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University of Pembangunan Nasional Pokok Bahasan Perangkat Keras Komputer Perangkat Lunak Komputer Program Aplikasi Word processing Presentation Spreadsheets.

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Presentation on theme: "University of Pembangunan Nasional Pokok Bahasan Perangkat Keras Komputer Perangkat Lunak Komputer Program Aplikasi Word processing Presentation Spreadsheets."— Presentation transcript:

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2 University of Pembangunan Nasional

3 Pokok Bahasan Perangkat Keras Komputer Perangkat Lunak Komputer Program Aplikasi Word processing Presentation Spreadsheets Pengelolaan Data dan Informasi Jaringan Komputer Aplikasi jaringan: Internet, Intranet

4 Detail Pokok Bahasan 1. Teknologi Infomarasi Dasar Teknologi Informasi Konsep-Konsep Sejarah Komputer Komponen Dasar Sistem Komputer Bagaimana Sistem Komputer Bekerja 2. Fungsi Utama Perangkat Keras Komputer Konfigurasi dan Klasifikasi Komputer CPU (Central Processing Unit) Peralatan Input-Output dan Pendukung Penyimpan Skunder 3. Dasar penggunaan Aplikasi Perangkat Lunak dan OS OS (Operating System) dan Fungsinya Disk Operating System (DOS) Bahasa tingkat tinggi dan Tingkat Rendah Assembler, Compiler dan Interpreter WINDOWS dan Dasar MS Office 4. Keamanan Data Pentingnya Backup Krisis Virus Komputer 5. Komputer dan Jaringan Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) LAN Components, Topologies and Types Transmission Media

5 Tujuan : Menggambarkan tiga ciri-ciri dasar Komputer menjelaskan setidaknya empat bidang masyarakat di mana komputer digunakan Indentifikasi komponen-komponen dasar sistem komputer: input, processing, output, dan penyimpan Mendaftar beberapa input, output umum dan Media Penyimpan Membedakan data dari Informasi Menjelaskan petingnya Jaringan Menjelaskan Arti Internet Menjelaskan Jenis klasifikasi komputer

6 PENILAIAN: Quiz10% Tugas10% Assignment20% Final Exam60% Total = 100%

7 Introduction to Computers Computer hardware Input, Output & peripheral devices History of computers

8 Basic Components of a Computer System What is computer? An electronic device that can accept data (input), process the input to useful information (process) according to a set of instructions, store the instructions and the results of processing (storage), and produce the information (output).

9 Other definition:- A machine that can be programmed to accept data (input), process it into useful information (output), and store it away (in secondary storage device) for safekeeping or later reuse Process is directed by software but performed by the hardware Basic Components of a Computer System

10 Pengantar Komputer Berkembang lebih cepat dari Era Industri Akan berkembang terus sampai ke abad ini Jika kita mengorbankan sedikit kemewahan seperti pakaian makanan, dan tempat tinggal, kita dapat menghasilkan kebutuhan seperti sebuah komputer lebih cepat dan monitor yang lebih besar

11 Pilar Ekonomi Kita Tempa masyarakat berbasis komputer Land Labor Capital Information

12 Jobs Tempa masyarakat berbasis komputer From physical to mental From muscle-power to brain-power

13 Komputer di Masa Depan Anda Where used? Bank withdrawal Supermarket Drive the car Do I need a Personal Computer? Campaign: One Home, One PC Many more use at work Will I use a computer in my future career? Almost every job will involve use of a computer Video: Future of Information TechnologyFuture of Information Technology

14 Computer Literacy Awareness/Kesadaran Importance/Kepenringan Versatility/Multifungsi Pervasiveness in our society/Menjalar di masyarakat kita Knowledge What are computers How do computers work Terminology/Istilah Interaction Menggunkan beberapa aplikasi komputer sederhana

15 Computer Literacy Perlu melek komputer untuk memanipulasi komputer Membutuhkan komputer untuk memperlancar konsep komputer sebagai dasar membangun ilmu pengetahunan yang lebih dalam Lancar komputer membuat seseorang mampu secara terus menerus mengikuti perkembangan evolusi komputer

16 Konsep Dasar TI Tek. Informasi menggunakan tek. Modern untuk membantu menangkap, menyimpan, memanggil, menganalisis dan mengkomuni- kasikan informasi. Metode pengiriman informasi menggu- nakan data, text, gambar, dan suara untuk kebutuhan perseorangan atau organisasi.

