2What is a Dynamic Risk Assessment (DRA)? Traditional Risk AssessmentThe process of assessing risk forPlanned eventsRoutine workNormal ActivitiesDynamic Risk AssessmentThe process of assessing risk“on-the-fly”“in the field”“away-from-base”forEmergency SituationsChangeProblem solvingIt isn’t always possible to ensure risk assessment is carriedout in advance of facing a problem.
3Risk Assessment Process 1. Identify the hazards2. Decide who might be harmed and how3. Evaluate the risks and decide on precaution4. Record your findings and implement them5. Review your assessment and update if necessaryThink before you act, not act before you think
4Who is most likely to carry out a DRA? Police officersFire BrigadeAmbulance ServiceSecurity ServicesHelicopter Emergency Medical ServicesAirport staff and/or security servicesConstruction management, engineers, operativesMilitaryAirline PilotsOil Rigs?Petrochem?Manufacturing?Shipping?
5Competence“Competence is the ability to undertake responsibilities andto perform activities to a recognised standard on a regularbasis. Competence is a combination of practical andthinking skills, experience and knowledge.”(Developing and Maintaining Staff Competence. HSE 2002)
11Did your perception change? Perception of Risk9th September 20017th July 2005Did your perception change?
12Perception of RiskIn the August preceding 9/11, the airline industry experienced what was then a record high in the number of airline passengers for a given monthwhen 65.4 million travelers took to the air. After 9/11, that number trailed off dramatically, and it took nearly 3 years, until July 2004, for the industryto match and finally surpass the pre 9/11 levels. But the number of available seats—an industry measure of capacity— in July 2004 was just 98.3 %of its August 2001 peak. By July 2005, the number of airline passengers had reached 71 million.(RITA - Research and Innovative Technology Administration - Bureau of Transportation Statistics
18Where did Dynamic Risk Assessment come from? An unacceptable level of fire-fighter deaths occurred during the late1980’s and early 1990’s.HSE served a number of improvement notices on the fire service.HSE recommendations highlighted the need for better risk assessmentin relation to the systems of command and tactical fire-fighting.(Flin, 1996)
19Where did Dynamic Risk Assessment come from? The fire service refocused its challenge on managing fire-fighter riskduring fire fighting operations.This led to a new concept of DRA being introduced in the early 1990’sas a means to manage operational risk in dynamic situations.It was argued that the fire service had carried out assessments formany years (prior to DRA) without the reference to the concept of risk.(Edmund Jacobs, 2005
20Fire Service Attitude to Safety The philosophy used highlights the correct attitude towards safety:“We may risk our lives a lot, in a highly calculated manner, to protectsaveable lives”.“We may risk our lives a little, in a highly controlled manner, to protectsaveable property”.“We will not risk our lives at all for lives or property that are alreadylost”.(HM Fire Inspectorate, 1998)
21Benefits of DRA within the Fire Service Reduction in fire-fighter deaths for many years.Risk is managed well within the fire service.It is believed that DRA has proved its value in promoting awareness of risk in dynamicenvironments.The link between risk and decision making also raises awareness of cognitive processesof assessing risk in operational situations.The model offers a basis for learning and a structure for debriefing of incidents andexercises where there is now a common language of risk.(HM Fire Inspectorate, 1998)
22Benefits of DRA within the Fire Service HSE satisfied with approach to safetyDRA integrated within risk management modelLevels of risk management model measurable against HSG65Other occupations can benefit from the fire service experience and theutilisation of the DRA model offers “a learning and a structure for theDebriefing of incidents”(HM Fire Inspectorate, 1998)
23HSE View on DRAIt is recognised that the nature of policing necessitates police officers torespond to the demands of unpredictable and rapidly changingsituations and reliance solely on systematic risk assessment and setprocedures is unrealistic. In order for the police service to effectivelymanage operational risk appropriate training should be provided.(HSE, 2005)
24Wider adoption of DRAMany other forces including the Police, Ambulance service (inc. Helicopter) andthe armed forces along with many businesses have adopted the principles ofDynamic Risk Assessments within their culture.Training is given to individuals on the perception of risk, more importantlythe control measures required to mitigate the risk and the affect of thosecontrols on persons and property.The ability to “think on one’s feet” is crucial to effective implementationOf DRA’s to protect individual lives.
26The ShardSet to be the tallest building in Western Europe “The Shard”, designed by renowned architect Renzo Piano, is a 1,016ft / 310m mixed use high rise or more accurately a “vertical city”.The building consists of 28 stories of office space, 12 floors of residential, 6 mid levels of public space and the Shangri-La has taken 18 stories for its flagship European hotel.The tower will also have a naturally ventilated radiator at its tip and on the 72nd floor a public viewing gallery offering 360° views of London.“The Shard” will be a sharp and light presence on the London skyline welcoming more than 8 thousand workers, residents and hotel guests a day and more than 2 million public visitors a year.
27The Shard Working up to the 74th floor provided some unique challenges:Protection of people fallingProtection of materials fallingWeatherLifting materialsClimbing screen adaptation and removalEmergency Rescue
30London 2012 Athletes Village During the GamesDuring the Games, the Athletes Village will comprise residential apartments for around 17,000athletes and officials, along with shops, restaurants, medical, media and leisure facilities and largeareas of open space. During the Games, the Village will include ‘back of house’ operations, and services for athletes suchas catering and transport. The majority of these will be accommodated in temporary structures on sitesthat can be cleared for development immediately after the Games.After the GamesAfter the Games, the Athletes Village will be a lasting legacy of essential new housing for east London.It will be transformed into 2,800 new homes, including 1,379 affordable homes.The communities that develop in the area after the Games will be supported by new parks, openspace, transport links, and community facilities including Chobham Academy – a world-class neweducation campus with 1,800 places for students aged 3-19.
31London 2012 Athletes Village Given the location of the offices in relation to the plots andInfrastructure, the need for individuals to carry out DRA’s if a changeon-site happens is a must.However that DRA must be recorded and reviewed by the supervisorto ensure lessons learnt can be passed around the Village.Regular reviews of the DRA must take place to ensure controlmeasures are current and effective.
32Summary DRA has been widely adopted by forces and business. DRA gives greater flexibility for “in-the-field” decisions.Competence of the individual carrying out the assessment is key.Perception of risk is different for everyone.Exceptional circumstances can alter your perception 9/11 7/7.Training must be given to assess unique events, such as riots andterrorism.You must know what you have at your disposal for control measures.Review Review Review!!!
33Competence is key Would you trust this man to carry out your DRA? Pencil video