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Slide 1 Tomorrows Technology and You 8 th Edition © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 2 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 The Evolving Internet © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 3 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Objectives Explain how and why the Internet was created. Describe the technology that is at the heart of the Internet. Describe the technology that makes the Web work as a multimedia mass medium. Discuss the tools people use to build Web sites. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 4 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Objectives (continued) Discuss the trends that are changing the Internet and the way people use it. Discuss some of the most important social and political issues raised by the growth of the Internet. Describe various ways that governments restrict access to the Internet. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 5 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 ARPANET Pioneers Build a Reliable Network Out of Unreliable Parts The Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork (ARPANET) is the predecessor to the Internet: Developed at the request of the Department of Defense by a team of visionary computer scientists Launched in 1969 Peer-to-peer networking philosophy and protocols were copied in other networks in the 1980s Disbanded in 1990, having fulfilled its research mission, but its technology spawned the Internet © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 6 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Internet Counting Connections The Internet: an interconnected network of thousands of networks Links academic, research, government, and commercial institutions Connects computers to about every country in the world Growing too fast to measure its growth Internet is decentralized Internet doesnt have hard boundaries © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 7 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Internet Internet Protocols Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, TCP/IP… At the heart of the Internet Allows cross-network communication TCP breaks messages into packets. Each packet has all the information needed to travel from network to network. Host systems called routers determine how to route transmissions. Packet-switching is flexible and robust. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 8 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Internet Internet Protocols IP is the address for the packets. Each Internet host computer has a unique IP address. Each address is comprised of four sets of numbers separated by periods, such as NextGeneration Internet will allow more addresses and multicasting. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 9 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Internet Internet Addresses The host is named using DNS (domain name system), which translates IP addresses into a string of names. Top-level domains include:.edu - educational sites.com - commercial sites.gov - government sites.mil - military sites.net - network administration sites.org - nonprofit organization sites © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 10 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Internet Internet Addresses.aero Air transport organizations.biz Businesses.coop Cooperative businesses such as credit unions.info Information services.museum Museums.name Personal registration by name.pro Licensed professionals, including lawyers, doctors, and accountants © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 11 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Internet An address includes: username is the persons mailbox hostname is the name of the host computer and is followed by one or more domains separated by periods: host.domain host.subdomain.domain host.subdomain.subdomain.domain © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 12 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Internet © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. User President whose mail is stored on the host whitehouse in the government domain User hazel_filbert at the admin server for Grant MacEwan Community College in Alberta, Canada
Slide 13 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Internet Internet Access Options Direct (Dedicated) Connection Computer has its own IP address and is attached to a LAN No need to dial up Files are stored on your computer Quick response time Dialup Connection Limited connection using a modem Full access dialup uses POTS or PPP via modem © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 14 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Internet Internet Access Options Broadband Connections DSL Service Newer, faster, and cheaper than ISDN Can share phone line with voice traffic Cable Modem Connection Allows Internet connections using shared TV cables Can exceed DSL speeds Carries increased privacy and security risks © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 15 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Internet Internet Access Options Satellite connection provides connection using DirecTV satellite dishes. Wireless broadband connection allows multiple computers to connect to a base station using short-range radio waves. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) Local ISPs provide connections through local telephone lines. National ISPs offer connections on a nationwide scale. Online Services like AOL and MSN offer extra services. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 16 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Internet Internet Servers server acts like a local post office for a particular Internet hosta business, an organization, or an ISP. File servers are common within LANs. Also used to share programs, media files, and other data across the Internet File transfer protocol (FTP) allows users to transfer files. Download files from remote servers to their computers Upload files to remote computers File compression saves storage space on disk and saves transmission time when files are transferred through networks. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 17 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Internet Internet Servers Application server stores applicationsPC office applications, databases, or other applications. Makes them available to client programs that request them Might be housed at an application service provider (ASP), a company that manages and delivers application services on a contract basis Web server stores Web pages and sends pages to client Web browsers. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 18 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Web Web Protocols: HTTP and HTML HTTP (Hypertext transfer protocol) used to transfer Web pages HTML (HyperText Markup Language) created for encoding and displaying documents © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. US.html Protocol for Web pages weatherunderground.com/ Domain Name Resource File satellite/vis/1k/ Path
Slide 19 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Web © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. HTML is not WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get).