17 Sejarah Komputer Manusia dari abat yang lalu menggunakan satuan fisik atau seperangkat satuan untuk menggambarkan angka atau jumlah. Sebuah angka atau jumlah dapat digam- barkan dengan sesuatu secara fisik, apakah itu: a pebble a transistor a bead of wirea mark on a bit of paper a mechanical gear wheel an electrical relay a vacuum tube

18 Sifat Komputer Characteristics Speed Reliability/Kehandalan Storage capability Results Productivity Decision making Cost reduction

19 Dimana Komputer Digunakan: Grafik: Graphs and charts Animated graphics Visual walk-through

20 Dimana Komputer Digunakan: Education : Teaching and testing aid Learning by doing Computer-based instruction

21 Dimana Komputer Digunakan: Retailing : Bar codes for pricing and inventory Shipping

22 Dimana Komputer Digunakan: Energy : Locate oil, coal, natural gas, and uranium Monitor the power network Meter reading

23 Dimana Komputer Digunakan: Law Enforcement : National fingerprint files National files on criminal Computer modeling of DNA

24 Dimana Komputer Digunakan: Transportation : Kendaraan Sistem transdit jalan cepat Beban Muatan Kapal Melacak lintasan kendaraan Monitor lalu lintas udara

25 Dimana Komputer Digunakan: Money : Record keeping/Pencatatan Perbankan via telepon Credit cards

26 Dimana Komputer Digunakan: Agriculture : Billing Crop information Kombinasi Pakan ternak Peternakan dan Kinerja

27 Dimana Komputer Digunakan: Government : Forecast weather E-government Process immigrants Taxes Registration: birth, identity, car etc.

28 Dimana Komputer Digunakan: The Home : Alat Pendidikan Pencatatan Menulis Surat Merencana Anggaran Membuat dan edit Gambar Surat Kabar Berhubungan dng yang lain

29 Dimana Komputer Digunakan: Health and Medicine : Monitor Pasien Pencitraan Elektronik Diagnose Penyakit Tele-Kesehatan

30 Dimana Komputer Digunakan: Robotics : Melakukan pekerjaan yg berbahaya bagi manusia Kerja pabrik

31 Dimana Komputer Digunakan: The Human Connection : Membantu Orang cacat Membantu atlet dengan memonitor gerakan mereka

32 Dimana Komputer Digunakan: The Sciences Research Simulation Connectivity Communication Telecommuting

33 Dimana Komputer Digunakan: The Sciences Research Simulation Connectivity Communication Telecommuting

34 Dimana Komputer Digunakan: Training Airline pilots Insinyur Jl. KA. Paperwork Junk mail Term paper Record keeping

35 Computers are all around! Grocery store Schools Libraries Bank Mail Malls We interact with computers everyday! We interact with computers everyday!

36 Apa yang komputer tidak dapat lakukan hingga kini? Complex human activities What else? Can you think of others?

37 Computer System People Software Hardware

38 People Computer programmer – person who writes programs Users or End-users – make use of the computers capabilities

39 Software Programs Set instruksi yang mengarahkan hardware untuk melakukan tugas yang diperlukan dan menghasilkan hasil yang diinginkan

40 Hardware: Basic Components of a Computer

41 Computer Components 1. Input Devices - examples: keyboard and the mouse - data entered on the keyboard and temporarily stored in the computers memory and displayed on the monitor 2. System Unit - contains the electronic circuits that cause the processing of data to occur - consists of central processing unit, memory, (RAM and ROM) and other electronic components - CPU has a control unit and arithmetic/logic unit - RAM temporarily stores data and program instructions when they are processed

42 4. Output Devices - most commonly used output devices are monitor and printer -Monitor :commonly as CRT or Flat Panel Display -Printer: Dot-Matrix, Ink-Jet etc. 5. Secondary Storage Devices - also known as auxiliary storage devices - stores instructions and data when they are not being used by the system unit - Examples : floppy disk and hard disk drive Computer Components – cont.

43 Input Process Output Data Information Storage How a Computer System Works

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45 How a Computer System Works – cont. Software - The instructions needed to direct the computer to complete specific tasks. The CPU follows the step-by-step instructions in a program to complete the tasks from user. Operating system is the system software that controls the basic, low-level hardware operations and file management.

46 Microcomputers - Also known as personal computers -Physical sizes : palmtop, desktop and tower case - Cheaper/murah and smaller in size Minicomputer - Also known as departmental computers - Physical sizes : small to large cabinets - Support business application Computer Configuration and Classification

47 Mainframe -Large computers with the capability to process data at millions of instructions per second. -Physical size : partial to full room of equipment Supercomputer -Most powerful and expensive computers -Vast quantities of data manipulation -Physical size : full room of equipment - No. of users : hundreds of users Computer Configuration and Classification – cont.

