2ObjectivesTo introduce key concepts in the study of complex word analysisTo provide a description of some of the morphological phenomenaTo illustrate methods used to derive and support linguistic generalizations about word structure
3What is a word?The task of any language learner, including young children acquiring their language, is to figure out how to segment and analyze the talking noise around them into meaningful units – namely, words and their meaningful partsWebster’s Unabridged Dictionary: “word is the smallest independent unit of language, or one that can be separated from other such units in an utterance”
4Example: independence of the word tea A. Which do you like better – cofee or tea?B. Tea.
5ExampleWords can enter into grammatical constructions: phrases or sentences:A. Tea is good for you.B. She doesn’t drink tea.C. There are beneficial antioxidants in tea.
6What is a word?Words are “usually separated by spaces in writing and distinguished phonologically, as by accent”Chinese doesn’t insert spaces between words in writingPeople who can’t read and speakers of languages without writing systems know what words are in their languages
7What is a word?Phonology –an important role in identifying the boundaries bewteen wordsA. They walked past a GREENhouseB. They walked past a green HOUSE
8What is a word? Examples Is phonology enough to disambiguate a word? A. Tea’s good for you.B. That shop sells teas from around the world.C. I asked him not to tease the cat.
9What is a word?Webster: words are “typically thought of as representing an indivisible concept, action, or feeling, or as having a single referent”Tease – different referent than teasTeas: -s – not an independent word – must be attached directly to an independent word whose basic meaning it is modifying (plural)Teas is one word, the –s ending contributes some additional information to its meaning
10What is a word? Word – meaning, grammar, phonology Word – the smallest grammatically independent unit of languageSigns – arbitrary (e.g. water, acqua, eau, voda, Wasser, mizu (Jap.)
11What is a word? The words of one’s language make up its lexicon Lexicon – a kind of mental dictionary where words are stored
12What is a word? Each word: several kinds of information (e.g. sleep) How it is pronounced /sli:p/What it meansGrammatical contexts in which the word can be used: sleep – intransitive verb; can be found in compound words (e.g. sleepwalking and in idioms e.g. let sleeping dogs lie)Irregular: sleep/slept
13What is a word? New words – continutally added Meanings might change over time
14What is a word?Study of word formation - not as much about the study of existing, listed dictionary words but the study of possible words in one’s language and the mental rules for constructing and understanding themNot all words are listed in the lexicon because the number of possible words is infiniteAssignment: find new words in a magazine you have read recently
15MorphologyThe branch of linguistics that studies the relation between meaning and form, within words and between wordsMorphologists describe the constituent parts of words, what they mean and how they may (and may not) be combined in the world’s languagesThe pairing of meaning with a form applies to whole words, like sleep, as well as to parts of words like the ‘past’ meaning associated with the ending -ed
16MorphologyMorphology applies within words (cat > cats) but it also applies across words, as when we alter the form of one word so that some part of it matches, or agrees with, some feature of another word:A. That cat sleeps all day.B. Those cats sleep all day.
17MorphologyAll languages need a way to signal grammatical roles such as subject and direct objectA. Brutus killed CaesarB. Caesar killed BrutusLat.Brutus Caesarem occidit.Caesarem occidit BrutusOccidit Caesarem Brutus.
18MorphemesMorphemes – the smallest units of language that combine both a form and a meaningWords – made up of morphemesSimple words – single morpheme (cat)Complex words – two or more morphemes (cats; unfriendly)
20Lexical morphemes (lexemes) Lexical m. (lexemes): refer to things, qualities and actionsNouns (N), verbs (V), adjectives (A)Simple lexemes may serve as the root of more complex words
21Grammatical morphemes The glue that holds the lexemes in a sentence together, shows their relations to each other, and also helps identify referents within a particular conversational contextE.g. Their maniacal little dog attempted to bite the mailman.
22MorphemesBoth lexemes and grammatical morphemes can be either free or boundBound morphemes must be attached either to a root or another morpheme (-ed, -s; -al); free morphemes can stand alone (dog, bite)
23MorphemesA morpheme performing a particular grammatical function may be free in one language and bound in another (e.g. English infinitive marker to (to win) – a free m.; French gagner: gagn- + -er)
24Can you identify the morphemes? The musicians reconsidered their director’s unusual proposal.