Slide 20 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Web Publishing on the Web Programs that convert document format features into HTML codes: Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, FileMaker Web authoring programs: Dreamweaver, GoLive, Microsoft FrontPage © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. By expanding the number of people who have the power to transmit knowledge, the Web might trigger a power shift that changes everything. Howard Rheingold, Virtual Communities
Slide 21 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Web From Hypertext to Multimedia Typical Web pages can contain: © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Tables Frames Forms Animations Search Engines Downloadable audio and video Streaming audio and video Real-time live audio or video 3-D environments Personalization
Slide 22 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Web Plug-ins and Helper Applications © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. RealOne QuickTime Shockwave/Flash RealPlayer Adobe Reader and Acrobat
Slide 23 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Web Dynamic Web Sites: Beyond HTML Dynamic HTML Adds more programming power to HTML by allowing code to automatically modify itself under certain circumstances Languages for dynamic sites Perl scripting language Java: Full-featured, cross-platform, object-oriented programming language © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 24 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Web Dynamic Web Sites: Beyond HTML Java Applets: Small Java programs Automatically downloaded onto client computer Can run on any platform ActiveX: Collection of programming technologies and tools for creating controls or components Similar in many ways to Java applets WML (Wireless Markup Language) Helps create Web documents containing stock quotes, phone numbers, and other small nuggets of information © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 25 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Web Dynamic Web Sites: Beyond HTML XML (Extensible Markup Language) Will replace HTML plus provide additional features and extensions XHTML A sort of cross between HTML and XML VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) Creates 3-D virtual worlds SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language) Makes it possible to link time-based streaming mediasounds, video, and animation can be tightly integrated © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 26 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Web Search Engines Search engines are designed to make it easier to find information on the Web. Web Crawlers or Spiders Software robots that systematically search the Web Some search engines use keywords and Boolean logic to conduct searches. Other search engines conduct searches using a hierarchical directory or subject tree. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 27 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Web Specialized Search Engines: Google Maps, Froogle, and others © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 28 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Web Portals Web entry stations that offer quick and easy access to a variety of services Consumer portals include search engines, services, chat rooms, references, news and sports headlines, shopping malls, and other services. Corporate portals on intranets serve the employees of particular corporations. Vertical portals are targeted at members of a particular industry or economic sector. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 29 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Web Push Technology: Notifications and Alerts The Web was built with pull technology. Browsers on client computers pull information from server machines. Essentially, the browser asks for information. With push technology, information is delivered automatically to the client computer. New product descriptions Automatic software upgrades Updated news RSS (Really Simple Syndication) pushes (feeds) information to people who read blogs. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 30 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Inside the Web Peer - to - Peer and Grid Computing Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Computing Users share music, movies, and other files without going through a central directory. Use BitTorrent to download very large files. Grid Computing Anyone can plug in from anywhere and rent processing power and software from anywhere on the Net. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 31 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Internet Issues: Ethical and Political Dilemmas Internet Issues: Ethical and Political Dilemmas Filtering software to combat inappropriate content Digital cash to make online transactions easier and safer Encryption software to prevent credit card theft Digital signatures to prevent forgery Access and censorship The digital divide © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 32 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 The Evolving Internet From Cyberspace to Infosphere Paul McFedrie suggests that the Net today is like the atmosphereeverywhere and necessaryand should be called our infosphere. The Internets future depends on decisions we, as a society, make today. The Net is evolving from a global community into a global intelligence. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 33 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 The Evolving Internet From Cyberspace to Infosphere Kevin Kelly says the Internet will evolve into an integral extension not only of our senses and bodies but our minds. In the Web, as in our brains, learning happens through ever- increasing interconnections. As the Net changes, it changes our lives. Evolution of the Internet is far from over. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 34 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Lesson Summary The Internet is a network of networks that connects all kinds of computers around the globe and uses standard protocols to allow Internet communication to occur. No single organization owns or controls the Internet. You can connect to the Internet in several ways that provide different degrees of access to Internet services. Most Internet applications are based on the client/server model. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 35 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Lesson Summary (continued) The Web uses a set of protocols to make a variety of Internet services and multimedia documents available to users through a simple point-and-click interface. In addition to Web sites, a variety of applications are built on the protocols of the Internet and the Web. For example, people who use the Web depend on search engines to find the information they need. Peer-to-peer computing was popularized by music-sharing services, but its applications go beyond music sharing. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Slide 36 Tomorrows Technology and You 8/e Chapter 9 Lesson Summary (continued) Many businesses are exploring ways to apply P2P technology. Grid computing goes beyond P2P computing by enabling people to share processor power. As the Internet grows and changes, issues of privacy, security, censorship, criminal activity, universal access, and appropriate Net behavior are surfacing. © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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