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Assessment of Behavior Chapter 6 Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River,

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Presentation on theme: "Assessment of Behavior Chapter 6 Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment of Behavior Chapter 6 Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

2 What is a Behavior? 1) Observable 2) Definable 3) Measurable - frequency (how often does it occur?) - duration (how long does it occur?)

3 Place a B or N in each blank, depending whether the term is a specific Behavior or Not a specific behavior _______ 1. Angry_______ 11. Happy _______ 2. Hits classmates and yells_______ 12. Walks to the door _______ 3. Is bad_______ 13. Loves food _______ 4. Does not complete homework_______ 14. Eats all the food on the plate in 1 minute ______ 5. Is sad_______ 15. Good boy ______ 6. Cries 4 times during the day_______ 16. Sings at recess ______ 7. Good student_______ 17. Verbally abusive ______ 8. Pays attention_______ 18. Uses swear words 20 times in 10 minutes ______ 9. Raises hand_______ 19. Is afraid ______ 10. Neurotic_______ 20. Hides in the corner when confronted by the class bully

4 Behavioral Approaches Classical Conditioning - an organism learns to connect or associate stimuli. 4

5 When Christina was a baby, her parents would drive her around in the car to get her to fall asleep because the feeling of motion automatically made her drowsy. As an adult, Christina feels drowsy whenever she sits in a car, even when it is not moving. What is the unconditioned stimulus (US)? _________________________________ What is the unconditioned response (UR)? _________________________________ What is the conditioned stimulus (CS)? ___________________________________ What is the conditioned response (CR)? ___________________________________

6 Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) CS (waiting room) CR (nausea) UCS (drug) UCR (nausea)

7 Behavioral Approaches Skinners Operant Conditioning Operant Behavior - operates (acts) on environment produces consequences Consequences (rewards and punishments) are contingent on the organisms behavior. Reinforcement (reward) increases the probability that a behavior will occur. Punishment decreases the probability that a behavior will occur. 7

8 Types of Reinforcement Positive reinforcement – giving something that the person wants that increases the behavior Examples: –Praise –Teacher attention –Rewards Negative reinforcement – taking away something that the person does not want that increases the behavior –Chores –Taking away time-out

9 Types of Punishment Presentation Punishment (type I) – giving something that the person does not want that decreases the behavior –Detention –Extra work Removal Punishment (type II) – taking away something that the person wants that decreases the behavior –Loss of recess –Loss of privileges

10 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time results in slower acquisition greater resistance to extinction

11 Reinforcement Schedules Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

12 Schedules of Reinforcement: Frequency and Predictability Fixed Ratio: reinforcer given after fixed number of behaviors Variable Ratio: reinforcer given after unpredictable number of behaviors Fixed Interval: reinforcement only at certain periodic times Variable Interval: reinforcement at some times but not others Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

13 Francis sells jewelry to a local gift shop. Each time he completes 10 pairs of earrings, the shopkeeper pays him for them. This is an example of a ___________ schedule of reinforcement. A. Fixed ratio B. Variable ratio C. Fixed interval D. Variable interval Sandras mail is delivered every day at 10:00. She checks her mailbox several times each morning, but only finds mail the first time she checks after 10:00. This is an example of a __________ schedule of reinforcement A. Fixed ratio B. Variable ratio C. Fixed interval D. Variable interval

14 Vernon is practicing his golf putting. On the average, it takes him four tries before the ball goes in the hole. This is an example of a _________ schedule of reinforcement A. Fixed ratio B. Variable ratio C. Fixed interval D. Variable interval Paula is an eager third-grader, and loves to be called on by her teacher. Her teacher calls on her approximately twice each period, although Paula is never sure when her turn will come. This is an example of a __________ schedule of reinforcement A. Fixed ratio B. Variable ratio C. Fixed interval D. Variable interval

15 Manifestation Determination (discipline) Removal to an IAES (interim alternative educational setting) must include continued services if more than 10 days School personnel may remove a student to an IAES for up to 45 school days (not calendar days), whether or not the conduct is a manifestation due to: 1.Drugs 2.Weapons 3.Inflicting serious bodily injury (at school, on school premises, or at a school function)

16 IDEA requires assessment teams to conduct functional behavioral assessments (FBA). Examines circumstances surrounding the occurrence and/or nonoccurrence of the challenging behavior It asks what is the function of the behavior? Task avoidance or escape, sensory stimulation, attention, continuing a reinforcing activity –Antecedents Difficulty of assignment, noise levels, fatigue –Behavior –Consequences Reinforcement or punishment –Provide new curricular and instructional approaches. Functional Behavioral Assessment

17 Functional Behavioral Assessment Direct measures involve the student, including direct observations and interviews with the student. Indirect methods include teacher and parent reports, interviews with persons who know or work with the student, and evaluation of work samples. Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

18 Methods of Direct Observation Anecdotal or Narrative Recording- Observations of behavior in which the teacher notes all behaviors and interactions that occur during a given period of time. Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

