that are prerecorded and made available for download, most Webcasts are live or one-time events. Webcasts are not updated automatically. Webcasts use a special kind of media technology that continuously feeds the audio and video content, which facilitates the viewing and downloading process of large audio and video files. Webcasts can include noninteractive content such as simulcasts of radio or TV broadcasts. More recent Webcasts invite interactive responses from the viewing or listening audience. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

19 Web Entertainment Web entertainment includes:
Internet radio Music files Streaming video Interactive gaming Multimedia is anything that involves one or more forms of media in addition to text: Graphics Audio files Video files Internet radio, music files such as MP3 and advanced audio coding (AAC), streaming video, and interactive gaming are all part of the entertainment world available over the Internet. What makes the Web appealing to many people is its rich multimedia content. Multimedia is anything that involves one or more forms of media in addition to text. Many types of multimedia are used on the Web. Graphics (drawings, charts, and photos) are the most basic form of multimedia. Audio files are what give sound to the Web—the clips of music you hear when you visit certain Web sites, MP3 files that you download, or live broadcasts you can listen to through Internet radio. Video files on the Web range from the simple (such as short video clips) to the complex (such as hour-long live concerts). In addition to movies, you can watch live or prerecorded television broadcasts, movie trailers, and sporting events. Multimedia is anything that involves one or more forms of media in addition to text. All kinds of multimedia are available on the Web. You can download music files, video files, and even movies. Streaming audio and video can deliver on-demand pictures and sounds. Sites like CNN.com offer clips from their broadcasts. Some files require a plug-in program like RealPlayer. In recent versions of Windows, Microsoft’s MediaPlayer is built in and automatically loads when a music file is selected. There are many multiplayer online games in which play occurs among hundreds or thousands of other players over the Internet. You can interact with other players around the world in a meaningful context by trading, chatting, or playing cooperative or combative mini-games. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

20 Conducting Business over the Internet
E-commerce or electronic commerce is the process of conducting business online Business-to-consumer (B2C) Purchases consumers make at online stores Business-to-business (B2B) Businesses buying and selling to other businesses Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) Consumers selling to each other eBay, Freecycle, Craigslist E-commerce, or electronic commerce, is the process of conducting business online, such as through advertising and selling products. The company has no physical retail store presence, and its online presence offers customers a convenient way to shop for almost anything. Its success is the result of creative marketing, an expanding product line, and reliable customer service and product delivery—all hallmarks of traditional businesses as well. A significant portion of e-commerce consists of business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions—exchanges that take place between businesses and consumers—such as the purchases that consumers make at online stores. There is also a business-to-business (B2B) portion of e-commerce; this consists of businesses buying and selling goods and services to other businesses. Finally, the consumer-to-consumer (C2C) portion of e-commerce consists of consumers selling to each other through online auction sites such as eBay and exchange sites such as Freecycle and Craigslist. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

21 E-Commerce Safeguards
Businesses must have some form of security certification to give customers a level of comfort Secure logins URL starts with https:// Padlock icon in toolbar Green address bar Because online shopping eliminates a salesclerk or other human intermediary from the transaction, it can actually be safer than traditional retail shopping. Still, because users are told to be wary of online transactions and because the integrity of online transactions is the backbone of e-commerce, businesses must have some form of security certification to give their customers a level of comfort. Some sites have created secure logins that you can change to before signing in, which is safer than sending your login credentials unsecured Be sure to check that the beginning of the URL changes from “http://” to “https://”—with the “s” standing for secure socket layer. Another indication that a Web site is secure is the appearance of a small icon of a closed padlock in the toolbar (in both Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox). The last visual clue to help identify a safe site is a green-colored address bar. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

22 Online Shopping Guidelines
Shop at well-known, reputable sites Avoid making online transactions when using public computers Pay by credit card, not debit card Check the return policy To ensure that your online shopping experience is a safe one, follow these guidelines: Shop at well-known, reputable sites. If you aren’t familiar with a site, then investigate it with the Better Business Bureau (www.bbb.org) or at bizrate (www.bizrate.com). When you place an order, print a copy of the order and make sure you receive a confirmation number. Make sure the company has a phone number and street address in addition to a Web site. Avoid making online transactions when using public computers. Public computers might have programs that track and log your keystrokes, so you do not want to use public computers when typing sensitive information such as credit card numbers or bank account numbers. Public computers might also have other types of spyware installed to retrieve private information. Similarly, unless you have specific protection on your own notebook computer, avoid making wireless transactions in public hotspots. Pay by credit card, not debit card. Federal consumer credit laws protect credit card users, but debit card users do not have the same level of protection. If possible, reserve one credit card for Internet purchases only; even better, use a prepaid credit card that has a small credit limit. For an extra layer of security, find out if your credit card company has a service that confirms your identity with an extra password or code that only you know to use when making an online transaction or offers a one-time-use credit card number. Also, consider using a third-party payment processor such as PayPal or Google Checkout. PayPal also offers a security key that provides additional security to your PayPal account. Check the return policy. Print a copy and save it. If the site disappears overnight, this information may help you in filing a dispute or reporting a problem to a site such as the Better Business Bureau. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