48 Central Processing Unit (CPU) -It is the heart of the computer, that is the microprocessor chip. -A highly complex, extensive set of electronic circuitry that executes stored program instructions. - CPU perform three main tasks :- Perform arithmetic operations Perform logic operations Retrieval and storage of data

49 - CPU consists of two main units :- 1. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) - arithmetic operations e.g. +, -, x, / - logic operations e.g. >, >=, ==, <, <= CPU – cont. 2. Control unit - fetches instructions from memory - decode/translate instructions - executes the processing tasks - stores result in memory

50 CPU – cont. - CU fetches instructions from memory - CU decodes/translates instructions, directs necessary data to ALU - ALU executes arithmetic/logic instruction -ALU stores results into memory What happens in a CPU?

51 Memory - also known as primary storage, primary memory, main storage, internal storage, and main memory -Consists of RAM and ROM 1. RAM (Random Access Memory) - volatile; means the data exists only when power is ON - two types of RAM, dynamic and static 2. ROM (Read Only Memory) - non-volatile; means data permanently stored in and cannot be changed CPU – cont.

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54 Function of Computer System Data handling I Input P Process O Output S Storage

55 Processing: Batch vs. Interactive 2 types of information processing Batch processing Interactive processing : Real time

56 Input devices Accept data or commands and convert them to electronic form Getting data into the computer Typing on a keyboard Pointing with a mouse Scanning with a wand reader or bar-code reader Terminal

57 Output devices Monitor or screen Text Numbers Symbols Art Photographs Video Convert from electronic form to some other form May display the processed results Usable information Printer Black and white Color

58 Input and Output Devices 1.Input devices - Common type of devices used are the keyboard and the mouse - Standard type of keyboard is the QWERTY which has 86 keys (basic) and keys (enhanced). - Mouse is a pointing device for effective use of computer interface. Trackball and touch pad are also considered as pointing devices.

59 Input and Output Devices – cont. Digitizer - A pad with a pen-like stylus. - The tablet sends electronic signals to the computer, displaying the image drawn.

60 Input and Output Devices – cont. the use of special equipment to collect data at the source and send it directly to the computer. Source data automation MICR Images OCR Bar code Hand Written

61 Input and Output Devices – cont. 2. Output devices - most common devices are monitor displays and printers - Two types of display; flat panel display and CRT display (Cathode Ray Tube) - Two categories of printers; impact and non- impact printers

62 Displays 1. Flat Panel - commonly used in laptop, notebook - examples of flat panel; LCD, Gas Plasma 2. CRT - produce best images for computers - two types of display; monochrome and color - monochrome; displays one color (green or amber) - color; four types: Input and Output Devices – cont.

63 Standard Graphic Add-on-Boards Resolution (by pixels) CGA (Color Graphic Adapter)640 x 200 EGA (Enhanced Graphic Adapter)640 x 350 VGA (Video Graphic Array)640 x 480 SVGA (Super Video Graphic Array)1024 x 768 Input and Output Devices – cont.

64 Two types of printers (according to printing methods) Impact printers - use a physical contact with the paper to produce an image -e.g. dot matrix printer and line printer Non-impact printers - Place images on a paper without physically touching it -e.g. thermal, inkjet, laser printer Input and Output Devices – cont. Printers

65 The Processor Central Processing Unit (CPU) Converts data to useful information Interpret and execute instructions Communicate with input, output and storage Two Types of Storage Secondary storage long-term storage Primary storage or memory temporary storage

66 Memory / Primary Storage Temporary storage Holds input to be processed Holds results of processing Contains the programs to control the computer and manipulate input into output Volatile

67 Secondary Storage Long-term storage Non-volatile

68 Secondary Storage Examples Magnetic disks – read and written by magnetic disk drive Hard disk Diskette Optical disks – read and written by optical disk drives CD-ROM DVD-ROM Magnetic tape – read and written by magnetic tape drives Primarily used for back-up

69 Magnetic Disk

70 Secondary Storage It is needed because Main memory stores data temporarily Main memory space is limited Benefits of secondary storage Space Reliability Convenience Economic

71 Computer System Computer CPU Memory Peripheral equipment Connected to the computer by a cable Input, output, storage

72 Computer Network Definition A system that uses communications equipment to connect computers and their resources. Types Local area network (LAN) – connects computers in close proximity Metropolitan are network (MAN) – connect computers between buildings in the same geographic area Wide are network (WAN) – connects computers over great distances

73 Home Connectivity Connect home PC to other computers Use modem to convert signals between electronic (computer) and analog (voice) formats

74 Internet Collection of networks No ownership No central source for services available No comprehensive index of what information is available Individuals Businesses Organizations Libraries Research labs Government Connects Everyone!

