Presentation on theme: "MORPHOLOGY Words and their parts. Objectives To introduce key concepts in the study of complex word analysis To provide a description of some of the morphological."— Presentation transcript:
MORPHOLOGY Words and their parts
Objectives To introduce key concepts in the study of complex word analysis To provide a description of some of the morphological phenomena To illustrate methods used to derive and support linguistic generalizations about word structure
What is a word? The task of any language learner, including young children acquiring their language, is to figure out how to segment and analyze the talking noise around them into meaningful units – namely, words and their meaningful parts Websters Unabridged Dictionary: word is the smallest independent unit of language, or one that can be separated from other such units in an utterance
Example: independence of the word tea A. Which do you like better – cofee or tea? B. Tea.
Example Words can enter into grammatical constructions: phrases or sentences: A. Tea is good for you. B. She doesnt drink tea. C. There are beneficial antioxidants in tea.
What is a word? Words are usually separated by spaces in writing and distinguished phonologically, as by accent Chinese doesnt insert spaces between words in writing People who cant read and speakers of languages without writing systems know what words are in their languages
What is a word? Phonology –an important role in identifying the boundaries bewteen words A. They walked past a GREENhouse B. They walked past a green HOUSE
What is a word? Examples Is phonology enough to disambiguate a word? A. Teas good for you. B. That shop sells teas from around the world. C. I asked him not to tease the cat.
What is a word? Webster: words are typically thought of as representing an indivisible concept, action, or feeling, or as having a single referent Tease – different referent than teas Teas: -s – not an independent word – must be attached directly to an independent word whose basic meaning it is modifying (plural) Teas is one word, the –s ending contributes some additional information to its meaning
What is a word? Word – meaning, grammar, phonology Word – the smallest grammatically independent unit of language Signs – arbitrary (e.g. water, acqua, eau, voda, Wasser, mizu (Jap.)
What is a word? The words of ones language make up its lexicon Lexicon – a kind of mental dictionary where words are stored
What is a word? Each word: several kinds of information (e.g. sleep) How it is pronounced /sli:p/ What it means Grammatical contexts in which the word can be used: sleep – intransitive verb; can be found in compound words (e.g. sleepwalking and in idioms e.g. let sleeping dogs lie) Irregular: sleep/slept
What is a word? New words – continutally added Meanings might change over time
What is a word? Study of word formation - not as much about the study of existing, listed dictionary words but the study of possible words in ones language and the mental rules for constructing and understanding them Not all words are listed in the lexicon because the number of possible words is infinite Assignment: find new words in a magazine you have read recently
Morphology The branch of linguistics that studies the relation between meaning and form, within words and between words Morphologists describe the constituent parts of words, what they mean and how they may (and may not) be combined in the worlds languages The pairing of meaning with a form applies to whole words, like sleep, as well as to parts of words like the past meaning associated with the ending -ed
Morphology Morphology applies within words (cat > cats) but it also applies across words, as when we alter the form of one word so that some part of it matches, or agrees with, some feature of another word: A. That cat sleeps all day. B. Those cats sleep all day.
Morphology All languages need a way to signal grammatical roles such as subject and direct object A. Brutus killed Caesar B. Caesar killed Brutus Lat. Brutus Caesarem occidit. Caesarem occidit Brutus Occidit Caesarem Brutus.
Morphemes Morphemes – the smallest units of language that combine both a form and a meaning Words – made up of morphemes Simple words – single morpheme (cat) Complex words – two or more morphemes (cats; unfriendly)
Lexical morphemes (lexemes) Lexical m. (lexemes): refer to things, qualities and actions Nouns (N), verbs (V), adjectives (A) Simple lexemes may serve as the root of more complex words
Grammatical morphemes The glue that holds the lexemes in a sentence together, shows their relations to each other, and also helps identify referents within a particular conversational context E.g. Their maniacal little dog attempted to bite the mailman.
Morphemes Both lexemes and grammatical morphemes can be either free or bound Bound morphemes must be attached either to a root or another morpheme (-ed, -s; -al); free morphemes can stand alone (dog, bite)
Morphemes A morpheme performing a particular grammatical function may be free in one language and bound in another (e.g. English infinitive marker to (to win) – a free m.; French gagner: gagn- + -er)
Can you identify the morphemes? The musicians reconsidered their directors unusual proposal.
