What is a Dynamic Risk Assessment (DRA)? Dynamic Risk Assessment The process of assessing risk on-the-fly in the field away-from-base for Emergency Situations Change Problem solving Traditional Risk Assessment The process of assessing risk for Planned events Routine work Normal Activities It isnt always possible to ensure risk assessment is carried out in advance of facing a problem.
Risk Assessment Process 1. Identify the hazards 2. Decide who might be harmed and how 3. Evaluate the risks and decide on precaution 4. Record your findings and implement them 5. Review your assessment and update if necessary Think before you act, not act before you think
Who is most likely to carry out a DRA? Police officers Fire Brigade Ambulance Service Security Services Helicopter Emergency Medical Services Airport staff and/or security services Construction management, engineers, operatives Military Airline Pilots Oil Rigs? Petrochem? Manufacturing? Shipping?
Competence Competence is the ability to undertake responsibilities and to perform activities to a recognised standard on a regular basis. Competence is a combination of practical and thinking skills, experience and knowledge. (Developing and Maintaining Staff Competence. HSE 2002)
Perception of Risk Do we all think the same?
Perception of Risk
9 th September th July 2005 Did your perception change?
Perception of Risk In the August preceding 9/11, the airline industry experienced what was then a record high in the number of airline passengers for a given month when 65.4 million travelers took to the air. After 9/11, that number trailed off dramatically, and it took nearly 3 years, until July 2004, for the industry to match and finally surpass the pre 9/11 levels. But the number of available seatsan industry measure of capacity in July 2004 was just 98.3 % of its August 2001 peak. By July 2005, the number of airline passengers had reached 71 million. (RITA - Research and Innovative Technology Administration - Bureau of Transportation Statistics
Perception of Risk
How do we get people carrying out DRAs to perceive risk the same?
Training Terry Tate Video
Application of DRAs
Where did Dynamic Risk Assessment come from? An unacceptable level of fire-fighter deaths occurred during the late 1980s and early 1990s. HSE served a number of improvement notices on the fire service. HSE recommendations highlighted the need for better risk assessment in relation to the systems of command and tactical fire-fighting. (Flin, 1996)
Where did Dynamic Risk Assessment come from? The fire service refocused its challenge on managing fire-fighter risk during fire fighting operations. This led to a new concept of DRA being introduced in the early 1990s as a means to manage operational risk in dynamic situations. It was argued that the fire service had carried out assessments for many years (prior to DRA) without the reference to the concept of risk. (Edmund Jacobs, 2005
Fire Service Attitude to Safety The philosophy used highlights the correct attitude towards safety: We may risk our lives a lot, in a highly calculated manner, to protect saveable lives. We may risk our lives a little, in a highly controlled manner, to protect saveable property. We will not risk our lives at all for lives or property that are already lost. (HM Fire Inspectorate, 1998)
Benefits of DRA within the Fire Service Reduction in fire-fighter deaths for many years. Risk is managed well within the fire service. It is believed that DRA has proved its value in promoting awareness of risk in dynamic environments. The link between risk and decision making also raises awareness of cognitive processes of assessing risk in operational situations. The model offers a basis for learning and a structure for debriefing of incidents and exercises where there is now a common language of risk. (HM Fire Inspectorate, 1998)
Benefits of DRA within the Fire Service HSE satisfied with approach to safety DRA integrated within risk management model Levels of risk management model measurable against HSG65 Other occupations can benefit from the fire service experience and the utilisation of the DRA model offers a learning and a structure for the Debriefing of incidents (HM Fire Inspectorate, 1998)
HSE View on DRA It is recognised that the nature of policing necessitates police officers to respond to the demands of unpredictable and rapidly changing situations and reliance solely on systematic risk assessment and set procedures is unrealistic. In order for the police service to effectively manage operational risk appropriate training should be provided. (HSE, 2005)
Wider adoption of DRA Many other forces including the Police, Ambulance service (inc. Helicopter) and the armed forces along with many businesses have adopted the principles of Dynamic Risk Assessments within their culture. Training is given to individuals on the perception of risk, more importantly the control measures required to mitigate the risk and the affect of those controls on persons and property. The ability to think on ones feet is crucial to effective implementation Of DRAs to protect individual lives.
Set to be the tallest building in Western Europe The Shard, designed by renowned architect Renzo Piano, is a 1,016ft / 310m mixed use high rise or more accurately a vertical city. The building consists of 28 stories of office space, 12 floors of residential, 6 mid levels of public space and the Shangri-La has taken 18 stories for its flagship European hotel. The tower will also have a naturally ventilated radiator at its tip and on the 72nd floor a public viewing gallery offering 360° views of London. The Shard will be a sharp and light presence on the London skyline welcoming more than 8 thousand workers, residents and hotel guests a day and more than 2 million public visitors a year.
The Shard Working up to the 74 th floor provided some unique challenges: Protection of people falling Protection of materials falling Weather Lifting materials Climbing screen adaptation and removal Emergency Rescue
London 2012 Athletes Village
London 2012 Athletes Village During the Games During the Games, the Athletes Village will comprise residential apartments for around 17,000 athletes and officials, along with shops, restaurants, medical, media and leisure facilities and large areas of open space. During the Games, the Village will include back of house operations, and services for athletes such as catering and transport. The majority of these will be accommodated in temporary structures on sites that can be cleared for development immediately after the Games. After the Games After the Games, the Athletes Village will be a lasting legacy of essential new housing for east London. It will be transformed into 2,800 new homes, including 1,379 affordable homes. The communities that develop in the area after the Games will be supported by new parks, open space, transport links, and community facilities including Chobham Academy – a world-class new education campus with 1,800 places for students aged 3-19.
London 2012 Athletes Village Given the location of the offices in relation to the plots and Infrastructure, the need for individuals to carry out DRAs if a change on-site happens is a must. However that DRA must be recorded and reviewed by the supervisor to ensure lessons learnt can be passed around the Village. Regular reviews of the DRA must take place to ensure control measures are current and effective.
Summary DRA has been widely adopted by forces and business. DRA gives greater flexibility for in-the-field decisions. Competence of the individual carrying out the assessment is key. Perception of risk is different for everyone. Exceptional circumstances can alter your perception 9/11 7/7. Training must be given to assess unique events, such as riots and terrorism. You must know what you have at your disposal for control measures. Review Review Review!!!
Competence is key Would you trust this man to carry out your DRA? Pencil video
Dynamic Risk Assessment
Further Reading Edmund Jacobs - An insight into the application of Dynamic Risk Assessment Metropolitan Police Freedom of information request – Dynamic Risk Assessment
Contact Information Chris Ellis Senior OHSE Manager Byrne Bros (Formwork) Ltd Hampton Road Teddington TW11 0JE