75 Getting Connected Users computer must connect to a server Server must communicate using TCP/IP The user can purchase access to a server from an ISP (Internet Service Provider)

76 Internet – What Can You Do? WWW – World Wide Web FTP – File Transfer Protocol UseNet IRC – Internet Relay Chat Bulletin Boards

77 World Wide Web Browser – program that allows the user to move around and explore the Internet Use the mouse to point and click on text and graphics Web page Web site Home page

78 Classifications of Computers Use the computer that fits your needs Based upon Size Speed Cost Portability Number of simultaneous users supported Available software Typical use

79 Personal Computers Other names PC Microcomputer Home computer Categories Low-end functional Fully powered Workstations Net computer or net box (Web TV) Desktop Models

80 Notebook Computers Portable Lightweight Fits in a briefcase Battery operated Laptop Larger Heavier More expensive that desktop models

81 Handheld Computers Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Scheduling Addresses Handwritten input May offer wireless and fax PDA Phone More power than PDA Cellphone, GPS, MP3/MP4, Camera, Video, TV, Radio etc. Runs various type softwares, serving various applications

82 Other Types of Computers Mainframes High speed More expensive Used to process large amounts of data quickly Support multiple users Does server tasks Supercomputers Fastest speed Most expensive

83 What is a software? - The instructions needed to direct the computer to complete specific tasks. - Software can be categorized into two types :- Operating System and Its Function

84 Application Software - program that tells a computer how to produce information -examples of application software : Business, scientific, educational programs and etc. System Software - program controlling the actual operations of the computer equipments - the operating system tells computer how to perform functions such as load, store, execute application program, transfer data between I/O devices and main memory Operating System and Its Function – cont.

85 Definition of OS :- A set of programs that control and supervise a computer systems hardware Purposes of OS :- To manage the hardware for efficient utilization of computer resources To interface between a user/an application program with the hardware Operating System and Its Function – cont.

86 OS is made up of 2 programs; Control Program Service Program

87 1.Control program - three main functions Operating System and Its Function–cont. Resource allocationallocate processor time, primary storage, input and output devices Job managementto monitor, schedule and control programs for its efficient processing Data management- managing access to data for input of information to printers, disks/displays - all hardware components activities are controlled by the supervisor program

88 2. Service programs - provides services to the user/programmer - services include language-translator programs and utility programs - language-translator program converts instructions from english-like language to machine-language to be executed by the computer - utility program performs loading, saving, copying, keeping track of files stored on a disk, preparing a formatted disk Operating System and Its Function–cont.

89 Language Translator Utility Program Other Services Data Mgmt. Job Mgmt. Resource Allocation Supervisor

90 What an Operating System does? 1.Checks the functionality of the computers hardware. It generates an error message (by messages or beeps) if any components are found faulty. 2.Then the OS control programs will load the supervisor program into the computers memory – booting 3.Once the supervisor control program in memory, the system displays the prompt sign (C:\>), indicating that it is ready to work

91 MS-DOS DOS is the supervisor program of the computer It does all the followings Interface to peripherals – How to interpret input, how to process data, and how to produce output Application launcher – Most programming software, games etc. use DOS prompt to run application Utility provider – Manage disks and files, prepare disks for storage, copy files to a disk, to move or rename files, and to delete files

92 MS-DOS – cont. Using DOS prompt to get command from user Examples for DOS operation DOS version/prompt type Modify date/time File and directory contents Clearing a DOS screen Going to subdirectory and back to root directory Searching for specific files Copy files from A drive / C drive

93 TYPES OF OS Microsoft Windows (98, 2000, XP, Vista) Mac OS (X) Linux OS (Hundreds of even thousands of distros ex: Red Hat, Ubuntu, Mandrake etc. Visit for listing of Linux OS) Unix OS etc.

94 TYPES OF BROWSERS Mozilla Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari Konqueror Flock Firefox is gaining Popularity over IE Flock

95 Low and High Level Languages Programming Language - a set of written symbols that instruct the computer hardware to perform certain tasks - can be categorized as Low level Language and High Level Language Low Level Language -Language that has the tendency towards specific, delicate machine syntax -Machine Language and Assembly Language

96 Low and High Level Languages – cont. - consists of entirely 1s and 0s that only the computer understands - depends on different, specific hardware designs - it executes very fast, but is time consuming and difficult to understand - only programmer who has the knowledge of the computer architecture is able to understand the language Machine Language

97 -also considered as Low Level Language because it still needs specific knowledge of hardware -it differs from machine language because of it uses mnemonic in spite of 1s and 0s to represent the operation codes -mnemonic code is an alphabetic abbreviation that is easy to remember -it produce programs very efficient, less storage usage and the execution is much faster Assembly Language Low and High Level Languages – cont.

