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By Patricia Galien

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1 by Patricia Galien

2 Prepositions are always followed by a noun. This noun could be: a noun a gerund an object pronoun

3 The following compound prepositions are used for cause and effect: due to because of as a result of

4 The shuttle launch was delayed due to the weather. Due to Like all prepositions, due to is always followed by a noun (or a gerund or object pronoun). The cause always follows due to. cause effect preposition + noun to due

5 We cancelled the picnic because of bad weather. Because of The street flooded because of the heavy rain. Because of is always followed by a noun. The cause always follows because of. preposition + noun because of

6 several reasons. Note: Because of You cannot write because of with a plural object. He was late because ofseveral reasons. Do not use a plural noun with because of.

7 09/lib/ d1738fa2483.jpg There are many good reasons for collecting rainwater. Reasons for Reasons are usually intentional, planned or they can be controlled. Use the preposition for plus some form of a noun. In this case it is a gerund. preposition + gerund Saving water is one reason for collecting rainwater. One reason for the fire was a lack of rain. preposition + noun reasons for

8 As far as I can tell, causes of and causes for are interchangeable. Causes of / for It is important to study the causes of hearing loss. There are many possible causes for depression.

9 Result of (noun) Result in (verb) One result of not getting enough sleep is a lack of concentration. preposition + gerund preposition + noun The word result is sometimes a verb and sometimes a noun. When it is a noun, use the preposition of. When it is a verb, use the preposition in. Not getting enough sleep results in a lack of concentration. noun verb

10 Result of (noun) Result in (verb) One result of carbon dioxide pollution is global warming. preposition + noun The word result is sometimes a verb and sometimes a noun. When it is a noun, use the preposition of. When it is a verb, use the preposition in. Carbon dioxide pollution results in global warming. noun verb

11 Consequence of The consequences of drunk driving can be deadly. preposition + gerund The word result is sometimes a verb and sometimes a noun. When it is a noun, use the preposition of. When it is a verb, use the preposition in. The first consequence of cheating is that you will fail the assignment. consequence of

12 Effect of / Effect on Cancer is one effect of smoking. Effect a noun, but sometimes it is followed by of and sometimes on. When the cause is first, use effect on. When the effect is first, use effect of. Smoking has a negative effect on health. content/blogs.dir/2/files/2009/April/Thursday/stop_smoking_357_ jpg Effect + effect of + Cause Cause + effect on + Effect


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