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Aerial survey and mapping systems Productivity analysis

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1 Aerial survey and mapping systems Productivity analysis

2 The A3 family of Aerial Survey and Mapping Systems
Aerial Survey Digital Frame Camera Ground Processing System

3 A3 & A3 EDGE Digital Rotating Frame Cameras
Camera type 35 Total Weight (kg) 53*53*53 Size (cm) 10 Camera installation time (min) 111.28 109.62 Max FOV (deg) 80,500 * 10,200 60,000 * 8,000 Max Footprint (pix) 780 460 Max SLF size (pix) 5.5 9.0 Pixel size (micron) 300 Focal lengths (mm) RGB / RGB+CIR Color 12 Color depth (bit) Forward, Roll, Vibration (FMC,RMC,VC) Motion Compensation 8 - 9 6 - 8 On-board storage capacity for continues acquisition (hours)

4 Visionmap A3 Differentiators
The highest productivity in Aerial Survey and Processing Vertical and Oblique images in one flight by single camera Fully automatic Orthophoto production

5 Visionmap A3 Differentiators
Three types of aircraft installation Three types of aerial survey

6 Aircraft installation

7 Vertical Flight Scheme
FOV - full coverage angle 2α – permissible orthophoto angle W1s/W2s – sweep/photo coverage width Wo – orthophoto width Q1 – orthophoto side overlap Qp – side sweep/photo coverage overlap Do – flight lines distance Orthophoto area Wo Q1 W1s/W2s Dv Qp FOV

8 Two-side Oblique Flight Scheme
βmax - oblique max. angle βmin - oblique min. angle Q2 - side oblique overlap Rmax - max. oblique footprint Rmin - min. oblique footprint Lmax - max. oblique distance Lmin - min. oblique distance W2o - oblique coverage width Do - oblique flight lines distance Oblique coverage βmax Q2 W2o βmin Rmax Rmin Lmin Lmax Do

9 One-side Oblique Flight Scheme
βmax - oblique max. angle βmin - oblique min. angle Q2 - side oblique overlap Rmax - max. oblique footprint Rmin - min. oblique footprint Lmax - max. oblique distance Lmin - min. oblique distance W2o - oblique coverage width Do - oblique flight lines distance Oblique coverage βmax Q2 W2o βmin Rmax Rmin Lmax Lmin Do

10 Parameters of different cameras
Digital cameras Analog cameras Parameters A3 EDGE A3 EAGLE 210 EAGLE 80 DMCII 250 UC-Xp DMCII 230 UC-X DMCII 140 UC-Xp wa DMC UC-L ADS80 DSS RC RC Focus (mm) 300 210 80 112 100 92 70 120 62.77 60 150 Pixel Size / Scan resolution (µ) 7.0* 9.0 5.2 5.6 6 7.2 12 6.5 6.8 15 Max frame size cross track (pix) 80,488 60,000 20,010 17,216 17,310 15,104 14,400 12,096 13,824 9,735 12,000 7,216 15,000 Frame size along track (pix) 10,172 8,000 13,080 14,656 11,310 9,400 11,200 7,680 6,588 5,412 Frame area size (Mpix) 781 328 262 252 196 217 135 106 64 39 225 Max FOV across track (deg) 111.28 109.62 27.8 66.1 46.6 54.9 49.4 54.8 50.7 73.1 69.3 53.2 63.7 44.5 73.7 41.1 FOV along track (deg) 13.26 13.47 18.4 46.1 40.2 37.5 47.3 37.4 51.7 42.0 42.6 34.1 FPS (frame/sec) 4.80 7.40 0.56 0.59 0.74 0.50 0.48 0.40 - 0.36  - Comments: Technical parameters of the cameras are taken from open internet sources; A3 EDGE - sub-pixel binning from 5.5 um