23 Accessing the Web: Web Browsers
Web browser is software installed on your computer that allows you to locate, view, and navigate the Web Graphical browsers display Text Pictures Sound Video A Web browser, or browser, is software installed on your computer system that allows you to locate, view, and navigate the Web. Most browsers in use today are graphical browsers, meaning they can display pictures (graphics) in addition to text and other forms of multimedia such as sound and video. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

24 Popular Web Browsers Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) Mozilla Firefox
Included with Windows Mozilla Firefox Open source browser gaining popularity Safari Developed by Apple for Mac OS Google Chrome Newest browser offers thumbnail access Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) is included in the Windows operating system. It has been the most widely used browser since 1999, and still enjoys predominant market share, although its popularity has slipped over the years. Firefox is a popular open source browser from Mozilla (www.mozilla.org). Firefox’s popularity continues to increase, capturing approximately 28 percent of the U.S. browser market. Safari is a browser developed by Apple (www.apple.com/safari). Although it was created as the default browser for Macintosh computers and is included with the Mac OS, a Windows-based version is also available. Safari has quickly gained public acceptance. Google Chrome is the newest browser on the market, distributed by Google (www.google.com/chrome) (see Figure 3.18) and has enjoyed growing market share since its inception. The unique features offered by Chrome include thumbnail access to your most recently visited sites from Chrome’s main page and shortcuts to Google applications. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

25 Common Browser Features
Tabbed browsing Tear-off tabs Pinned tabs Thumbnail previews Built-in search box Default search engine Most of the popular Web browsers provide tabbed browsing for convenient navigation. With tabbed browsing, Web pages are loaded in “tabs” within the same browser window. Rather than having to switch among Web pages in several open windows, you can flip between the tabs in one window. You can even open several of your favorite Web sites from one folder and choose to display them as tabs. Internet Explorer 9 offers other tab features such as “tear-off tabs” that facilitate rearranging open tabs, and “pinned tabs” that enable you to dock your most frequently accessed tabs in the task bar. Another convenient navigation tool that most browsers share is providing thumbnail previews of all open Web pages in open tabs. Other features shared by most of the favorite browsers include a built-in search box in which you can designate your preferred default search engine and tools for printing, page formatting, and security settings. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

26 Getting Around the Web: URLs, Hyperlinks, and Other Tools
Every Web site has a unique address Uniform Resource Locator (URL) Type URL in browser to connect to home page Move around site using hyperlinks You gain initial access to a particular Web site by typing its unique address, or Uniform Resource Locator (URL, pronounced “you-are-ell”), in your browser. By typing this URL, you connect to the home page, or main page, of the Web site. Once you are at the home page, you can move all around the site by clicking specially formatted pieces of text called hyperlinks. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

27 Parts of URL As noted earlier, a URL is a Web site’s address. A Web site is composed of many different Web pages, each of which is a separate document with its own unique URL. Like a regular street address, a URL is composed of several parts that help identify the Web document it stands for. The first part of the URL indicates the protocol (set of rules) used to retrieve the specified document. The protocol is generally followed by a colon, two forward slashes, www (indicating World Wide Web), and the domain name. (Sometimes the domain name is also thought to include the The domain name is also referred to as the host name. Individual pages within a Web site are further identified after the domain name, following another forward slash. These are referred to as the path. It should be noted that most current browsers no longer require you to enter the protocol and the www. Some, like Firefox, don’t even require the domain if it’s a .com. But even though these parts of the URL are not physically entered, they are still part of each Web site’s URL. URL Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