19 Follow This Case Matt, a 4th grade student, seems to react in a negative manner towards his peers. During his reading class, he pushed another student and said a sarcastic remark to his teacher when he was instructed to get his reading homework out to pass toward the front of the class. During this reading class, Matts teacher requested that the special education teacher observe to assist her with figuring out why Matt seemed to be having difficulty. The special education teacher completed an anecdotal recording. Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

20 Anecdotal Recording of Matt entered the classroom. He went to his desk and talked to the student sitting next to him. The student responded. When the teacher requested that the students prepare for their oral reading period, Matt continued talking with his peer. The peer asked Matt to leave him alone. Matt continued talking to the student and the student replied Leave me alone. Stop talking. We are going to get into trouble. At this point, Matt shoved the student. Peer repeats request. The teacher instructed the students to hand in their reading questions that were assigned for homework. The peer told Matt, Pay attention. Get your homework out. At this point, Matt replied, I didnt do the stupid homework. The peer laughs. Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

21 Write each in the following format: Antecedents Behaviors Consequences Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

22 Antecedents Behaviors Consequences Matt enters the room. Matt talks to his peer. The peer responds. Teacher gives command. Matt talks to his peer. The peer responds. Peer tells Matt to stop. Matt pushes peer. The peer responds. Peer tells Matt to get homework out. Matt talks to peer. The peer responds (laughs). Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

23 Event Recording Event recording-Recording the frequency of a target Behavior; also called frequency counting. Matts teacher and the special education teacher reviewed the anecdotal recording. They determined that Matts talking was being reinforced by the responses of his peer. In other words, talking to the peer served the function of receiving peer attention. The special education teacher asked Matts teacher if Matt behaved in the same manner during other classes. The teacher decided to complete an observation for other classes and other days to see if the behavior was consistent. The next slide illustrates the data. Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

24 Event Recording for Matt Target Behavior: Talking to Peers Monday Tuesday Wednesday Reading 1111 11 1111 11 Spelling 111 11 Writing 11 1111 11 Math 1 11 1 Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

25 Review the frequency count presented on the Previous page. Discuss the following questions. 1.Is Matts behavior consistent in all of the other periods observed? 2.When does the behavior seem the most problematic? 3.Is the behavior the same across the three days of the observations? 4.What hypotheses can you generate or, in other words, what other information would you want to find out to help you understand the behaviors? Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

26 Special Education Teacher and General Classroom Teacher Discussion The teachers discussed the data and made the following Observations. Matts talking is consistently more problematic during reading class. His talking seemed to increase through the week in reading class. The questions that the teachers decided they wanted to answer were: How is Matt achieving in reading? How does Matt feel About the reading tasks he is required to do? For example, does he dislike the oral reading time or the written homework for the stories read in class? Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

27 Special Education Teacher and General Classroom Teacher Discussion Other questions they considered were: Does Matt have friends in his other classes? (The peer he talked with is only in his reading class.) Are there factors outside the classroom that prevent him from completing his homework for reading? Because reading is the first class of the day, are there factors that occur in the mornings before school or on the way to school that impact his behavior (setting events)? Does Matt use his time in class to complete his work? Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

28 Frequency or Event Recording

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34 Latency Recording One intervention that Matts teacher implemented was a change in seating arrangement. Matt was no longer sitting next to the same peer. He continued to have some difficulty in reading class. As the teachers discussed Matts behaviors, one of the factors that seem to influence Matts ability to make academic progress was the length of time it required Matt to complete his assignments. His teacher noted that Matt seems to take a long time getting organized and getting to work. His teacher decided to complete a latency recording. For comparison, the teacher also completed a latency recording for 2 peers sitting beside Matt. Latency recording- Observations involving the amount of time that elapses from the presentation of the stimulus until the response occurs. Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

35 Latency Recording Instruction Get reading Books out Take out Paper Begin Chapter questions Matt 145 seconds 90 seconds 120 seconds Peer 1 20 seconds 15 seconds 18 seconds Peer 2 5 seconds 12 seconds 10 seconds Stimulus Time to Respond Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

36 As you can see, Matt seems to take significantly more time responding to requests in reading class. Can you suggest some strategies or interventions that might be beneficial to try? Matts teacher analyzed Matts permanent products in his academic subjects. His teacher noted that Matts skills seemed to be somewhat weak in the areas of reading decoding, reading comprehension, and writing. Discuss the impact of his academic skills on his behavior and the impact of his behavior on his academic achievement. Review the other types of informal academic and behavioral assessment that should be used next. Analyzing the Data Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

37 Momentary Time Sampling

38 T: Observation 1 = 20%C: Observation 1 = 80% T: Observation 2 = 60%C: Observation 2 = 100%

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40 Checklists and Rating Scales Child Behavior Checklist Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Connors Rating Scales Projective Tests Sentence Completion Drawing Tests Rorschach Apperception Tests


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