The forms of morphemes Sometimes the form of a morpheme systematically varies under certain conditions One of the most common factors influencing the forms morphemes take – phonology, or some aspect of the local phonological environment -s; peas, puffs, peaches 3 possible forms of the plural suffix for regular nouns in English; these variants are in complementary distribution and are called allomorphs
The forms of morphemes Allomorphy – may be conditioned by factors other than phonology Many languages - different verb classes which condition the form of affixes Italian: lavorare, scrivere, dormire. 3 different conjugation classes (lavoro, scrivo, dormo; lavorate scrivete dormite)
The forms of morphemes Semantic factors may play a role in determining how morphemes can be realized Prefix un- can attach to adjectives in the first column but not the second Unwell unill Unloved unhated Unhappy unsad Unwise unfoolish Unclean undirty
The forms of morphemes In a pair of words representing opposite poles of a semantic contrast (happy, sad) the positive value is usually the unmarked (or more neutral or normal quality), from which the more marked negative value can be derived by adding the affix un- Lexemes already containing the negative value often cannot take a negative affix
Neologisms: how are new words created? Acronyms: AIDS < acquired immunity deficiency syndrome Alphabetic abbreviations: CD< compact disk Clippings: prof < professor Blends: camcorder < camera + recorder Generified words: xerox (
Neologisms: how are new words created? Borrowings: Direct (avocado – Aztec word) Borrowings: Indirect (grattacielo
Change in part of speech (people (N) > to people an island (V) Semantic extension (ship used for space vehicles; to digest an idea – one realm (ideas) described in terms of words from another realm (food) Semantic restriction (Narrowing) (meat = solid food) Semantic drift (lady
Some morphological operations in worlds languages Affixation Reduplication Root change Suprasegmental change
Affixation The addition of a discrete morpheme either before, after, inside of, or around a root or another affix Most languages use some kind of affixing to indicate grammatical information about a word or its relation to other words Any form an affix attaches to - a base (or a stem) Affixes which attach to the left, or front, of a base – prefixes The simplest way to build word structure – to add suffixes or prefixes to derive a more complex word (e.g. uninterpretability)
Other types of affixation Infix – an affix that is inserted inside a lexical root (Croatian balati – balavati; prokuhati < prokuhavati) Circumfixing – a two-part or discontinuous morpheme surrounds a root (e.g. past participles in German: ge-kann-t (known): a one-to-one correspondence between a morpheme and a grammatical function
Reduplication Copying: sometimes, an entire word is copied, or just part of a word and sometimes part of the root is copied along with a fixed or prespecified morpheme Ilokano (Phillipines): Singpet virtue agin-si-singpet pretend to be virtuous
Root change: Ablaut and suppletion Ablaut – a grammatical change by substituting one vowel for another in a lexical root: fall fell; give gave Suppletion – nearly the entire root appears to have been replaced by a completely different form, leaving only the original root onsets: catch caught Go went - total suppletion – went shares nothing at all with go
Tone and stress Some languages use changes in syllable stress to indicate grammatical information Verb Noun convict convict permit permit
Two purposes of morphology: derivation and inflection Derivational morphology creates new lexemes from existing ones, often with a change in meaning Inflectional morphology adds grammatical information to a lexeme in accordance with the particular syntactic requirements of a language Derivation and inflection often co-occur within the same word (e.g. dehumidifiers: 3 derivational operations and 1 inflectional operation (humid – humidify – dehumidify – dehumidifier – dehumidifiers)
Derivation Derivational affixes German: erb-lich (hereditary) French faibl-esse (weakness) English sing-er Often: a category change: in German, -ung applies to verbs to derive a noun indicating a result (zerstör- destroy > Zerstörung destruction)
Derivation Not all affixes can attach to any root: -er can only attach to verbs (to write > writer), -ist attaches also to nouns or adjectives (to type > typist), -ian attaches only to nouns, especially of Greek origin (politician) Some affixes – very productive (-able: read>readable)) Some occur in only a small number of words and are not productive: -dom (kingdom, wisdom, boredom)
The meaning of complex words readable - well written, good style A bill is payable – doesnt mean that it can be paid but it must be payed If a theory is questionable, it doesnt mean that it can be questioned but that it is dubious and suspect Meanings of many complex words – not merely composites of the meanings of their parts (semantic drift)
Compounding Concatenation of two or more lexemes to form a new lexeme English: greenhouse, moonlight, download Identifying element: the head; its meaning and part- of speech category determine that of the entire compound English compounds – right-headed N+N toenail; N+A headstrong A+V blacklist
Zero derivation + compounding Payoff, drawback, breakdown, pullover Since neither lexeme in the compound determines its overall grammatical category or meaning, these compounds are considered unheaded
Compounding: writing conventions Often, the hyphen is used when a compound has been recently created (black-board) When it has gained a certain currency or permanence, spelled without a hyphen (black board) Spelled as one word (blackboard)
