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Basics of Geography. LEARNING TARGET To understand some of the basic fundamentals of Geography (Purpose / 5 themes / tools / physical geography / human.

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Presentation on theme: "Basics of Geography. LEARNING TARGET To understand some of the basic fundamentals of Geography (Purpose / 5 themes / tools / physical geography / human."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basics of Geography

2 LEARNING TARGET To understand some of the basic fundamentals of Geography (Purpose / 5 themes / tools / physical geography / human geography)

3 Exploring Geography What is World Geography? 1. Fueled by the need to understand our world 2. Geo – earth Graphy – writing about (study of) 3. The study of where people, places, and things are located and of the ways in which these 3 relate to each other. It involves the study of the distribution and interaction of physical (natural) and human features on the earth. What will you gain by studying WG? 1. You will see the world through different perspectives (views) 2. Provides a way to organize information to make it logical. 3. Having knowledge of the world will help you to make better decisions, contribute to solving problems, and increase your opportunities for success

4 5 Themes of Geography 1. Location answers the question where is it? *Used in 2 ways 1. Absolute – is the precise(exact) spot on the earth * Latitude – measures distances north and south of the Equator * Longitude – measures distances east and west of the Prime Meridian * crossing these lines (circles) creates the global grid Tucson, Arizona is at 32 degrees N of the Equator and 110 degrees W of the Prime Meridian 2. Relative – is a general description of one place to another place * most commonly described by using direction and distance (or time) Tucson is approximately 1440 miles SW of Chicago

5 5 Themes of Geography 2. Place answers the question what is it like? * describe unique characteristics of a place that separate it from other places a. Physical – all natural features * examples – landforms, water bodies, climate, vegetation b. Human – all manmade features *material objects (examples) – roads, buildings, products, etc. *nonmaterial ideas (examples)- language, religion, laws, etc.

6 5 Themes of Geography 3. Movement answers the question how do people, goods, and ideas move from place to place? * looks at the migration or movement of people * looks at transportation networks like roads, RR, air, and water routes * looks at communication networks like TV, radio, satellites, and internet * looks at economic movement of goods called trade * looks at the spread of culture called cultural diffusion

7 5 Themes of Geography 4. Human Environment Interaction answers the question how do people relate to the natural world? * looks at how people adapt to their environment by changing their behaviors * looks at how people alter (change) their environment to meet their wants or needs - need to minimize the negative consequences and find a balance

8 5 Themes of Geography 5. Region answers the question how are places similar and different? * regions are smaller parts (areas)of the earth that are defined by a common characteristic * these characteristics can be physical or human or defined by a type of movement (perception) * breaking our earth into smaller units makes it easier to understand relationships between places

9 ** Using the 5 Themes helps us to better understand our world by organizing information in a logical way

10 Tools of Geography 1. Globes – 3D models (representations) of the earth * most accurate representation of the earth * very limited in their use for geography

11 Maps 2. Maps – 2D representation of parts or all of the earth. * have many advantages over globes * the main problem is distortion or inaccuracy due to flattening a round object * different map projections are used to overcome the inaccuracy of size, shape, distance and direction found in maps *Cartography is the art and science of making a map and a cartographer is a mapmaker * some modern tools used today are satellites and global positioning systems (GPS)

12 * 4 components of a map 1. A title tells what the map is about (red) 2. A legend or key explains the meaning of colors and symbols. (yellow) 3. A scale gives the relationship of distance on a map compared to the real earth (blue) 4. A directional indicator (compass rose) shows the 4 cardinal directions and maybe intermediate directions (purple)

13 * Types of maps 1. A small scale map shows a large area with little detail 2. A large scale map shows a small area with many details 3. There are two types of general purpose maps used most by readers a. Physical maps show relief (elevations) b. Political maps show borders of countries 4. Thematic maps show specific data or information like climate or population density