25The forms of morphemesSometimes the form of a morpheme systematically varies under certain conditionsOne of the most common factors influencing the forms morphemes take – phonology, or some aspect of the local phonological environment-s; peas, puffs, peaches3 possible forms of the plural suffix for regular nouns in English; these variants are in complementary distribution and are called allomorphs
26The forms of morphemesAllomorphy – may be conditioned by factors other than phonologyMany languages - different verb classes which condition the form of affixesItalian: lavorare, scrivere, dormire . 3 different conjugation classes (lavoro, scrivo, dormo; lavorate scrivete dormite)
27The forms of morphemesSemantic factors may play a role in determining how morphemes can be realizedPrefix un- can attach to adjectives in the first column but not the secondUnwell unillUnloved unhatedUnhappy unsadUnwise unfoolishUnclean undirty
28The forms of morphemesIn a pair of words representing opposite poles of a semantic contrast (happy, sad) the positive value is usually the unmarked (or more neutral or normal quality), from which the more marked negative value can be derived by adding the affix un-Lexemes already containing the negative value often cannot take a negative affix
29Neologisms: how are new words created? Acronyms: AIDS < acquired immunity deficiency syndromeAlphabetic abbreviations: CD< compact diskClippings: prof < professorBlends: camcorder < camera + recorderGenerified words: xerox (<the name of the corporation that produces photocopying machines)Proper nouns (guillotine – named after its inventor, Dr. Joseph Guillotin)
30Neologisms: how are new words created? Borrowings: Direct (avocado – Aztec word)Borrowings: Indirect (grattacielo<skyscraper)Changing the meaning of words
31Changing the meaning of words Change in part of speech (people (N) > to people an island (V)Semantic extension (ship used for space vehicles; to digest an idea – one realm (ideas) described in terms of words from another realm (food)Semantic restriction (Narrowing) (meat = solid food)Semantic drift (lady<hlaf+dighe ‘kneader of bread’Reversal of meaning (bad = ‘very good’ in Am. slang; terrific)
32Some morphological operations in world’s languages AffixationReduplicationRoot changeSuprasegmental change
33AffixationThe addition of a discrete morpheme either before, after, inside of, or around a root or another affixMost languages use some kind of affixing to indicate grammatical information about a word or its relation to other wordsAny form an affix attaches to - a base (or a stem)Affixes which attach to the left, or front, of a base – prefixesThe simplest way to build word structure – to add suffixes or prefixes to derive a more complex word (e.g. uninterpretability)
34Other types of affixation Infix – an affix that is inserted inside a lexical root(Croatian balati – balavati; prokuhati < prokuhavati)Circumfixing – a two-part or discontinuous morpheme surrounds a root (e.g. past participles in German: ge-kann-t (‘known’): a one-to-one correspondence between a morpheme and a grammatical function
35ReduplicationCopying: sometimes, an entire word is copied, or just part of a word and sometimes part of the root is copied along with a fixed or prespecified morphemeIlokano (Phillipines):Singpet ‘virtue’ agin-si-singpet ‘pretend to be virtuous’
36Root change: Ablaut and suppletion Ablaut – a grammatical change by substituting one vowel for another in a lexical root: fall fell; give gaveSuppletion – nearly the entire root appears to have been replaced by a completely different form, leaving only the original root onsets: catch caughtGo went - total suppletion – went shares nothing at all with go
37Tone and stressSome languages use changes in syllable stress to indicate grammatical informationVerb Nouncon’vict ‘convictper’mit ‘permit
38Two purposes of morphology: derivation and inflection Derivational morphology creates new lexemes from existing ones, often with a change in meaningInflectional morphology adds grammatical information to a lexeme in accordance with the particular syntactic requirements of a languageDerivation and inflection often co-occur within the same word (e.g. dehumidifiers: 3 derivational operations and 1 inflectional operation(humid – humidify – dehumidify – dehumidifier – dehumidifiers)
39Derivation Derivational affixes German: erb-lich (‘hereditary’) French faibl-esse (‘weakness’)English sing-erOften: a category change: in German, -ung applies to verbs to derive a noun indicating a result (zerstör- ‘destroy’ > Zerstörung ‘destruction’)
40DerivationNot all affixes can attach to any root: -er can only attach to verbs (to write > writer), -ist attaches also to nouns or adjectives (to type > typist) , -ian attaches only to nouns, especially of Greek origin (politician)Some affixes – very productive (-able: read>readable))Some occur in only a small number of words and are not productive: -dom (kingdom, wisdom, boredom)
41The meaning of complex words readable - well written, good styleA bill is payable – doesn’t mean that it can be paid but it must be payedIf a theory is questionable, it doesn’t mean that it can be questioned but that it is dubious and suspectMeanings of many complex words – not merely composites of the meanings of their parts (semantic drift)
42Compounding Concatenation of two or more lexemes to form a new lexeme English: greenhouse, moonlight, downloadIdentifying element: the head; its meaning and part-of speech category determine that of the entire compoundEnglish compounds – right-headedN+N toenail; N+A headstrong A+V blacklist
43Zero derivation + compounding Payoff, drawback, breakdown, pulloverSince neither lexeme in the compound determines its overall grammatical category or meaning, these compounds are considered unheaded