11 Flight planning elements for A3
FOV – field of view 2α – allowable orthophoto angle W1s – one strip image coverage (SLF/sweep width) Wo – one strip orthophoto coverage Q1 – side overlap (~10%) between orthophoto coverages from adjacent strips Qp – side overlap between adjacent strips (~60%) Dv – flight lines distance Orthophoto area Wo Q1 W1s Dv Qp FOV

12 Aerial survey productivity comparison
Comments: Calculations for different cameras have been made with technical parameters of the cameras published in open internet sources;

13 Aerial survey productivity comparison
Ortho Angle (deg)  GSD (cm) A3 EDGE A3 EAGLE 210 DMCII 250 RC UC-Xp DMCII 230 EAGLE 80 UC-X DMCII 140 UC-Xp wa DMC RC UC-L ADS80 DSS Aerial Survey Productivity (sq.km/hour) 15 3 107 70 90 44 37 34 31 28 26 22 14 12 11 20 5 257 176 226 112 93 92 86 78 71 65 56 54 38 40 10 1,163 849 607 538 466 448 442 414 374 344 314 269 261 260 160 45 2,295 1,692 1,128 999 865 947 874 789 691 663 568 553 549 417 50 3,776 2,850 1,648 1,460 1,265 1,419 1,439 1,182 1,010 1,091 935 808 903 592 55 25 6,193 4,700 2,421 2,145 1,858 2,136 2,360 1,737 1,483 1,790 1,534 1,187 1,481 895 60 30 9,350 7,121 3,296 2,920 2,530 2,907 3,351 2,422 2,019 2,702 2,316 1,615 2,017 1,219 Comments: Calculations for different cameras have been made with technical parameters of the cameras published in open internet sources; Image acquisition productivity depends on different camera and flight parameters – flight altitude, ground speed, camera FOV, permissible orthophoto angle, minimal allowable forward and side overlap. These calculations are based on the following assumptions: Same ground resolution for all the cameras, Same ground speed for all the cameras if there is no special speed limitations for the camera mentioned by the camera manufacturer, Minimal side overlap for A3 camera is 60%. Minimal side overlap for other cameras is 20%, Same or less permissible orthophoto angle. Less – when the side overlap is getting less then 20%.

14 Footprint Comments: Calculations for different cameras have been made with technical parameters of the cameras published in open internet sources;

15 Footprint Footprint (m) 3 761 590 600 519 516 453 450 432 415 363 360
GSD (cm) A3 EDGE A3 EAGLE 210 EAGLE 80 UC-Xp UC-Xp wa DMCII 250 DMCII 230 RC RC UC-X DMC DMCII 140 ADS80 UC-L DSS Footprint (m) 3 761 590 600 519 516 453 450 432 415 363 360 292 216 5 1,703 1,322 1,001 866 861 755 750 720 691 605 487 361 10 7,059 5,569 2,001 1,731 1,722 1,510 1,500 1,440 1,382 1,210 1,200 974 722 15 11,881 9,351 3,002 2,597 2,582 2,266 2,250 2,160 2,074 1,814 1,800 1,460 1,082 20 18,286 14,009 4,002 3,462 3,443 3,021 3,000 2,880 2,765 2,419 2,400 1,947 1,443 25 25,419 19,451 5,003 4,328 4,304 3,776 3,750 3,600 3,456 3,024 2,434 1,804 30 33,887 25,957 6,003 5,193 5,165 4,531 4,500 4,320 4,147 3,629 2,921 2,165 Comments: Calculations for different cameras have been made with technical parameters of the cameras published in open internet sources;

16 Distance between flight lines
Comments: Calculations for different cameras have been made with technical parameters of the cameras published in open internet sources;

