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Infective & Atrophic Rhinitis Dr. Vishal Sharma. Acute Infective Rhinitis SPECIFIC NON-SPECIFIC Acute diphtheritic Common cold Acute syphilitic Influenza.

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Presentation on theme: "Infective & Atrophic Rhinitis Dr. Vishal Sharma. Acute Infective Rhinitis SPECIFIC NON-SPECIFIC Acute diphtheritic Common cold Acute syphilitic Influenza."— Presentation transcript:

1 Infective & Atrophic Rhinitis Dr. Vishal Sharma

2 Acute Infective Rhinitis SPECIFIC NON-SPECIFIC Acute diphtheritic Common cold Acute syphilitic Influenza Erysipelas Exanthematous rhinitis

3 Common cold (coryza) Highly contagious, viral infectious disease of upper respiratory system. Caused by rhino- virus, coronavirus, human parainfluenza virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus. Transmission: Aerosol generated by coughing, sneezing Contact with saliva or nasal secretions

4 Symptoms: sore throat, runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, cough; pink eye, muscle aches, fatigue, malaise, headaches, muscle weakness, loss of appetite. Symptoms resolve after 1-2 week. Opportunistic super infections: acute bronchitis, croup, pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, sore throat.

5 Treatment Bed rest. Avoid exposure to cold weather. Plenty of fluids. Avoid cola & alcoholic drinks. Avoid tea & coffee (they cause dehydration) Antihistamines + nasal decongestants Non-aspirin analgesics Antibiotics for secondary infection Doubtful role: Vitamin C, Zinc, chicken soup, ginger, garlic, herbal tea, steam inhalation.

6 Chronic Infective Rhinitis SPECIFIC NON-SPECIFIC TubercularChronic simple Chronic diphtheritic Chronic hypertrophic Chronic syphiliticAtrophic rhinitis LeprosyRhinitis sicca RhinoscleromaRhinitis caseosa Rhinosporidiosis

7 Chronic simple rhinitisChronic hypertrophic rhinitis Early stage hypertrophy of glands in swollen turbinates Late stage hypertrophy + fibrosis Swollen turbinates pit on pressure No pitting Swollen turbinates shrink with topical decongestants Absent or minimal shrinking Tx: Antibiotics + Nasal decongestants Tx: Turbinate reduction or resection

8 Atrophic Rhinitis

9 History Dr. Spencer Watson, 1875: Used the term Ozaena Dr. Bernhard Fraenkel, 1876: Described triad of: 1. Fetor 2. Crusting 3. Atrophy of nasal structures

10 Chronic inflammation of nose with progressive atrophy of nasal mucosa & turbinate bones Formation of scanty viscid secretion & green crusts which emit a foul odour (ozaena) Removal of crusts reveals roomy nasal cavity Types: 1. Primary 2. Secondary Introduction

11 Primary Atrophic Rhinitis

12 Aetiology Developmental Hereditary Endocrine Racial Nutritional deficiency Infection Autoimmune Autonomic Imbalance Surfactant deficiency in nasal secretion

13 Developmental Congenitally spacious nasal cavity Poor pneumatization of maxillary antrum Hereditary: 30% cases autosomal inheritence 67% = Dominant, 33% = Recessive Endocrine: Seen during puberty, menopause, menstruation. Symptoms aggravated due to oestrogen deficiency.

14 Racial: More in American Negroes & Latin races (yellow race) Nutritional deficiency: Iron deficiency, Vitamin A deficiency, Vitamin D deficiency Infection: Klebsiella ozaenae (Perez & Abel bacillus), Coccobacillus foetides ozaena, Bacillus mucosus, Diphtheroids, Haemophilus influenzae

15 Autoimmune: viral infection / malnutrition / immune deficiency trigger destructive autoimmune process on nasal mucosa Autonomic Imbalance: Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome (R.S.D.S.) causes vasodilatation & hyperaemic decalcification of turbinates followed by vasoconstriction Surfactant deficiency in nasal secretion: ciliary dysfunction + stasis of nasal secretions

16 Secondary Atrophic Rhinitis Long-standing purulent sinusitis Iatrogenic: Radical turbinectomy, maxillectomy, post-radiotherapy Tuberculosis, Syphilis, Leprosy Rhinoscleroma Deviated nasal septum (atrophy in wider nasal cavity)

17 Symptoms Nasal obstruction Greenish-yellow nasal discharge Offensive smell (ozaena) due to anaerobic infection, experienced by relatives Merciful anosmia present in the patient Epistaxis on crust removal

18 Signs Roomy nasal cavity with atrophy of mucosa & turbinates Greenish-yellow nasal discharge with crust formation (begins posteriorly) Foul smell (foetor) Nasal septum perforation Nasal myiasis

19 Nasal crusting


21 Normal Turbinates & Meati

22 Turbinate atrophy & roomy nasal cavity

23 D/D for ozaenaD/D for dry nose1. Atrophic rhinitis 2. Purulent sinusitis2. Rhinitis sicca 3. Nasal foreign body3. Radiotherapy 4. Rhinitis caseosa4. Sjogrens syndrome 5. Malignancy

24 Causes of Anosmia 1. Loss of olfactory neural elements 2. Thick secretion & crusts over olfactory area 3. Degeneration of secretory glands scanty mucous for dissolving odoriferous materials Causes of nasal obstruction 1. Blunting of sensory nerve endings 2. Crust formation 3. Lack of eddy current formation in roomy cavity

