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History of Tourism. new 7 If I live to see the seven wonders Ill make a path to the rainbows end Ill never live to match the beauty again.

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Presentation on theme: "History of Tourism. new 7 If I live to see the seven wonders Ill make a path to the rainbows end Ill never live to match the beauty again."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Tourism

2 new 7 If I live to see the seven wonders Ill make a path to the rainbows end Ill never live to match the beauty again

3 new 7 On July 7, 2007, history was made as the results of the worlds first-ever global poll were announced.

4 History of Travel Early Travel Four Roots of Tourism Religion and Tourism

5 History of Travel Sumerians were the first to invent money, the wheel and writing Sumerians began trade in 4000bc

6 Early Travel Cruises began in Egypt 3000bc Queen Hatshepsut traveled to east Africa in 1480bc, probably the first journey made for peace and tourism

7 Early Travel From 1600bc, the pyramids at Giza and the Sphinx attract large numbers of visitors

8 Early Tourist Traits Egyptians were first to leave their marks as they traveled places (the Latin word graffiti was used to describe the scribblings of ancient Egyptians) Egyptians began the practice of taking souvenirs

9 Early Travel Roads show early signs as far back as 2050bc in Sumer and as far back as 2000bc in Mycenae and Crete Main travelers at this time were the military, government officials and caravans

10 Roman Roads Roads were surveyed using a device similar to a cross staff Roadbed was dug and filled with stones and concrete Covered in paving stones Had kerb stones Sloped to shed rain

11 Roman Roads

12 By Trajan, (98 to 117ad), Roman roads comprised a network of 50,000 miles, from Scotland and Germany in the north, to Egypt in the south to the Persian Gulf in what is now Iraq and Kuwait


14 Four Roots Military Government leaders Explorers Religious pilgrims

15 Military Built roads Created forts (often became cities) Imposed cultural norms (and other things) of their society Adopted cultural norms of host society One reason people joined is to see new places

16 Government Leaders Often traveled to enforce rule Also traveled in a tourist capacity Would acquire locations based on resources, strategic location (and for visiting pleasure) Would often learn from the people they conquered (influenced point A)

17 Explorers Attracted followers often based on the chance to go to new places Expanded knowledge (and created stereotypes) of new places Used trade to alter cultural patterns of visited and host society Often opened the gateway for religious and cultural conversion of native peoples

18 The Word Tourism From the French verb retourner From The Grand Tour

19 The Grand Tour 17 th and 18 th centuries Diplomats, businessmen and scholars, wealthy young men Three year trip was common

20 The Grand Tour Was not superficial – resulted in a very complete knowledge of the places visited, including languages and detailed traditions Paris, Genoa, Milan, Florence, Rome, Venice, Germany, the Low Countries, Switzerland and even Greece and Egypt

21 The Grand Tour (Legacy) Tourism and The Grand Tour were very elitist Many of the locations visited on The Grand Tour are still popular destinations today

22 The Grand Tour (Legacy) Now mass tourism allows millions to travel, but our middle class limitations allows for two or three weeks, not years Still, The Grand Tour locations are a symbol of social status and arrival for many travelers

23 Mass Tourism The Package Tour Combined transportation, lodgings, sightseeing, money exchange, etc. First organized by Thomas Cook (1841) Cook organized them to allow people to attend temperance meetings (of the Baptist church) Cook negotiated a special fare due to the large number of people

24 Mass Tourism Cook organized a tour to Paris in 1855 for the expo By 1864, Cook had offices in Rome, New York, London, Paris and other major cities Mass tourism is directly connected to religious tourism

25 Religious Pilgrims First true group of mass tourists Religious pilgrimages were often a requirement for many religions Pilgrimages have existed in Asia and South Asia, Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Central America and to a much lesser degree, North America

26 Religious Pilgrimages For reasons of safety, traveling in mass was advisable The average person worked too hard to afford the time to travel (unless for a religious reason)

27 Pilgrimages Religious pilgrimages often incorporated many of the element of modern travel: Lodging Souvenirs (shopping) Eating (feasts as well as establishments that served food) Festivals (entertainment, events and holidays)

28 Pilgrimages Pilgrimage locations benefited greatly with a surge of visitation that left an economic surplus Also, like modern tourism, cities en-route benefited (which is why pilgrimage routes were chosen very carefully)

29 Pilgrimages Religious leaders often manipulated pilgrimages sites to make sure outer regions remained under control

30 Religion and Tourism Religious sites are still popular tourist destinations for believers and non-believers There was a pilgrimage season in medieval Europe, almost like a vacation period

31 Santiago de Compostela (St James of the Starry Field) Northwest Spain St James (according to tradition) was buried here – original church built on spot Pilgrims began arriving, and traveled the pilgrimage road

