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e-commerce Kenneth C. Laudon Carol Guercio Traver business. technology. society. eighth edition Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 9 Online Retail and Services
Class Discussion Blue Nile Sparkles for Your Cleopatra Why is selling (or buying) diamonds over the Internet difficult? How has Blue Nile built its supply chain to keep costs low? How has Blue Nile reduced consumer anxiety over online diamond purchases? What are some vulnerabilities facing Blue Nile? Would you buy a $5,000 engagement ring at Blue Nile? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-3
Major Trends in Online Retail, 2011–2012 Growth in social shopping Online retail still fastest growing retail channel Buying online a normal, mainstream experience Selection of goods increases, includes luxury goods Informational shopping for big-ticket items expands Specialty retail sites show most rapid growth Increased use of interactive, Web 2.0 marketing Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-4
The Retail Sector Most important theme in online retailing is effort to integrate online and offline operations U.S. retail market accounts for $10.7 trillion (70%) of total GDP Personal consumption: Services: 65% Nondurable goods: 25% Durable goods: 10% Goods vs. services ambiguity Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-5
The Retail Industry 8 segments (clothing, durable goods, etc.) For each, uses of Internet may differ Information vs. direct purchasing General merchandisers vs. specialty retailers Mail order/telephone order (MOTO) sector most similar to online retail sector Sophisticated order entry, delivery, inventory control systems Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-6
Composition of the U.S. Retail Industry Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. SOURCE: Based on data from U.S. Census Bureau, Figure 9.1, Page 579 Slide 9-7
E-commerce Retail: The Vision 1. Reduced search and transaction costs; customers able to find lowest prices 2. Lowered market entry costs, lower operating costs, higher efficiency 3. Traditional physical store merchants forced out of business 4. Some industries would be disintermediated Few of these assumptions were correctstructure of retail marketplace has not been revolutionized Internet has created new venues for multi-channel firms and supported a few pure-play merchants Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-8
The Online Retail Sector Today Smallest segment of retail industry (5%–6%) Growing at faster rate than offline segments Revenues have resumed growth Around 72% of Internet users bought online in 2011 Primary beneficiaries: Established offline retailers with online presence (e.g., Staples) First mover dot-com companies (e.g., Amazon) Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-9
Online Retail and B2C E-commerce Is Alive and Well Figure 9.2, p. 582 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. SOURCES: Based on data from eMarketer, Inc., 2011a; authors estimates. Slide 9-10
Multi-channel Integration Integrating Web operations with traditional physical store operations Provide integrated shopping experience Leverage value of physical store Types of integration Online order, in-store pickup In-store kiosk or clerk Web order, home delivery Web promotions to drive customers to stores Gift cards usable in any channel Increasing importance of mobile devices Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-11
Analyzing the Viability of Online Firms Economic viability: Ability of firms to survive as profitable business firms during specified period (i.e., 1–3 years) Two business analysis approaches: Strategic analysis Focuses on both industry as a whole and firm itself Financial analysis How firm is performing Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-12
Strategic Analysis Factors Key industry strategic factors Barriers to entry Power of suppliers Power of customers Existence of substitute products Industry value chain Nature of intra-industry competition Firm-specific factors Firm value chain Core competencies Synergies Technology Social and legal challenges Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-13
Financial Analysis Factors Statements of Operations Revenues Cost of sales Gross margin Operating expenses Operating margin Net margin Pro forma earnings Balance sheet Assets, current assets Liabilities, current liabilities, long-term debt Working capital Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-14
E-tailing Business Models 1. Virtual merchant Amazon 2. Bricks and clicks Walmart, J.C. Penney, Sears 3. Catalog merchant Lands End, L.L. Bean, Victorias Secret 4. Manufacturer-direct Dell Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-15
E-commerce in Action: Amazon.com Vision: Earths biggest selection, most customer-centric Business model: Retail, Third Party Merchants, and Amazon Web Services (merchant and developer services) Financial analysis: Continued explosive revenue growth, profitable Strategic analysis/business strategy: Maximize sales volume, cut prices, acquisitions, mobile shopping, Kindle Strategic analysis/competition: Online and offline general merchandisers, Web services Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-16
E-commerce in Action: Amazon.com Strategic analysis/technology: Largest, most sophisticated collection of online retailing technologies available Strategic analysis/social, legal: Sales tax, patent lawsuits Future prospects: In 2010, net sales grew 40%, and significant gains thus far in 2011 Ranks among top five in customer service, speed, accuracy Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-17
Common Themes in Online Retailing Online retail fastest growing channel on revenue basis Profits for startup ventures have been difficult to achieve Disintermediation has not occurred Established merchants need to create integrated shopping experience to succeed online Growth of online specialty merchants, e.g. Blue Nile Extraordinary growth of social, local, and mobile e-commerce Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-18
Insight on Technology: Class Discussion Using the Web to Shop Till You Drop What do comparison sites offer consumers? Why are comparison shopping sites more successful with hard goods than soft goods? What is the strategy of Shopping.com? How can shopping bots compare luxury goods? How does adding content to comparison sites help consumers? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-19
The Service Sector: Offline and Online Service sector: Largest and most rapidly expanding part of economies of advanced industrial nations Concerned with performing tasks in and around households, business firms, and institutions Includes doctors, lawyers, accountants, business consultants, etc. Employs 4 out of 5 U.S. workers 75% of economic activity Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-20
Service Industries Major service industry groups: Finance Insurance Real estate Travel Professional serviceslegal, accounting Business servicesconsulting, advertising, marketing, etc. Health services Educational services Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-21
Service Industries Two categories Transaction brokers Hands-on service providers Features: Knowledge- and information-intense Makes them uniquely suited to e-commerce applications Amount of personalization and customization required differs depending on type of service e.g., medical services vs. financial services Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-22