14 * Other tools used by geographers 1. A census is a periodic counting of many characteristics of a population 2. Geographers also use many data organizers like graphs,charts, diagrams, tables, and time lines to help interpret information about our world

15 Physical Geography 1. Our earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old 2. The 3 main layers of the earth are the core,the mantle, and the crust 3. The 4 main spheres of the earth: * the lithosphere is the solid rock portion of the earth – contains the 7 continents * the hydrosphere is the water portion of the earth – contains the 4 major oceans * the atmosphere is layers of gases that surround the earth * the biosphere is the part of the earth where plants and animals live

16 Landforms 1. The topography or shapes of the earths surface are classified by relief (elevation) and slope (angle of the land) * 4 major types of landforms are: mountains, hills, plains, and plateaus 2. The earths landmasses are built up by plate tectonics. Where giant pieces of crust move slowly over millions of years separating and colliding with each other 3. The earths landmasses are worn down by the process of weathering which breaks rock into smaller and smaller pieces over millions of years 4. When rock is small enough (sediment), the process of erosion moves this material around. The 3 main agents are moving water, air (wind), and glaciers (large slabs of moving ice)

17 Weather and Climate 1. Weather is the condition of the bottom layer of the atmosphere over a short period of time. * The 3 main conditions that create weather : a. Temperature - influenced by the angle of the suns ultraviolet rays b. Wind - due to varying air pressure around the globe c. Precipitation - due to the condensation of water vapor in the atmosphere. * Some examples of violent weather are hurricanes, tornadoes, blizzards, t-storms 2. Climate is the average weather patterns of a given area over a long period of time. * 3 main factors that influence climate a. Latitude - distance from the Equator (affects the angle of the suns rays) b. Elevation - height above sea level (air cools 3.5 degrees / 1000 ft) c. Proximity (closeness) to large bodies of water (moderate temps) – also depends on the winds * Climate regions are based on average temperature and precipitation throughout a year * 6 main types – Tropical, Arid or desert (dry), Moderate, Continental, Polar, and highlands (mountain)

18 Vegetation 1. Types are very dependent on temperature, precipitation, and soil type. 2. Major types are : Forest (tropical, deciduous - shed leaves, and coniferous or needle leaf) grasslands (tropical savannas, or temperate prairies) desert (shrub) tundra (treeless cold areas) ice cap (none)

19 Human Geography Culture 1. Is an entire way of life that guides a particular group of people (society) 2. Main components: * family – people from the same lineage (share a common ancestor) * social class – defined by money or some other characteristic a society values * ethnicity (race) – people that share common (similar) physical or cultural traits * history – recorded events of the past (written, audio, video) *language – spoken or written forms of communication * religion – a strong belief in something extraordinary (gods, forces, or philosophies) * customs – traditional practices of a society * cultural expression – creative ways of displaying a culture like sports, music, fashion, art, literature, etc. - the spread of culture is known as cultural diffusion

20 Population 1. Is the total number of people in a given area 2. Demography is the study of populations 3. Population growth looks at the birth rate compared with the death rate 4. Population distribution looks at where people live and why * Population density looks at how many people live in a given area 5. The two major areas of population are rural (countryside) and urban (city)

21 Economics 1. One of the main questions of economics is: What and how many goods and services will be produced? 2. The major types of systems are traditional, capitalism, socialism, and communism. The last 3 look at the amount of government control in running the economy 3. Resources like fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) play a major role in trade and economics 4. Economic activities can be primary (gathering resources like farming, logging, or mining), secondary (manufacturing), or tertiary (service industries) 5. The measuring of wealth can determine if a country is developing (poor) or developed (wealthy)

22 Political Systems 1. The 4 characteristics needed to define a country are: territory, a population (citizens), sovereignty (power), and a government 2. The 2 main types of governments: a. Democracy - rule by the people * most are republics (leaders or representatives are chosen to run the govt) b. Dictatorship - rule by a few or one person * different types : monarchy, military, facism, communism, and theocracy (ruled by a religion)

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