32 Santiago de Compostela Santiago Cathedral now marks the location The last 100km must be walked in order to receive your pilgrimage credential Unlike many routes, relatively little has been done in the form of commercialization en route

33 Sacre Coeur



36 Religion and Tourism The destination town benefited, but so did towns and villages along the route During the Middle Ages, towns competed for the largest church or cathedral to attract visitors Relics of saints or other important religious figures were publicized to attract visitation (USP)

37 Cathedral A cathedral is distinguished from a church by the fact that a cathedral contains a cathedra (a throne for a bishop) Most of Europes cathedrals were built during the Middle Ages from about 1100 to 1300 Some were built later during the Renaissance, and some are still being completed

38 Cathedral The typical cathedral architecture is called gothic architecture Gothic emphasizes the vertical This emphasis is given under the pretense of reaching towards heaven, however, gothic cathedral architecture is immediately intimidating as well (showing the power of god and instilling fear)

39 Windows/Literacy Nave/Transept/Apse Façade Towers Gift shop Flying buttress Rose Window Gargoyles Vaults/Arches

40 Notre Dame de Paris

41 1163 to 1250 Located on the Île de la Cité (the birthplace of Paris) Geographic center of Paris Noted for its backside of flying butresses

42 Notre Dames East Facade

43 Chartres Cathedral Chartres France is a center for the Cult of the Virgin Sacred Tunic worn by the virgin at the time of Christs birth Original cathedral destroyed in 1194

44 Chartres Cathedral Current cathedral combines early gothic façade with high gothic as it was rebuilt 1205-1220 (originally built in 1145)


46 Beauvais

47 Beauvais Cathedral

48 1225-1272 (apse and choir completed) 1284 the vault fell Repairs were made over next 50 years Worked stalled for 150 years until 1500 1564-1569, tower was built over the transept crossing (450 ft tall) 1593, tower collapses at the end of procession (all church members survive) on Ascension Day Annual celebration held every April 30th

49 Fatima and Lourdes Pilgrimage sites are not just something of the ancient past or the Middle Ages Lordes, France and Fatima, Portugal are current pilgrimage sites that attract both the faithful and tourists in huge numbers

50 Fatima, Portugal On May 13, 1917, three illiterate shepherd children, at work tending sheep outside Fatima, Portugal, were surprised by a bright flash in a nearby pasture called Cova de Ira, widely known as an old sacred place. Approaching the pasture, they were caught in a luminosity that nearly blinded them. In the center of the blaze of light, they perceived a little woman who told them she was "from heaven" and warned that world-wide suffering could be averted only if people ceased "offending God". The illuminated figure - who quickly became known as Our Lady - asked them to return to the same spot every month.

51 Fatima On August 13, the crowd grew to 18,000 but the three children were not among them. They had been jailed by local officials eager to "put an end to this nonsense". Even so, those present in the field reported a clap of thunder followed by a bright flash and a cloud surrounding the same "magical" tree. One month later a crown of 30,000 watched in astonishment as a globe of light appeared in plain view, advancing through the valley floor from east to west, coming to rest on the same tree.

52 Fatima 1928 Contains tombs of two of the children Plaza outside of basilica can hold mass for 500,000 people The plaza is surrounded by shops, restaurants and tiny hotels

53 Fatima & Lourdes Pilgrimage Tour Roundtrip flights from NY, Lisbon and Lourdes 7 nights in first class (4 star) hotels Catholic priests and daily mass Tour escorts

54 Saint Peters

55 1546 – 1564 and 1590 Built on site where St Peter was crucified della Porta, Michelangelo, Bramante and Bernini Dome is 452ft above the ground (138ft in diameter)

56 Our Lady of the Angels Opened in fall of 2002 Visited by 1.5 million people its first year Designed by Rafael Jose Moneo Plaza, gift shop, conference rooms, cafe

57 Our Lady (Los Angeles)

58 Our Lady of the Angels


60 Spanish Alabaster


62 Parthenon 447 - 432bc (under Pericles) Athens, Greece Built in honor of goddess (duh) Athena Sits atop the Acropolis Used Doric order columns

63 Parthenon The metope was used to mount sculpture that would tell a story (of actual battle or of religious importance)

64 Parthenon Frieze The frieze told the story of the Athenian procession

65 Athens

66 Other Religious Tourism Mission Trail, California The Haj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) Buddhist Pilgrimages Jerusalem Native American sites in the Americas

67 The Haj

68 Pilgrimages as Tourism

69 New World Pilgrimages?? Popular tourism destinations are often called pilgrimage sites Walt Disney World Las Vegas Los Angeles/Hollywood Yosemite/Grand Canyon

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