17 Distance between flight lines
GSD (cm) A3 EDGE A3 EAGLE 210 DMCII 250 RC UC-Xp DMCII 230 EAGLE 80 UC-X DMCII 140 UC-Xp wa RC DMC UC-L ADS80 DSS Distance between flight lines (m) 3 303 237 287 142 118 117 109 99 91 83 71 69 63 5 676 529 641 317 264 261 244 220 203 185 159 154 153 140 10 2,792 2,184 1,479 1,310 1,135 1,092 1,076 1,008 910 837 764 655 637 633 547 15 4,766 3,728 2,218 1,965 1,703 1,864 1,721 1,553 1,359 1,305 1,118 1,087 1,080 820 20 7,154 5,596 2,958 2,621 2,270 2,547 2,583 2,122 1,812 1,958 1,679 1,450 1,621 1,063 25 9,982 7,809 3,697 3,276 2,838 3,261 3,604 2,653 2,265 2,733 2,342 2,262 1,367 30 13,286 10,392 4,437 3,931 3,405 3,913 4,511 2,718 3,637 3,118 2,175 2,715 1,641 Comments: Calculations for different cameras have been made with technical parameters of the cameras published in open internet sources; Distance between flight lines depends on different camera and flight parameters – flight altitude, camera FOV, permissible orthophoto angle, minimal permissible forward and side overlap. These calculations are based on the following assumptions: Same ground resolution for all the cameras, Same ground speed for all the cameras if there is no special speed limitations for the camera mentioned by the camera manufacturer, Minimal side overlap for A3 camera is 60%. Minimal side overlap for other cameras is 20%, Same or less permissible orthophoto angle. Less – when the side overlap is getting less then 20%.

18 A3 EDGE SLF – Super Large Frame
Smooth sweep movement; Up to 31 double frames per sweep; Along strip overlap between frames 2%; Cross strip overlap between frames 25%; Forward overlap between two sweeps – determinable Flight Direction Single Frame Super Large Frame – up to 780 Mpix Lenses Sweep Movement Double Frame

19 Frame area Comments: Calculations for different cameras have been made with technical parameters of the cameras published in open internet sources;

20 Frame area Frame area (sq.km) 3 0.23 0.14 0.24 0.20 0.18 0.12 0.10
GSD (cm)  A3 EDGE A3 EAGLE 210 EAGLE 80 DMCII 250 RC RC DMCII 230 UC-Xp UC-Xp wa DMCII 140 UC-X DMC UC-L ADS80 DSS Frame area (sq.km) 3 0.23 0.14 0.24 0.20 0.18 0.12 0.10 0.06 0.08 0.04 5 0.88 0.54 0.65 0.63 0.56 0.49 0.34 0.27 0.16 10 8.11 5.04 2.62 2.52 2.25 2.17 1.96 1.35 1.06 0.64 0.90 0.39 15 21.08 13.06 5.89 5.68 5.06 4.89 4.40 3.05 2.39 1.44 2.03 20 45.12 26.98 10.47 10.09 9.00 8.70 7.83 5.42 5.41 4.25 2.57 3.61 1.56 25 81.29 48.48 16.36 15.77 14.06 13.59 12.24 8.47 8.46 6.64 4.01 5.65 2.44 30 135.34 80.74 23.56 22.71 20.25 19.57 17.62 12.19 12.18 9.56 5.77 8.13 3.51 Comments: Calculations for different cameras have been made with technical parameters of the cameras published in open internet sources; Frame area depends on different camera and flight parameters – flight altitude, camera FOV, permissible orthophoto angle, minimal permissible forward and side overlap. These calculations are based on the following assumptions: Same ground resolution for all the cameras, Same ground speed for all the cameras if there is no special speed limitations for the camera mentioned by the camera manufacturer, Minimal side overlap for A3 camera is 60%. Minimal side overlap for other cameras is 20%, Same or less permissible orthophoto angle. Less – when the side overlap is getting less then 20%.