Online Financial Services Example of e-commerce success story, but success is somewhat different from what had been predicted Brokerage industry transformed 44% of ages 18–54 prefer online banking Effects less powerful in insurance, real estate Multi-channel, established financial services firms continue to show strong growth Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-23
Financial Service Industry Trends Two important global trends Industry consolidation Financial Reform Act of 1998 amended Glass- Steagall Act and allows banks, brokerages, and insurance firms to merge Movement toward integrated financial services Financial supermarket model Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-24
Industry Consolidation and Integrated Financial Services Figure 9.3, Page 609 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-25
Online Financial Consumer Behavior Consumers attracted to online financial sites because of desire to save time and access information rather than save money Most online consumers use financial services firms for mundane financial management Check balances Pay bills Number of people using mobile devices for financial services is surging Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-26
Online Banking and Brokerage Online banking pioneered by NetBank and Wingspan; no longer in existence Established brand-name national banks have taken substantial lead in market share 103 million people use online banking; expected to rise to 116 million by 2015 Early innovators in online brokerage (E*Trade) have been joined by established brokerages (Fidelity, Schwab) Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-27
The Growth of Online Banking Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 9.4, Page 612 SOURCE: Based on data from comScore, 2010a, eMarketer, Inc., 2010; authors estimates. Slide 9-28
Multi-channel vs. Pure Online Financial Service Firms Online consumers prefer multi-channel firms with physical presence Multi-channel firms Growing faster than pure online firms Lower online customer acquisition costs Pure online firms Rely on Web sites, advertising to acquire customers Users utilize services more intensively Users shop more, are more price-driven and less loyal Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-29
Financial Portals and Account Aggregators Financial portals Comparison shopping services, independent financial advice, financial planning Revenues from advertising, referrals, subscriptions e.g., Yahoo! Finance, Quicken.com, MSN Money Account aggregation Pulls together all of a customers financial data at a personalized Web site e.g., Yodlee: provides account aggregation technology Privacy concerns; control of personal data, security, etc. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-30
Online Mortgage and Lending Services Early entrants hoped to simplify and speed up mortgage value chain Difficulties in branding and simplifying mortgage generation process Three kinds of online mortgage vendor today Established online banks, brokerages, and lending organizations Pure online mortgage bankers Mortgage brokers Online mortgage industry has not transformed process of obtaining mortgage Complexity of process Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-31
Online Insurance Services Online term life insurance: One of few online insurance with lowered search costs, increased price comparison, lower prices Commodity Most insurance not purchased online Online industry geared more toward Product information, search Price discovery Online quotes Influencing the offline purchasing decision Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-32
Online Real Estate Services Early vision: Local, complex, and agent-driven real estate industry would transform into disintermediated marketplace However, major impact is influencing of purchases offline Impossible to complete property transaction online Main services are online property listings, loan calculators, research and reference material, with mobile apps increasing Despite revolution in available information, there has not been a revolution in the industry value chain Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-33
Online Travel Services One of the most successful B2C e-commerce segments Online travel bookings declined slightly due to recession but expected to grow to $107.5 billion in 2011 For consumers: More convenience than traditional travel agents For suppliers: A singular, focused customer pool that can be efficiently reached through onsite advertising Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-34
Online Travel Services (cont.) Travel an ideal service/product for Internet Information-intensive product Electronic producttravel arrangements can be accomplished for the most part online Does not require inventory Does not require physical offices with multiple employees Suppliers are always looking for customers to fill excess capacity Does not require an expensive multi-channel presence Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-35
Insight on Business: Class Discussion Zipcar Shifts into High Gear What is the Zipcar business model? How does it make money? How does Zipcar use the Internet? Does Zipcar compete with traditional car rental firms? Will Zipcar work only in urban markets? Can it expand to the suburbs? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-36
Online Travel Services Revenues Figure 9.5, Page 618 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. SOURCE: Based on data from eMarketer, 2011c. Slide 9-37
The Online Travel Market Four major sectors: Airline tickets Hotel reservations Car rentals Cruises/tours 57% purchase airline tickets from airlines Web site, 22% from travel booking Web site (e.g., Expedia) Corporate online-booking solutions (COBS) Integrated travel services Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-38
Online Travel Industry Dynamics Intense competition among online providers Price competition difficult Industry consolidation Industry impacted by meta-search engines Commoditize online travel Mobile applications are also transforming industry Social media content, reviews have an increasing influence on travel purchases Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-39
Insight on Society: Class Discussion Phony Reviews Should there be repercussions to individuals and/or businesses for posting false reviews of products or services? Can phony reviews be recognized and moderated? Do you rely more on some types of reviews or comments on Web sites and blogs over others? Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-40
Online Career Services Top sites generate over $1 billion annually Two main players: CareerBuilder, Monster Traditional recruitment: Classified, print ads, career expos, on-campus recruitment, staffing firms, internal referral programs Online recruiting More efficient, cost-effective, reduces total time-to-hire Enables job hunters to more easily distribute resumes while conducting job searches Ideally suited for Web due to information-intense nature of process Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-41
Its Just Information: The Ideal Web Business? Recruitment ideally suited for the Web Information-intense process Initial match-up doesnt require much personalization Saves time and money for both job hunters and employers One of most important functions: Ability to establish market prices and terms (online national marketplace) Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-42
Online Recruitment Industry Trends Consolidation Diversification: Niche employment sites Localization: Local vs. national, Craigslist Job search engines/aggregators: Scraping listings Social networking: LinkedIn; Facebook apps Mobile apps Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-43
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9-44
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