Presentation on theme: "Public-Private Partnerships for Tourism Management in Protected Areas"— Presentation transcript:
1 Public-Private Partnerships for Tourism Management in Protected Areas Jim BarborakDirector, Center for Protected Area Management and TrainingColorado State UniversityMember, IUCN/WCPA Tourism Working Group
2 Cantareira State Park, Sao Paolo, Brazil: An example of the challenges we face
3 BackgroundSuccess in conservation requires public and political support and people support what they know and loveGovernments, NGOs, and communities often lack entrepreneurial know-how, tourism know-how and capital needed to successfully manage PA tourismThere is pressure by communities, businesses, and governments for PAs to generate more economic benefits and more revenue to fund PA managementMany PAs, particularly in developing regions, do not fulfill tourism’s potential to generate employment and income and build public awareness and supportNumber of national and international tourists to PAs and economic importance of the sector increasing
4 Institutional Options for PA management PAs managed/owned by regional, local governments, intergovernmental authoritiesPAs managed/owned by local, regional, natl, intl. NGOsPAs managed/owned by indigenous tribesPAs managed/owned by communitiesPAs managed/owned by private businesses/companiesPAs managed or owned by universities, research centersGlobal tendency: hybrid and comanagement approaches!Ownership, management authority, service provider, and management category are separate but related concepts!
5 Partnerships: Key to PA success Larger, more complex PAs increasingly use a wide range of institutional options, including permits, contracts, concessions, cooperative agreements and co-management accordsPartnerships can lead to investments in PA tourism infrastructure and programsSuccessful partnerships can stimulate more public support for conservation, financial benefits for PA agencies and economies, and improved livelihoods for local communitiesSuccessful partnerships can privatize costs and risks but socialize benefits of tourism in PAs
6 Values of Tourism Public-Private Partnerships Long Recognized! Tourism concessions in US parks for +/- a century!Partnerships was a theme as long ago as the 1992 World Parks Congress (Venezuela)The tourism sessions at the Last World Parks Congress agreed that more work on the subject is warrantedMajor donors (IFC in Mozambique, Indonesia), IDB in Brazil, World Bank, GEF, UNDP, USAID, interested in topic and increasing investmentCBD specific has more equitable distribution of costs and benefits of biodiversity conservation as a goal and poverty alleviation is a global development priorityCBD partnering with Semeia Institute of Brazil for a global study on the subject and a workshop at the CBD COP in HyderabadTourism to PAs is growing in many parts of the worldDemand for PAs to generate revenue for their own budgets and to produce more tangible economic benefits locally and nationally is growing
7 Some challengesLocal actors often lack the entrepreneurial expertise and capital to successfully participate in co-management such as concessionsThere is no substitute for strong government institutions; they help guarantee success of innovative private and community conservationThere is widespread distrust of the private sector, NGOs and among key actors and stakeholders—building trust difficult and time-consuming
8 Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica: Private-Private Partnerships! Owned/managed by NGONearly 100K visitors/yrEndowment and robust business planRestaurant managed by local restaurateurGuiding managed by local guide associationGift shop generates much revenue—NGO now manages gift shops at several national parks!
9 Results of Ongoing Studies on Concessions Identified key components to ensure success in tourism concessions and agreements in protected areas:Qualifications of biddersLegal responsibilities of responsible entitiesFinancial responsibilities of entitiesEnvironmental responsibilities of entitiesSocial responsibilities of organizationsOngoing monitoring and evaluation
10 Moving towards best practices in tourism PPPs in PAs QualificationsWhat type of legal entity is created or involved: a private company, consortium, trust, individual, etc.?How can you ensure that the potential concessionaire/permitee has sufficient experience and capital?Legal aspects?Who owns the land and the infrastructure?Who retains control and stakes in improvements ?How are risks and unforeseen events managed?Who is responsible in case of complaints/ accidents?How are transactions controlled and audited?What are the consequences of rescinding agreements?
11 Financial/legal aspects How long does the agreement last? Can it be amended/extended?What payment does the partner make? Based on income, # users?If there is competitive bidding how do we ensure that the best offer wins?How do we ensure that the partner fulfills the terms of the agreement?What are the consequences of environmental damage caused by the concessionaire or lack of fulfillment of key clauses in the agreement?Under what conditions can agreements be rescinded?Environmental AspectsHow to ensure that infrastructure and its operation comply with environmental standards?What are the consequences when this does not happen?Who monitors what when where why and how?Social Aspects and EquityHow can we ensure benefits for local communities?How can we ensure that initial benefits are maintained and expanded and monitor this?
12 Some key lessons learned to date Partnerships can encourage capital investment , improve visitor services and generate increased revenue flows to PA agencies and economiesPPP can expand tourism and recreation opportunities for national and international visitors leading to greater public and decision maker support for PAs and more environmental awarenessPartnerships between concessionaires and local communities can lead to gradual transfer of ownership, build local capacity and responsibility and reduce PA-community conflictPAs with greater public use and expanded stakeholder base and public tend to resist threats better than areas off the “mental map” of the public, press and decision makers
13 What have we achieved since Barcelona four years ago? Global Review published (Wyman et al)Creation of a PA Tourism Partnerships Bibliography: laws, policies, tenders, case studiesGlobal workshop in California sponsored by USNPS and CSU with IUCN/WCPA and UNESCO-WH supportRegional workshop Southern Africa (Maputo)Brazil workshops Sao Paolo and CuritibaNew policies, laws and tenders in many nations (Costa Rica, Brazil, Chile)
14 Looking forward Best practices manual on PA tourism published Best practice manual on PPPs for IUCN WCPA publishedMore regional training and best practice workshopsUse major conferences to discuss progress, challengesWorld Wilderness Congress Spain 2013World Parks Congress Australia 2014National and regional PA conferences
15 Promotion in Europe by PanParks Technical assistance missions (USNPS, USFS, south-south)Incorporate training materials in PA training centersand onlineImplement pilot projects funded by major NGOs, bilateral and multilateral development banks, tourism enterprisesWork with UNESCO, other partners to incorporate strengthen PPS at WH sitesProduce and disseminate case studies, best practice documents, bibliographiesKey area of activity for IUCN WCPA Tourism Working Group