28 Who Can Use the Domain Name
Top-Level Domains Domain Name Who Can Use the Domain Name .biz Businesses .com Originally for commercial sites but can be used by anyone now .edu Degree-granting institutions .gov Local, state, and United States government .info Information service providers .mil United States military .name Individuals .net Originally for networking organizations, no longer restricted .org Organizations (often nonprofits) The suffix in the domain name after the dot (such as .com or .edu) is called the top-level domain. This suffix indicates the kind of organization to which the host belongs. Each country has its own top-level domain. These are two-letter designations such as .za for South Africa and .us for the United States. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

29 Hyperlinks and Beyond Hyperlink is specially coded element
Clicking on hyperlink lets you jump to another location Breadcrumb trail Back and Forward buttons Recently visited sites History list As its name implies, the Web is a series of connected paths, or links, that connect you to different Web sites. You can jump from one Web page to another Web page within the same Web site or navigate to another Web site altogether by clicking on a specially coded element called a hyperlink. Generally, text that operates as a hyperlink appears in a different color (often blue) and is underlined. When you pass your cursor over a hyperlinked image a cursor may change to a hand with a finger pointing upward. Sometimes images also act as hyperlinks. To access a hyperlink from an image, you simply click the image. When you click on a hyperlink, you jump from one location on the Web to another. When you click on the links in a breadcrumb trail, you can navigate your way back through a Web site. To retrace your steps, some sites also provide a breadcrumb trail—a list of pages within a Web site you’ve visited. It usually appears at the top of a page. By clicking on earlier links in a breadcrumb trail, you can retrace your steps back to the page on which you started. To get back to your original location or visit a Web page you viewed previously, you use the browser’s Back and Forward buttons. To back up more than one page, click the down arrow next to the Forward button to access a list of most recently visited Web sites. By selecting any one of these sites in the list, you can return directly to that page without having to navigate through other Web sites and Web pages you’ve visited. The History list on your browser’s toolbar is also a handy feature. The History list shows all the Web sites and pages that you’ve visited over a certain period of time. These Web sites are organized according to date and can go back as far as three weeks. To access the history list in Internet Explorer, click the down arrow next to the navigation arrows. On the Firefox toolbar, the history button is the alarm clock icon. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

30 Favorites, Live Bookmarks, & Tagging
Favorites feature places marker of site’s URL on list on browser’s toolbar Favorites (Internet Explorer and Safari) Bookmarks (Firefox and Google Chrome) Live bookmark feature (Firefox) Provides up-to-date information Social bookmarking or tagging Store, organize, and manage, bookmarks If you want an easy way to return to a specific Web page without having to remember to type in the address, you can use your browser’s Favorites or Bookmarks feature. Internet Explorer and Safari call this feature Favorites; Firefox and Google Chrome call the same feature a Bookmark. This feature places a marker of the site’s URL in an easily retrievable list in your browser’s toolbar. To organize the sites into categories, most browsers offer tools to create folders. Most browsers also provide features to export the list of bookmarks to a file from which you can import to another computer or another browser. The live bookmark feature of the Firefox browser adds the technology of RSS feeds to bookmarking. Because the Web is constantly changing, the site you bookmarked last week may subsequently change and add new content. Traditionally, you would notice the change only the next time you visited the site. With live bookmarks, the content comes to you. Social bookmarking, also known as tagging, lets you store, organize, and manage bookmarks (or tags) of Web pages. A social bookmark or tag is a keyword or term that is assigned to a piece of information such as a Web page, digital image, or video. A tag describes the item so that it can be found again by browsing or searching. Tags were popularized by Web 2.0 Web sites such as YouTube and Flickr. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

31 Searching the Web Effectively
Narrow down the vast quantity of Web information by using: Search engine: a set of programs that searches the Web for keywords Subject directory: a structured outline of Web sites organized by topics Metasearch engine: searches other search engines rather than individual Web sites With its billions of Web pages, the Web offers visitors access to masses of information on virtually any topic. To narrow down the quantity of Web information to something more useful, use a search engine and a keyword query. A search engine is a set of programs that searches the Web for keywords—specific words you wish to look for (query)—and then returns a list of the Web sites on which those keywords are found. Popular search engines include Google, Yahoo!, Bing, and Ask.com. For some searches, you also can search the Web using a subject directory, which is a structured outline of Web sites organized by topics and subtopics. Librarians’ Internet Index (www.ipl.org) is a subject directory, and some popular search engines such as Yahoo! also feature directories. If you can’t decide which search engine is best, then you may want to try a metasearch engine. Metasearch engines, such as Dogpile (www.dogpile.com), search other search engines rather than individual Web sites. Figure 3.26 lists search engines and subject directories that are alternatives to Google, Yahoo!, Bing, and Ask.com. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

