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AP LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION Rhetorical Terms Review Set 7 Writing Modes.

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Presentation on theme: "AP LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION Rhetorical Terms Review Set 7 Writing Modes."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION Rhetorical Terms Review Set 7 Writing Modes

2 Anecdote Definition: a short narrative account of an amusing, unusual, revealing or interesting account often intended to illustrate or support some point. Examples: Cary Grant is said to have been reluctant to reveal his age to the public, having played the youthful lover for more years than would have been appropriate. One day, while he was sorting out some business with his agent, a telegram arrived from a journalist who was desperate to learn how old the actor was. It read: HOW OLD CARY GRANT? Grant, who happened to open it himself, immediately cabled back: OLD CARY GRANT FINE. HOW YOU?

3 Cause and Effect Definition: writing which explores the causes of some event or chronicles the effects of some phenomenon in society or nature Examples: Although demographic shifts, stepped-up world trade, unemployment, and especially the advance of technology all have had an effect on the shape of the job market, middle-level jobs have been disappearing ultimately as a result of the ways in which technological gains are being distributed. When a machine replaces a production worker, both the firm and consumers as a group benefit. The loss falls mainly on the worker who is displaced. If that loss is generalized to millions of high-paid workers, they suffer as a group, and the economy as a whole suffers a loss of worker purchasing power. Thus the lack of a mechanism to distribute some of the financial gains from technology to the work force comes back to haunt the entire economy.

4 Chronological Ordering Definition: writing that presents ideas according to the time in which they occurred. Examples: In A Separate Peace, first its summer and the boys are having fun, then Finny falls, and it is winter, time for the carnival, and then there is the trial, and…. To bake a cake first you preheat the oven, then mix the batter, then flour your pan, followed by putting the mixture in the pan to bake….

5 Classification Definition: writing that breaks a large subject into categories for the purpose of analysis. Example: Paraphrasing is used for different purposes. Some paraphrases will be designated to support already existing evidence. Others will reinforce argumentation against evidence. Still others will help to develop existing arguments and provide back-up for any conclusion drawn in the course of writing. Depending on the function, paraphrases will be introduced in accordance with their unique context.

6 Expository Definition: writing that provides information such as an explanation or directions. Examples: In 1997, 175,000 volunteers picked up three million pounds of garbage along the coasts of the United States. As a result, both people and sea animals can enjoy cleaner and safer environments. Glass bottles, lumber, and syringes are less of a threat to barefooted beachgoers. Fewer seabirds, fish, and crabs will die entangled in plastic can holders, fishing nets, and fishing line. People put trash in the oceans, but by volunteering their time to help clean up after themselves, people are also the solution to the problem.

7 Order of Importance Definition: writing in which items are arranged from least important to most important (climactic order) or vice versa. A variation on this is psychological order, which grows from the idea that readers or listeners usually give most attention to what comes at the beginning and the end, and least attention to what is in the middle. Examples: After an extended absence from school, the first and most basic thing you need to do is make up the individual daily assignments that you missed. More importantly, ask the teacher questions about things you dont understand before completing any quizzes. Reviewing and studying are then the best things you can do before taking the unit test.

8 Parable Definition: a story or short narrative designed to reveal allegorically some religious principle, moral lesson, psychological reality, or general truth. Examples: Biblical parables such the prodigal son and the good Samaritan A scorpion was walking along the bank of a river, wondering how to get to the other side. Suddenly he saw a fox. He asked the fox to take him on his back across the river. "The fox said, 'No. If I do that, you'll sting me, and I'll drown.' "The scorpion assured him, 'If I did that, we'd both drown.' "The fox thought about it, finally agreed. So the scorpion climbed up on his back, and the fox began to swim. But halfway across the river, the scorpion stung him. "As the poison filled his veins, the fox turned to the scorpion and said, 'Why did you do that? Now you'll drown, too.' "'I couldn't help it,' said the scorpion. 'It's my nature.'"

9 Parody Definition: a satiric imitation of a literary work, film, or of an author/person with the idea of ridiculing the author, his ideas, or work. Examples: Monty Python and the Holy Grail, which parodies King Arthur tales SNL skits like Tina Fey doing Sarah Palin Weird Al Yankovichs songs, like Eat It, Amish Paradise, Fat, etc. Austin Powers movies

10 Persuasion Definition: A form of argumentation; Persuasive writing attempts to convince the reader to take a specific action. Examples: Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God – Jonathan Edwards trying to get the congregation to change its sinful ways before they burn for eternity Marc Antonys speech over Caesars body that begins Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend me your ears… in which he incites them to revolt against the assassins

11 Spatial Ordering Definition: In this pattern, items are arranged according to their physical position in space or relationships to one another. Examples: In describing items on a desk, I might describe items on the left first, then move gradually toward the right; The Eiffel Tower is divided into three sections. The lowest section of the tower contains entrance, a gift shop, and a restaurant. The middle section of the tower consists of stairs and elevators that lead to the top. The top section of the tower includes an observation deck with a spectacular view of Paris.

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