Presentation on theme: "Freedom of Speech (Part 3)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Freedom of Speech (Part 3) CSE/ISE 312Freedom of Speech (Part 3)Image from scienceblogs.com (may be subject to copyright)
2 The Global Net: Censorship and Political Freedom The Global Impact of CensorshipGlobal nature of the Internet protects against censorship (banned in one country, move to another)Also considered a tool for increased political freedomThe Net also makes it easier for one nation to impose restrictive standards on othersMay impose more restrictive censorship (block everything in an attempt to block one thing)Facebook, cellphones, Skype used by dissidents in Iran, Vietnam, Arab Spring, due to strong encryption used in them. s and faxes played significant roles in collaps of Soviet Union and Tiananmen Square.In 1995, German prosecutors told CompuServ to block access by German subscribers to newsgrps with indecent/offensive materials. CompuServ shut down > 200 to everybody. Later restored to all but 5.In 1999, two antiracism organizations sued Yahoo in a French court, because French can view Nazi memorabilia offered by Yahoo’s US-based auction sites.
3 Tools for Oppression Censorship in Other Nations: Attempts to limit the flow of information on the Internet similar to earlier attempts to place limits on other communications mediaSome countries own the Internet backbone within their countries, block at the border specific sites and contentSome countries ban all or certain types of access to the InternetSaudi Arabia: Pornography, gambling, religion, Sites about anonymizers, counter-filtering, decryptionIran: Amazon, Wikipedia, NY Times, YouTubePakistan: Internet telephonyBurma: Posting, creating web pages need permissionsChina: prohibit “producing, retrieving, duplicating, and spreading info. That may hinder public order”Singapore: political/religious groups need register with the governmentWorld map:
4 Aiding Foreign Censors Companies who do business in countries that control Internet access must comply with the local lawsWhat are trade-offs between providing services to the people and complying with the government’s censorship requirements
5 ExamplesGoogle initially refused to censor, reversal in 2006 with google.cn, withdrew in 2010, now increased operations that are not subject to censorshipGoogle once argued that some access is better than no access
6 Selling Surveillance Tools Repressive governments intercept citizen’s communications and filter Internet contentCompanies in Western democracies sell tools to filter, block, hack, collect and analyze, monitor and trackThe companies say the tools are for criminal investigations and do not violate the local laws
7 Shutting Down Communications in Free Countries Combating coordinated violence or disruptive activities using mobile devices and Internetto communicate about the location and number of policeUS and British cities considered laws to authorize the government agencies to shut down, block communications
8 Net Neutrality Regulations or the Market? Common carriers were prohibited from providing own content, and from discrimination based on content or source, called line-sharing (open-access) requirementsIt was argued that line-sharing/inflexible prices reduced incentive for investment to improve broadband capacity and innovationFCC eliminated line-sharing requirements ( )Net Neutrality refers to a variety of proposals for restrictions on how telephone and cable companies interact with their broadband customers and set fees for servicesTo quote SaveTheInternet.com "Net Neutrality means no discrimination. Net Neutrality prevents Internet providers from blocking, speeding up or slowing down Web content based on its source, ownership or destination....The free and open Internet brings with it the revolutionary possibility that any Internet site could have the reach of a TV or radio station. The loss of Net Neutrality would end this unparalleled opportunity for freedom of expression."
9 Net Neutrality or De-regulation? (cont.) Should companies be permitted to exclude or give special treatment to content transmitted based on the content itself or on the company that provides it?Should companies be permitted to provide different levels of speed at different prices?Net NeutralityArgue for equal treatment of all customersDe-regulationFlexibility and market incentives will benefit customers
10 Net Neutrality Issues“A neutral broadband network is one that is free of restrictions on content, sites, or platforms, on the kinds of equipment that may be attached, and on the modes of communication allowed” – WikipediaLarge content providers (e.g., eBay, Google, Amazon) are at risk to pay higher ratesSpecial treatment based on content or content providers?Levels of Internet service at different price levels
11 Net Neutrality Pros Cons Equal treatment of all customers, content Not enough competition among network providers to ensure fairnessConsistent with other common carrier practicesFlexibility and market incentives will benefit customersCompanies should be permitted to provide different levels of speed at different pricesCompanies should be permitted to exclude or give special treatment to certain content
12 FCC Net Neutrality Order (2010) Transparency. Fixed and mobile broadband providers must disclose the network management practices, performance characteristics, terms and conditions of their broadband servicesNo blocking. Fixed broadband providers may not block lawful content, applications, services, or non-harmful devices; mobile broadband providers may not block lawful websites, or block applications that compete with their voice or video phone servicesNo unreasonable discrimination. Fixed broadband providers may not unreasonably discriminate in transmitting lawful network trafficCourt challenges still on-going