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2 DISCOURSE ANALYSIS? Discourse analysis is used to refer to what people do, how they do it or both Linguists, but also others working in fields such anthropology, rhetoric, cultural studies, psychology and educational research. Pose many different questions and offers many different answers.

3 E.G. A JOURNAL ISSUE! Media terms in a given case Differences between English and Japanese Newspaper coverage of a prison scandal in Europe Metaphor Analysis expression of identity Talking about a poem Use of the pronoun I in formal writing

4 DISCOURSE! To discourse analysts: discourse is the actual instances of communication in the medium of language. semiotic systems: photography, clothing, music, gesture, dance, architecture!

5 DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OR LANGUAGE ANALYSIS? Use of Discourse analysis rather than language analysis: underscore the fact that we are not centrally focusing on language as abstract system. Interested in what happens when people draw on the knowldege they have about language base on what they have heard, seen or written to do things in the world:

6 Exchange of information Express feelings Make things happen Create beauty Entertain themselves Discourse is both: this knowledge+ the results of it

7 Foucault followers (1970,1980,1990) use the term discourses to refer to the linke between ways of talking and ways of thinking. This link constitute Ideologies (sets of interrelated ideas) and serves to circulate power in society. discourses involves patterns of belief and habitual action as well as patterns of language.

8 Discourses are ideas as well as ways of talking that influence and are influenced by the ideas. discourses in their linguistic aspect, are conventionalized sets of choices, or talk

9 ANALYSIS! Why discourse analysis rather than discourse ology? Discourse analysis Typically focuses on the analytical processes in a relatively explicit way. Discourse is a methodology that can be used to answer many kinds of questions DA systematically asks questions, takes several theoretical perspectives performs a variety of tests!

10 USES OD DISCOURSE ANALYSIS Nature of language Language learning Forensic linguistics Moved the description of languge structure up a level: looking at actual stretches odf connecte3d text or transcript and providing descriptions of the structure of paragraph, stories, and conversations

11 FACETS OF DISCOURSE ANALYSIS Museum of Egyptology.. Advertising for an informal material: Splendors of Ancient Egypt.. The exhibit was presented as blockbuster advertising it heavily. Gave rise to many texts: articles in many magazines, 3wall placards, labels in the exhibit, materials at the gift shop set up at the exit of the exhibit.

12 A HEURISTIC FOR ANALYSIS! Kinds of questions? How to answer them? Discourse analysts work with different materials: transcript of audio or video-talk, written documents, proverbs, printouts of on-line communication. Why is this text the way it is? Why is it no other way? why these particular words in this particular order?

13 ANSWERS! What the text is about.. What a person is talking about has a bearing on what is said how it is said. Who said/wrote it? How the intended audience are. Who the actual hearers or readers are. What motivates the text. The language it is in… what can be done with the language.

14 Discourse is shaped by the world, and discourse shape the world. Discourse is shaped by language, and the discourse shapes the language. Discourse is shaped by participants, and discourse shapes participants. Discourse is shaped by prior discourse, and discourse shapes the possibilities for future discourse.

15 Discourse is shaped by its medium, and discourse shapes the possibilities of its medium. Discourse is shaped by purpose, and discourse shapes possible purpose.

16 DISCOURSE IS SHAPED BY THE WORLD, AND DISCOURSE SHAPES THE WORLD. Splendor of Egypt: choice of words that has the effect of creating a particular image of this world in the minds of the readers: Egyptian are depicted as full of mystery, superstitious, obsessed with living forever, preoccupied with death. They need spells, curses, and incantation to protect them from harm

17 DISCOURSE IS SHAPED BY LANGUAGE, AND THE DISCOURSE SHAPES THE LANGUAGE. Mummy Mask of paser… New Kingdom, Dynasty18, 1570-1320 B.C Cartonnage, which can be compared to papier mache, painted and gilded, fidspot not known Germanic way of forming words, Latinate term,, How the structure foregrounds some elements of the description and backgrounds others. First thing, is a label in English not in Egyptian. In Roman letters not in hieroglyphic. Effect: this label removes the object from its original context and puts it into a western frame of reference.

18 DISCOURSE IS SHAPED BY INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS AMONG PARTICIPANTS IN IT, AND DISCOURSE HELPS TO SHAPE INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS Interpersonal relations include the relations among the speakers and writers, audiences and over hearers who are represented in the text. Example: splendors of Ancient Egypt gives evidence of several and sometimes conflicting versions of the relationships between museum staff and museum patrons. Sometimes the intended audience is clearly youthful as in: these small blue figures are called shabies (pronounced shabtees). They are made of faience, a type of glazed pottery. Shabtis were believed to help people who died. They were placed in tombs to be servants in the afterlife, working for the dead. Hundreds of shabits have been found in kings tombs. These shabits are holding hoes used by farmers for digging. They are standing like wrapped mummies, ready to work in the afterlife

19 This is adults language addressed to children. It represents in adults idea of how a childs mind might work. Jumpy paragraph, no explicit link between sentences No conjunctions like thus/so

20 DISCOURSE IS SHAPED BY EXPECTATIONS CREATED BY FAMILIAR DISCOURSE, AND NEW INSTANCES OF DISCOURSE HELP TO SHAPE OUR EXPECTATIONS ABOUT WHAT FUTURE DISCOURSE WILL BE LIKE AND HOW IT SHOULD BE INTERPRETED. intertextual relations between texts and other texts enable people to interpret new instances of discourse with reference to familiar activities and familiar categories of style and form.

21 DISCOURSE IS SHAPED BY THE LIMITATIONS AND POSSIBILITIES OF ITS MEDIA, AND THE POSSIBILITIES OF COMMUNICATIONS MEDIA ARE SHAPE BY THEIR USES IN DISCOURSE Mixing of media is evident in the splendors of Ancient Egypt.. Magazine ads: more oral (spoken-like) quality than do the magazine article. Punctuation: to represent the rhythm of speech they had spells for this. Incantations for that. And curses to protect them from harm Visual imagery is extremely prevalent and often repeated: Use of Egpytian writing as decoration: birds, cup, sphynx-like figures, human arms and legs, abstract shapes

22 DISCOURSE IS SHAPED BY PURPOSE, AND DISCOURSE SHAPES POSSIBLE PURPOSE. The purposes of splendors show are several: several voices (sometimes in competition) are heard… The exhibit was meant to be educational: imperative, expressions of confidence in the evidence one claims, simplification.

23 DATA OF DISCOURSE ANALYSIS Texts: written A great deal of discourse analysis is about non-written version Unable to study oral or signed discourse in real time, as it is taking place, we study records of discourse… transcripts or videotapes. Choice; what to include & what to exclude. These choices have important ramifications for the conclusions drawn.

24 TRANSCRIPTION Representing speech in writing Many ways of transcribing data as there are many researchers Standardized transcription system exists (conversation analysis), no single generally accepted way to represent speech on the page Transcription needs to be accurate, in the sense that it includes what it claims to include not everything Very detailed transcription include more information than what is actually needed, which may lead to high rates of errors

25 DESCRIPTIVE & CRITICAL GOALS Foundational work in DA was descriptive linguistics; Pikes (1967), Grimes (1975), Halliday & Hassan (1976) on what makes English text cohesive Critical: 1.Critical of producing a single, coherent, scientifically valid description. 2.Critical of the social status quo and concerned to have their work used in changing things for the better.


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