98 - instructions resemble human language and mathematical notation - no detail knowledge of computer hardware and internal operation of a computer - easier to learn because of the English-like language rather than understanding machine codes and instructions - E.g. FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, C/C++ Low and High Level Languages – cont. High Level Language

99 Assembler, Compiler and Interpreter Assembler Compiler/Interpreter (Source code) (Object code)

100 - the source code will remain unchanged after the conversion but can be updated and changed, then compiled again - after it is compiled, then the object code can be executed -example of HLL program uses compiler is the C and C++ - the interpreter will translate a program one line at a time, executing each line of the program after it is translated - if an error should occur during execution, the error must be rectified or solved before it can proceed to the next line - example of HLL program uses interpreter is the BASIC Assembler, Compiler and Interpreter – cont. Compiler Interpreter

101 Importance of Backup – cont. Data is exposed to several threats.

102 Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) How does UPS works? - it is connected in series with the computer system - when power is interrupted, this result the UPS to function as a backup supply of power to the computer system -depends on the type of UPS, it will operate in 20 minutes or more -it is advisable to backup important data within the time limit to prevent any lost of data Importance of Backup – cont.

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104 Components of UPS - one rectifier (charger) to convert AC to DC and to fully charge the battery - one battery to supply DC power to the inverter and the supported time are based on the number and size of batteries - one inverter to convert DC to AC - one static bypass switch to control the load from/to the power source to/from the battery and allows certain load to transfer tolerances needed by the computer and its peripherals Importance of Backup – cont.

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106 The Computer Virus Crisis The elements of a computer virus : 1. A set of instructions- a program being made to disrupt or interfere other programs 2. Deliberately created- purposely created by humans or by itself 3. Actively propagates- reproducing itself 4. Infects other programs- contaminate or polluting different types of programs 5. Able to do harm- can cause damage to others 6. Able to evolve- developing, growing and changing in programs or systems

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108 The Computer Virus Crisis – cont. What are the damages of the virus to a computer system : 1. Creates garbage in your computer system that takes up space in the memory and into your diskettes 2. Messing up files in their normal standard and altering some of the files 3. Messing up the FAT (File Allocation Table) which contains information of where are the other data's stored on your disk 4. Messing up the boot sector that can restrict your computer from being able to execute at all

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110 The Computer Virus Crisis– cont. Types of anti-virus software The Computer Virus Industry Association (CVIA) in the USA has developed three basic categories of anti-virus software. To prevent initial infection To detect infection To identify and remove viruses

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112 COMPUTER NETWORKING Network : Computers connected together to communicate among themselves. Resource Sharing File Sharing Communication PCs Administration and Security

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114 - Computer network technology can be classified by the distance the network technology is designed to span - There are three types of networking : Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.

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116 Local Area Network (LAN) - Relatively small refers to the transmission media and computer hardware - The area is not exceeding 10 KM - It only uses one type of transmission medium - It share resources within building or campus COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.

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118 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) - The network is larger compared to LAN - The area covers a city of 10 to 100KM - It requires efficient hardware and transmission media to cover these areas COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.

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120 Wide Area Network (WAN) - The network is larger than MAN and LAN - It interconnect LAN of opposite sides of country or around the world - It covers huge geographical area in the world COMPUTER NETWORKING –cont.

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122 Local Area Network RouterMultiplexer Modem Front end Processor Host Computer

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124 LAN COMPONENTS Every LAN is made up of a standard set of components:

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126 Topology: The physical connection among computers within a network - the topology is the configuration of the hardware and shows which pairs of nodes can communicate -there are three common types of topologies :- LAN TOPOLOGIES Star topology Ring topology Bus topology

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128 Star Ring Bus

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130 LAN PROTOCOLS Protocol : A set of rules to access the network to send data. Two common LAN protocols

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132 TRANSMISSION MEDIA Transmission Media : The physical medium used for transmission. Types of TM Coaxial Cable Twisted Pair Cable Fiber Optic Cable Satellite Transmission Microwave Transmission

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134 TRANSMISSION MEDIA - Twisted Pair Cable Colour-coded insulation Jacket Copper wire conductor

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136 Inner conductor Insulation Outer plastic covering TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Coaxial Cable

137 TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Fiber Optic Cable Optical fiber Protective outer sheath Glass covering Strength wires

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139 TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Microwave

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141 TRANSMISSION MEDIA – Satellite

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143 ANY QUESTIONS OR ADDITIONS?


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