32 Search Engines Search engines have three components:
Spider constantly collects data on the Web Search engine organizes the data into large database Search engine software searches indexed data pulling out relevant information Resulting list appears in your Web browser as list of hits Search engines have three components. The first component is a program called a spider. The spider constantly collects data on the Web, following links in Web sites and reading Web pages. Spiders get their name because they crawl over the Web using multiple “legs” to visit many sites simultaneously. As the spider collects data, the second component of the search engine, an indexer program, organizes the data into a large database. When you use a search engine, you interact with the third component: the search engine software. This software searches the indexed data, pulling out relevant information according to your search. The resulting list appears in your Web browser as a list of hits (sites that match your search). Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

33 Search Strategies Boolean operators (AND, NOT, OR)
Advanced search page Search for a phrase using quotation marks Search within a specific Web site Use a wild card Click on Timeline feature When you conduct a Web search, you may receive a list of hits that includes thousands—even millions—of Web pages that have no relevance to the topic you’re trying to search. Initially, Boolean operators were needed to help refine a search. Boolean operators are words such as AND, NOT, and OR that describe the relationships between keywords in a search. Today, most search engines offer an advanced search page that provides the same types of strategies in a well-organized form. Using the advanced search form can make your Internet research a lot more efficient. With the simple addition of a few words or constraints, you can narrow your search results to a more manageable and more meaningful list. Search for a phrase. To search for an exact phrase, place quotation marks around your keywords. The search engine will look for only those Web sites that contain the words in that exact order. For example, if you want information on the movie The Green Hornet and you type these words without quotation marks, your search results will contain pages that include either of the words Green and Hornet, although not necessarily in that order. Typing “The Green Hornet” in quotes guarantees that search results will include this exact phrase. Search within a specific Web site. To search just a specific Web site, you can use the search keyword, then site: followed by the Web site’s URL. For example, searching with processor site:www.wired.com returns results about processors from the Wired.com Web site. The same method works for entire classes of sites in a given top-level domain or country code. Use a wild card. The asterisk “*” is a wild card, or placeholder, feature that is helpful when you need to search with unknown terms. Another way to think about the wild card search feature is as a “fill in the blank”. For example, searching with Congress voted * on the * bill might bring up an article about the members of Congress who voted no on the healthcare bill or a different article about the members of Congress who voted yes on the energy bill. A lot of other specialty search strategies and services are available. After you’ve entered your key search words try clicking on the Timeline feature in the search options section of the left navigation pane. The Timeline helps narrow down articles to a particular time period. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

34 Evaluating Web Sites Before using an Internet resource, consider:
Authority Bias Relevance Audience Links These factors will help decide if Web site is good source of information When you’re using the Internet for research, you shouldn’t assume that everything you find is accurate and appropriate to use. Before you use an Internet resource, consider the following: Authority: Who is the author of the article or the sponsor of the site? If the author is well known or the site is published by a reputable news source (such as the New York Times), then you can feel more confident using it as a source than if you are unable to locate such information. Note: Some sites include a page with information about the author or the site’s sponsor. Bias: Is the site biased? The purpose of many Web sites is to sell products or services or to persuade rather than inform. These sites, though useful in some situations, present a biased point of view. Look for sites that offer several sets of facts, or consider opinions from several sources. Relevance: Is the information in the site current? Material can last a long time on the Web. Some research projects (such as historical accounts) depend on older records. However, if you’re writing about cutting-edge technologies, you need to look for the most recent sources. Therefore, look for a date on information to make sure it is current. Audience: For what audience is the site intended? Ensure that the content, tone, and style of the site match your needs. You probably wouldn’t want to use information from a site geared toward teens if you were writing for adults, nor would you use a site that has a casual style and tone for serious research. Links: Are the links available and appropriate? Check out the links provided on the site to determine whether they are still working and appropriate for your needs. Don’t assume that the links provided are the only additional sources of information. Investigate other sites on your topic as well. You should also be able to find the same information on at least three different Web sites to help verify the information is accurate. The answers to these questions will help you decide whether you should consider a Web site to be a good source of information. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

35 Chapter 3 Summary Questions
What is the origin of the Internet? 1. What is the origin of the Internet? The Internet is the largest computer network in the world, connecting millions of computers. Government and military officials developed the early Internet as a reliable way to communicate in the event of war. Eventually, scientists and educators used the Internet to exchange research. Today, we use the Internet and the Web (which is a part of the Internet) to shop, research, communicate, and entertain ourselves. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