44Compounding: writing conventions Often, the hyphen is used when a compound has been recently created (black-board)When it has gained a certain currency or permanence, spelled without a hyphen (black board)Spelled as one word (blackboard)
46Person Distinguishes entities referred to in an utterance 1st person: speaker2nd person: addressee3rd person: a default category that refers to everything elsePerson – often combined with number
47Person Agreement relations (most often S – V agreement) Languages which distinguish grammatical persons require that a verb agree with its subject’s person feature, and occasionally with that of its object as wellSubject-verb agreement helps to indicate which noun in a sentence is “doing” what; valuable in languages with free word order; English: fixed word order – only 1 inflectional agreement marker: 3sg -s
48Number A grammatical property of nouns Singular – plural (some languages also dual)Uncountable nouns cannot be pluralized (abstract nouns: carelessness, peace; non-individual material: milk, rice); a mass noun in one language may be countable in another: furniture – meuble/meubles
49Gender Genus ‘kind, sort’ Gender agreement helps to indicate which adjectives, determiners etc. are associated with a particular nounIn languages that mark grammatical gender, every noun is assigned to a classMasculine, feminine, neuterSometimes: gender indicated on the noun itself: Sp. amigo – amiga; forms of the indefinite article un/una and the adjective americano/a agree with the gender of the noun
50GenderIn Bantu languages: noun classes (humanness, sex, animacy, body parts, size, shape)A noun acquires its gender either on the basis of its meaning or form
51CaseOne of the most important functions of morphology is to distinguish the roles played by the various participants in an eventCase indicates a noun’s relation to some other element in a clause or phraseCase marking – the relation of the noun to the verb (as its subject, direct or indirect object) or to another noun (possessive or locational relation)
52Case: examples John gave Mary his sister’s old bicycle. Gave – related to the giver (John), the gift (bicycle) and the recipient (Mary); two possessive relations: one between John and his sister (his) and between his sister and the bicycle (‘s)In languages that mark case distinctions these relations would be indicated by inflectional morphologyIvan je dao Mariji sestrin stari bicikl.
53TenseAll human languages have ways for locating situations in time –e.g. through the use of lexical expressions (yesterday, today, tomorrow);also: tense used to locate an event or state in relation to a point in timeIn simple tenses (past, present, future), the reference point is “now”, at the moment of speakingEnglish – 2 tenses: past and non-past
54AspectEncodes whether an action is (or was) completed, ongoing, repeated (iterative) or habitual:John is painting the kitchen.John was painting the kitchen.John painted the kitchen.
55MoodA grammatical category that expresses the speaker’s belief, opinion, or attitude about the content of an utteranceAlthough often morphologically marked on verbs, mood really applies to entire clauses, to indicate whether the speaker thinks a proposition is true, or likely, or doubtful, or is something he wonders about, or hopes or wishes for
56Mood Indicative - used for making declarative assertions Interrogative – asking questionsImperative – giving commandsSubjunctive – wishes, thoughts, hopes, doubts etc.Conditional – expresses what one would or should doEvidentiality – a degree of certainty or doubt about a proposition based on the kind of evidence available
59Inflectional vs. Derivational morphology Inflectional affixes never change the category of the base morphemeInflectional suffixes follow derivational suffixes (modernize – modernizes)Derivational suffixes create new base forms (stems) that other derivational or inflectional affixes can attach toSemantic relations: inflectional affixes – the meaning of the morpheme and the meaning of the base + affix is regular (tree – trees); derivational affixes: the relation between the meaning of the base morpheme and the meaning of the base + affix – unpredictable (read – readable)Inflectional suffixes – paradigms (Lat. amo, amas, amat, amamus, amatis, amant)
60SummaryMorphology – concerned with the relation between form and meaningThe basic unit that combines form and meaning – morphemeLexemes (N, V, A)– serve as the root for additional morphological operationsGrammatical morphemes signal a grammatical functionPhonetic forms of morphemes can vary systematically; these variant forms - allomorphs
61SummaryMorphological operations: affixation, reduplication, ablaut, suppletion, compoundingTwo major functions: derivation and inflectionDerivational morphology creates new lexemes from existing ones, with a change in a word’s lexical category or meaningInflectional morphology adds grammatical information to a lexeme: person, number, gender, case, tense, aspect, mood
62Key terms Ablaut Affix Agreement Allomorph anaphora Aspect Base Case Compoundderivation
66Exercises 1. List three acronyms and state their origin 2. Invent 3 new compounds and state the meaning of each using the following words:InternetCatHonorchild
67Exercises3. What part of speech does the suffix –en attach to? What part of speech is the resulting word? In what way does –en change the meaning of the word it is attached to?red reddenBlack – blackenMad – maddenSoft – softenSweet – sweetenWide - widen
68Exercises4. What conditions must be true to derive the re- words in list A. What part of speech does it attach to? What is the resulting word? Why can you reshoot a movie but not an animal?A BRedo *regoRewrite *recryRework * resleepRecook *resitRebuild *rechange