21 Summary - A3 / A3 EDGE aerial survey productivity
Orthophoto GSD (cm) 3 5 10 15 20 25 30 A3 Flight Altitude (m) 1,000 1,667 3,333 5,000 6,667 8,333 10,000 Ground speed (km/hour) 296 333 389 454 509 602 685 Distance between flight lines (m) 237 529 2,184 3,728 5,596 7,809 10,392 Aerial survey productivity (sq.km/hour) 70 176 849 1,692 2,850 4,700 7,121 A3 EDGE 1,278 2,131 4,261 6,392 8,523 10,653 12,784 352 380 417 482 528 620 704 303 676 2,792 4,766 7,154 9,982 13,286 107 257 1,163 2,295 3,776 6,193 9,350

22 A3 Light Speed Ground processing system
A3 DataViewer – a viewer for aerial survey data, images, data processing, reports, absolute orientation, analysis and export. A3 Light Speed (Processing and Control Center) - an application for cluster management and end-to-end ground processing: Aerial triangulation, DSM creation, Orthophoto production.

23 Visionmap A3 End-to-end workflow
Aerial survey, Imagery downloading, GPS processing is executed by GrafNav program, Aerial triangulation including matching and bundle block adjustment with self calibration, DSM creation, DSM to DTM filtering currently is executed by third party programs, Orthophoto creation with automatic cut-lines and radiometric adjustment. There is a built-in graph editor for cut-lines editing. Optional: Export – single images, SLFs, DSM. Import – exterior DTM, vector layers, GPS, GCP.

24 A3 Light Speed Final mapping products
Vertical and Oblique photogrammetrically oriented images, SLFs – super large photogrammetrically oriented frames for stereo compilation, DSM – digital surface model, Orthophoto.

25 A3 Light Speed Orthophoto processing productivity
Orthophoto GSD (cm) 3 5 10 15 20 25 30 A3 EDGE aerial survey productivity (sq.km/hour) 107 257 1,163 2,295 3,776 6,193 9,350 A3 Light Speed orthophoto processing productivity (sq.km/24 hours) 90 250 1,000 2,250 4,000 6,250 9,000 Comments: Processing productivity is calculated for a fully automatic A3 processing not including DSM calculation and common manual processes like cut-line editing and QA. Processing productivity is calculated for the A3 Light Speed standard cluster, optimal aerial survey parameters and assumes parallel processing of several projects.

26 Spain S = 504,030 sq.km; Lwe ~ 850 km; Lsn ~ 850 km;

27 Aircrafts for Nation wide Mapping projects with A3 EDGE
Service Ceiling (m) Cruise Speed (km/h) Recommended Flight Altitude (m) Ortho GSD (cm) Learjet 25D 13,715 859 12,784 30 King Air B200 10,700 536 10,653 25 Cessna 421 9,205 444 8,523 20 Cessna 402 8,600 394 Aero Commander 685 8,000 412 7,670 18 Cessna 404 Titan 7,925 303

28 Mapping of Spain with A3 EDGE & A3 LightSpeed
Aircraft Ortho GSD (cm) Distance between Flight Lines (m) Number of Flight lines Aerial Survey Productivity (sq.km/hour) Processing Productivity (sq.km/day) Total Aerial Survey Time (day) Total Processing time (day) Learjet 25D 30 11,979 54 10,294 9,000 10 56 King Air B200 25 9,982 64 5,343 6,250 17 81 Cessna 421 20 7,986 80 3,550 4,000 26 126 Cessna 402 3,150 29 Aero Commander 685 18 7,187 89 2,955 3,300 31 153 Cessna 404 Titan 2,183 41 Comments: For these calculations the mapping area is presented as a rectangle of size 800 km x 630 km = 504,000 sq.km; Permissible orthophoto angle – 55 degrees; Forward overlap – %; Side overlap – %; Aerial survey day – 6 hours; Aerial survey time per one A3 EDGE camera including time for turns (5 min) between flight lines; Processing time is calculated per one standard A3 LightSpeed processing system supplied by VM; Processing time does not include DTM creation and manual processes like QA;

