Presentation on theme: "By Patricia Galien"— Presentation transcript:
by Patricia Galien http://pjgalien.wordpress.com/
Prepositions are always followed by a noun. This noun could be: a noun a gerund an object pronoun
The following compound prepositions are used for cause and effect: due to because of as a result of
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Space_Shuttle_Columbia_launching.jpg The shuttle launch was delayed due to the weather. Due to Like all prepositions, due to is always followed by a noun (or a gerund or object pronoun). The cause always follows due to. cause effect preposition + noun to due
http://www.dcameramag.com/wp-content/uploads/image/bad-weather.jpg We cancelled the picnic because of bad weather. Because of The street flooded because of the heavy rain. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cars_over_the_water.JPG Because of is always followed by a noun. The cause always follows because of. preposition + noun because of
several reasons. Note: Because of You cannot write because of with a plural object. He was late because ofseveral reasons. Do not use a plural noun with because of.
http://zoominlocal.com/pub-files/123643883749b28f3597161/pub/Home-Lawn-Garden-03-29- 09/lib/123846337549d1738fa2483.jpg There are many good reasons for collecting rainwater. Reasons for Reasons are usually intentional, planned or they can be controlled. Use the preposition for plus some form of a noun. In this case it is a gerund. preposition + gerund Saving water is one reason for collecting rainwater. One reason for the fire was a lack of rain. preposition + noun reasons for
As far as I can tell, causes of and causes for are interchangeable. Causes of / for It is important to study the causes of hearing loss. http://www.buzzle.com/img/articleImages/12813-25.jpg There are many possible causes for depression.
Result of (noun) Result in (verb) One result of not getting enough sleep is a lack of concentration. preposition + gerund preposition + noun The word result is sometimes a verb and sometimes a noun. When it is a noun, use the preposition of. When it is a verb, use the preposition in. Not getting enough sleep results in a lack of concentration. noun verb http://media.photobucket.com/image/lack%20of%20concentration/salviaforme/headnewkif98.jpg
Result of (noun) Result in (verb) One result of carbon dioxide pollution is global warming. preposition + noun The word result is sometimes a verb and sometimes a noun. When it is a noun, use the preposition of. When it is a verb, use the preposition in. Carbon dioxide pollution results in global warming. noun verb http://www.agreenergulfcoast.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/carbon-dioxide.jpg
Consequence of The consequences of drunk driving can be deadly. preposition + gerund The word result is sometimes a verb and sometimes a noun. When it is a noun, use the preposition of. When it is a verb, use the preposition in. The first consequence of cheating is that you will fail the assignment. http://www.freelegaladvicehelp.com/images/Consequences-Of-Drunk-Driving.jpg http://www.ericksonpress.com/img/covers/400/RFHL_cheating_resize.jpg consequence of
Effect of / Effect on Cancer is one effect of smoking. Effect a noun, but sometimes it is followed by of and sometimes on. When the cause is first, use effect on. When the effect is first, use effect of. Smoking has a negative effect on health. http://blogs.phillyburbs.com/news/bcct/wp- content/blogs.dir/2/files/2009/April/Thursday/stop_smoking_357_7847691.jpg Effect + effect of + Cause Cause + effect on + Effect