Inflection Person Gender Case Tense Aspect Mood
Person Distinguishes entities referred to in an utterance 1st person: speaker 2nd person: addressee 3rd person: a default category that refers to everything else Person – often combined with number
Person Agreement relations (most often S – V agreement) Languages which distinguish grammatical persons require that a verb agree with its subjects person feature, and occasionally with that of its object as well Subject-verb agreement helps to indicate which noun in a sentence is doing what; valuable in languages with free word order; English: fixed word order – only 1 inflectional agreement marker: 3sg -s
Number A grammatical property of nouns Singular – plural (some languages also dual) Uncountable nouns cannot be pluralized (abstract nouns: carelessness, peace; non-individual material: milk, rice); a mass noun in one language may be countable in another: furniture – meuble/meubles
Gender Genus kind, sort Gender agreement helps to indicate which adjectives, determiners etc. are associated with a particular noun In languages that mark grammatical gender, every noun is assigned to a class Masculine, feminine, neuter Sometimes: gender indicated on the noun itself: Sp. amigo – amiga; forms of the indefinite article un/una and the adjective americano/a agree with the gender of the noun
Gender In Bantu languages: noun classes (humanness, sex, animacy, body parts, size, shape) A noun acquires its gender either on the basis of its meaning or form
Case One of the most important functions of morphology is to distinguish the roles played by the various participants in an event Case indicates a nouns relation to some other element in a clause or phrase Case marking – the relation of the noun to the verb (as its subject, direct or indirect object) or to another noun (possessive or locational relation)
Case: examples John gave Mary his sisters old bicycle. Gave – related to the giver (John), the gift (bicycle) and the recipient (Mary); two possessive relations: one between John and his sister (his) and between his sister and the bicycle (s) In languages that mark case distinctions these relations would be indicated by inflectional morphology Ivan je dao Mariji sestrin stari bicikl.
Tense All human languages have ways for locating situations in time –e.g. through the use of lexical expressions (yesterday, today, tomorrow); also: tense used to locate an event or state in relation to a point in time In simple tenses (past, present, future), the reference point is now, at the moment of speaking English – 2 tenses: past and non-past
Aspect Encodes whether an action is (or was) completed, ongoing, repeated (iterative) or habitual: John is painting the kitchen. John was painting the kitchen. John painted the kitchen.
Mood A grammatical category that expresses the speakers belief, opinion, or attitude about the content of an utterance Although often morphologically marked on verbs, mood really applies to entire clauses, to indicate whether the speaker thinks a proposition is true, or likely, or doubtful, or is something he wonders about, or hopes or wishes for
Mood Indicative - used for making declarative assertions Interrogative – asking questions Imperative – giving commands Subjunctive – wishes, thoughts, hopes, doubts etc. Conditional – expresses what one would or should do Evidentiality – a degree of certainty or doubt about a proposition based on the kind of evidence available
Inflectional vs. Derivational morphology Inflectional affixes never change the category of the base morpheme Inflectional suffixes follow derivational suffixes (modernize – modernizes) Derivational suffixes create new base forms (stems) that other derivational or inflectional affixes can attach to Semantic relations: inflectional affixes – the meaning of the morpheme and the meaning of the base + affix is regular (tree – trees); derivational affixes: the relation between the meaning of the base morpheme and the meaning of the base + affix – unpredictable (read – readable) Inflectional suffixes – paradigms (Lat. amo, amas, amat, amamus, amatis, amant)
Summary Morphology – concerned with the relation between form and meaning The basic unit that combines form and meaning – morpheme Lexemes (N, V, A)– serve as the root for additional morphological operations Grammatical morphemes signal a grammatical function Phonetic forms of morphemes can vary systematically; these variant forms - allomorphs
Summary Morphological operations: affixation, reduplication, ablaut, suppletion, compounding Two major functions: derivation and inflection Derivational morphology creates new lexemes from existing ones, with a change in a words lexical category or meaning Inflectional morphology adds grammatical information to a lexeme: person, number, gender, case, tense, aspect, mood
Key terms Ablaut Affix Agreement Allomorph anaphora Aspect Base Case Compound derivation
Key terms Number Paradigm Person Prefix Reduplication Root Stem suffix
Key terms Suppletion Tense Word Zero derivation
Exercises 1. List three acronyms and state their origin 2. Invent 3 new compounds and state the meaning of each using the following words: Internet Cat Honor child
Exercises 3. What part of speech does the suffix –en attach to? What part of speech is the resulting word? In what way does –en change the meaning of the word it is attached to? red redden Black – blacken Mad – madden Soft – soften Sweet – sweeten Wide - widen
Exercises 4. What conditions must be true to derive the re- words in list A. What part of speech does it attach to? What is the resulting word? Why can you reshoot a movie but not an animal? A B Redo *rego Rewrite *recry Rework * resleep Recook *resit Rebuild *rechange