25 Pathology: Accumulation of lymphocytes & plasma cells. Squamous metaplasia from ciliated columnar Ciliary destruction & decrease in nasal glands Bone resorption Type I: Endarteritis & periarteritis of terminal arterioles. Benefit from estrogen therapy Type II: Dilated capillaries worsened by estrogen

26 Biopsy Findings NormalAtrophic rhinitis

27 Specific Investigations Saccharine test: ed nasal muco-ciliary clearance time Serum iron & protein levels: malnutrition Culture & sensitivity of nasal discharge Diagnostic Nasal Endoscopy X-ray P.N.S.: maxillary sinusitis

28 C.T. scan P.N.S. Mucoperiosteal thickening Resorption of ethmoid bulla & uncinate process Hypoplasia of maxillary sinuses Roomy nasal cavities Erosion & bowing of lateral nasal wall Atrophy of turbinates

29 Specific Investigations Chest X-ray: T.B., bronchiectasis, lung abscess Serology for syphilis: V.D.R.L., T.P.H.A., T.P.I. Sputum for AFB, Mantoux test: T.B. Nasal smear study: Leprosy Complement fixation test & biopsy: Rhinoscleroma

30 Medical Treatment

31 Douching alkaline nasal douche Oestradiol nasal spray (1%) Glucose (25%) in glycerin nasal drops Streptomycin injection Placental extract injection Autogenous vaccines Rifampicin Kemicetine solution: Estrogen, Vit. D, Chloramphenicol Mandls nasal paint (Potassium Iodide & oestradiol) Potassium Iodide orally

32 Alkaline Nasal Douche Sodium bicarbonate (28.4g) loosens nasal crusts Sodium biborate (28.4g) Antiseptic Sodium chloride (56.7g) makes solution isotonic Mixed in 280 ml of warm water to make the solution. 20 ml plastic syringe with 6 long rubber tubing taken. Syringe nasal cavity while pt bends forward & keeps saying K, K, K … to close nasopharyngeal isthmus. Done B.D. till all crusts disappear.

33 Action of Placental extract Progesterone leads to hyperplasia of nasal mucosa & glandular secretion Oestrogen leads to vasodilatation Biogenic stimulator of metabolic & regenerative process Intra-placental serum boosts up immunity Mechanical narrowing of nasal passage

34 Surgical Treatment

35 Youngs operation: Only 1 nostril closed completely by raising 2 circumferential flaps (inner mucosal & outer cutaneous) in nasal vestibule & suturing them in midline. Modified Youngs operation done by similar way but keeping a 3 mm opening on both sides. Recannalisation done after month with a tri-radiate (Mercedes Benz) incision.

36 Pre-operative

37 Mucosal flaps sutured

38 Cutaneous flap sutured

39 Post-operative healed flaps

40 Modified Youngs operation

41 Tri-radiate incision

42 Modified Youngs (El Kholy)

43 Advantages of Modified Young Progress of disease can be monitored with 2.7 mm nasal endoscope Glucose in glycerine drops can be instilled Both nostrils can be operated at one sitting Nasal breathing preserved No complaints of de-nasal voice Better cosmetic result

44 Lautenslagers operation: Fracture & medial displacement of lateral nasal wall Wilsons operation: submucosal injection of Teflon paste Antral mucosal transplantation into nasal cavity through intranasal antrostomy: Raghav Sharan Vestibuloplasty: raising a lateral shelf from nasal vestibular flap to cover turbinates

45 Sympathectomy: Stellate ganglion block / cervical chain block Sublabial implantation: bone, cartilage, fat, placental bits, hydroxyapatite + fibrin paste, Plastipore, acrylic resin, silastic Parotid duct implantation into maxillary sinus: Wittmacks operation

46 Pre-operative

47 Lautenslagers operation

48 Submucosal Teflon paste

49 Sublabial Implants


51 Vestibuloplasty

52 Antral mucosa transplant

53 Types of surgery Nasal closure: Young Modified Young Volume reduction: Lautenslager Wilson Sublabial implants Vestibuloplasty Denervation: Cervical sympathectomy Stellate ganglion block Sphenopalatine ganglion block Salivary irrigation: Parotid duct implantation

54 Aim of Surgery Decrease trauma of air turbulence: Nasal closure Volume reduction Increase nasal secretions: Parotid duct implantation into maxillary sinus Increase vascularity of nasal mucosa: Denervation procedures Nasal implantation of maxillary sinus mucosa

55 Surgical Treatment Modified YoungYoung LautenslagerLady WilsonWas VestibuloplastyVery Sublabial implantationSweet Antral mucosal transplantationAnd Parotid duct implantationPretty

56 Nasal Obturator

57 Advantages Reversible & easily removed Allows for irrigations & serial clinical exams Avoids surgical morbidity Disadvantages Uncomfortable Sore throat due to obligate mouth breathing

58 Rhinitis Sicca Mild form of atrophic rhinitis Seen in hot, dry, dusty places (bakers, goldsmiths); alcoholics & anaemics Crusting present anteriorly only Bone atrophy & foetor are absent Tx: Nasal douching + change of surrounding

59 Rhinitis Caseosa Synonym: Nasal cholesteatoma Chronic inflammation with deposition of foul smelling cheesy material in nasal cavity. Nasal obstruction stasis of secretions & exfoliated cells putrefaction caseation Treatment: 1. Removal of cheesy debris 2. Correction of nasal obstruction

60 Thank You

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