29 Camera’s Productivity Comparison
Parameters A3 EDGE A3 EAGLE 210 EAGLE 80 DMCII 250 UC-Xp DMCII 230 RMK TOP 300 UC-Xp wa UC-X DMC RMK TOP 150 DMCII 140 ADS80 GSD (m) 25 Ground speed (knot) 289 Allowable orthophoto angle (deg) 55 23 40 47 42 35 46 43 Flight altitude (m) 10,653 8,333 10,096 3,846 5,000 4,167 4,107 2,917 3,472 2,500 3,194 2,414 Forward overlap (calculated, %) 92 93 60  89 91 84  60 - Side overlap (calculated, %) 68 67 22 24 20 21 33 28 34 Frame area (sq. km) 108.10 63.51 16.36 15.77 12.24 13.59 14.06 8.46 6.64 8.47 5.65 Flight Lines Distance (m) 9,982 7,809 3,697 3,604 3,276 3,261 2,838 2,733 2,653 2,342 2,265 2,262 Aerial Survey Productivity (sq.km/hour) 5,343 4,179 2,089 2,036 1,851 1,842 1,603 1,544 1,499 1,323 1,280 1,278 Productivity Comparison (%) 100 78 39 38 30 29 Comments: Permissible orthophoto angle – not more than 55 degrees; Side overlap – not less than 20%; Calculations are made for the flight with Ground Speed = 289 knots (535 km/hour) and GSD=25 cm;

30 Camera’s Productivity Comparison
Comments: Permissible orthophoto angle – not more than 55 degrees; Side overlap – not less than 20%; Calculations are made for the flight with Ground Speed = 289 knots (535 km/hour) and GSD=25 cm;

31 Aerial triangulation accuracies
RMSE Dz (m) RMSE Dy (m) Dx (m) GCP/ChP GPS GSD (cm) Alt. (m) Alt.(feet) Strips Flight Mission 0.04 0.05 0/99 DGPS 10 3,300 11,000 3 * 2 Bel A306 0.03 0.02 9/90 0.20 0.06 0/95 3 Bel A307 4/91 0.22 0.09 0.13 0/68 PPP 7.5 2,500 8,200 6 USA A313 0.07 4/64 0.49 0.15 0.28 15 5,000 16,400 USA A310 0.17 0.14 0.11 0.53 0.30 0/76 5,100 16,700 10 * 6 RUS A311 Comments: PPP – Precise Point Positioning GPS processing (without ground reference stations) DGPS – Differential GPS processing (with ground reference stations) GCP (Ground Control Points) = 0 – adjustment without GCPs (only GPS) ChP (Check Points) – GCPs are not participated in the adjustment. All 4 first were flown on test-fields with signalized GCPs. RUSA311 mission was checked with natural GCPs. Strips examples : 3 – three parallel strips; 3*2 - three parallel and 2 cross strips.

32 Conclusion 1 – A3 camera Substantial cost reduction in aerial survey
Easy to use Very high aerial survey productivity Pre-flight preparation time – 10 minutes Flight time reduction Maximal utilization of good weather Very effective aerial survey in urban areas with high GSD Vertical and oblique images in one flight by single camera in the same time

33 Conclusion 2 – A3 processing
Substantial cost reduction in processing Very high processing productivity Fully automatic triangulation, DSM, orthophoto and mosaic of very large blocks End-to-end workflow in one software solution Multiple projects parallel processing

34 Conclusion 3 – A3 SLF A3 SLF area up to 6 times larger than the frame area of other cameras A3 SLF is very useful for large area stereo-compilation, monitoring and photo-interpretation

35 Conclusion 4 – A3 Accuracy
A3 system enables PPP or DGPS processing utilization A3 system ensures high photogrammetric accuracy with or without GCPs A3 system does not need IMU

36 Thank you for your attention !
Visionmap video on YouTube: A3 Digital Mapping System - A3 Automatic Processing System - The information contained in this publication is provided for general guidance only and forms no part of the contract and shall not in any circumstances constitute a trade description. The Company reserves the right to change or amend specification without prior notice.


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