36 Chapter 3 Summary Questions
2. How does data travel on the Internet? 2. How does data travel on the Internet? A computer connected to the Internet acts as either a client (a computer that asks for information) or a server (a computer that receives the request and returns the information to the client). Data travels between clients and servers along a system of communication lines or pathways. The largest and fastest of these pathways is the Internet backbone. To ensure that data is sent to the correct computer along the pathways, IP addresses (unique ID numbers) are assigned to all computers connected to the Internet. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

37 Chapter 3 Summary Questions
How can I communicate and collaborate using Web 2.0 technologies? 3. How can I communicate and collaborate using Web 2.0 technologies? Web 2.0 is a trend of Web interactions among people, software, and data. Examples of these technologies include blogs, wikis, and more. Blogs are journal entries posted to the Web that are generally organized by a topic or area of interest and are publicly available. Generally, one person writes the blog, and others can comment on the journal entries. Video logs are personal journals that use video as the primary content in addition to text, images, and audio. Wikis are a type of Web site that allows users to change content by adding, removing, or editing it. A wiki is designed to allow many users to collaborate on the content. Podcasts are audio or video content that is broadcast over the Internet. Users subscribe to receive updates to podcasts. Social networking sites enable users to communicate and share information with existing friends as well as to meet and connect with others through common interests, experiences, or friends. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

38 Chapter 3 Summary Questions
4. How can I communicate with ? 4. How can I communicate with ? Communication was one of the reasons the Internet was developed and is one of the primary uses of the Internet today. allows users to communicate electronically without the parties involved being available at the same time, whereas instant-messaging services are programs that enable you to communicate in real time with others who are online at the same time. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

39 Chapter 3 Summary Questions
5. What multimedia files are found on the Web, and what software is needed? 5. What multimedia files are found on the Web, and what software is needed? The Web is appealing because of its enriched multimedia content. Multimedia is anything that involves one or more forms of media in addition to text, such as graphics, audio, and video clips. Sometimes you need a special software program called a plug-in (or player) to view and hear multimedia files. Plug-ins are often installed in new computers or are offered free of charge at manufacturers’ Web sites. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

40 Chapter 3 Summary Questions
6. What is e-commerce, and what online safeguards are there? 6. What is e-commerce, and what online safeguards are there? E-commerce is the business of conducting business online. E-commerce includes transactions between businesses (B2B), between consumers (C2C), and between businesses and consumers (B2C). Because more business than ever before is conducted online, numerous safeguards have been put in place to ensure that transactions are protected. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

41 Chapter 3 Summary Questions
7. What is a Web browser, and what is a URL and its parts? 7. What is a Web browser, and what is a URL and its parts? Once you’re connected to the Internet, in order to locate, navigate to, and view Web pages, you need to install special software called a Web browser on your system. The most common Web browsers are Internet Explorer, Firefox, Google Chrome, and Safari. You gain access to a Web site by typing in its address, called a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). A URL is composed of several parts, including the protocol, the domain, the top-level domain, and paths (or subdirectories). Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

42 Chapter 3 Summary Questions
8. How can I use hyperlinks and other tools to get around the Web? 8. How can I use hyperlinks and other tools to get around the Web? One unique aspect of the Web is that you can jump from place to place by clicking on specially formatted pieces of text or images called hyperlinks. You can also use the Back and Forward buttons, History lists, breadcrumb trails, and Favorites or Bookmarks to navigate the Web. Favorites, live bookmarks, and social bookmarking help you return to specific Web pages without having to type in the URL and help you organize the Web content that is most important to you. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

43 Chapter 3 Summary Questions
9. How do I search the Internet effectively, and how can I evaluate Web sites? 9. How do I search the Internet effectively, and how can I evaluate Web sites? A search engine is a set of programs that searches the Web using specific keywords you wish to query and then returns a list of the Web sites on which those keywords are found. Search engines can be used to search for images, podcasts, and videos in addition to traditional text-based Web content. A subject directory is a structured outline of Web sites organized by topic and subtopic. Metasearch engines search other search engines. Not all Web sites are equal, and some are better sources for research than others. To evaluate whether it is appropriate to use a Web site as a resource, determine whether the author of the site is reputable and whether the site is intended for your particular needs. In addition, make sure that the site content is not biased, the information in the site is current, and all the links on the site are available and appropriate. If multiple sites offer the same content, then it is another indication that the information is accurate. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

44 Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.   Publishing as Prentice Hall


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