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Introduction to Astronautics Sissejuhatus kosmonautikasse Vladislav Pustõnski 2009 – 2012 Tallinn University of Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Astronautics Sissejuhatus kosmonautikasse Vladislav Pustõnski 2009 – 2012 Tallinn University of Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Astronautics Sissejuhatus kosmonautikasse Vladislav Pustõnski 2009 – 2012 Tallinn University of Technology

2 2 Main goals of Astronautics and ways to space Role of Astronautics in the modern life No Astronautics means: 1.Back to global cable relay, decrease of speed and deterioration of quality of TV broadcast, Internet etc. 2.No global navigation and positioning (no GPS etc.) 3.Degradation of weather forecast and mapping 4.Limited research of the upper atmosphere, solar activity etc. 5.Deterioration of military reconnaissance, no precise guidance of missiles etc. 6.Degradation of space science: no space telescopes, no in situ research throughout the Solar System, particles and fields, no precise physical experiments, no biological experiments in space 7.No manned spaceflights: no International Space Station, no Moon nor planetary missions

3 3 Main types of spacecraft 1.Satellites for practical applications: I.Radio relay (TV broadcast, Internet etc.) II.Global navigation and positioning (GPS etc.) III.Earth observations (weather forecast, mapping, global and local changes) IV.Applied science (research of the upper atmosphere, solar activity, radiation etc.) V.Military (reconnaissance, positioning, guidance of missiles etc.) 2.Astronomy, physical and other sciences: I.Space telescopes (optical, IR, UV,, X-ray etc.) II.Solar System missions (Moon and planetary missions, missions to comets, asteroids etc.) III.Research of particles and fields, spacecraft for verification of physical theories IV.Biological experiments 3.Manned space flights: I.Experiments in space and servicing of unmanned spacecraft II.The Space Station, long-term living in space III.Manned missions to the Moon and the planets

4 4 Example satellites and spacecraft Navstar GPS satellite GOES-8 weather satellite Sputnik-3 USSR research satellite Hubble space telescope Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn Apollo-16 Lunar Module and LRV Mir Space Station Telstar communication satellite

5 5 1.Possible with current technology: I.Space gun II.Electromagnetic catapult III.Space plane IV.Ramjet/scramjet 2.Need for advanced technology or new materials with still unavailable properties: I.Space tower II.Space elevators (mostly constructions based on tethers) III.Momentum exchange tethers (rotovators) IV.Laser propulsion Alternative ways to space Tasks: use cheaper alternative methods to reach space (mostly Low Earth Orbit)

6 6 I.Old and new II.Small and large III. From ground, water & air IV. Reliable, but sometimes fail Rocket as launch vehicle Fact: rocket propulsion is currently the only way to space

7 7 End of Lecture 1

8 8 1.Passive satellites: I.Echo 1A: August 12, 1960, ~30 m inflated reflecting sphere. First communication satellite 2.Active satellites: I.Telstar 1/2: July 10, 1962, ~1 m sphere, ~80 kg. First active communication satellite (also first privately sponsored satellite). Elliptical orbit, P~2.5 h, availability ~20 min/orbit II.Syncom 2: July 26, 1963, first operational geosynchronous satellite (height of orbit ~ 36 000 km, P = 24 h, i ~ 33º) III.Syncom 3: August 19, 1964, first geostationary satellite (height of orbit ~ 36 000 km, P = 24 h, i ~ 0º) IV.Molniya-1: April 23, 1965. First soviet communication satellite. Highly elliptical orbit, apogee ~ 40 000 km, P ~ 12 h, i ~ 63º, availability ~ 10 hours/2 orbits Communication satellites Tasks: telephony, TV, radio, Internet, fixed services, other communication issues (i.e. communication with ISS etc.)

9 9 1.Early era: I.Transit 1B: April 13, 1960. System entered service in 1964. Polar orbits, accuracy ~200 m II.Kosmos-1000: March 31, 1978. Russian Tsykada navigation system 2.Modern systems: I.GPS: 24 satellites in 6 orbital planes (plus reserve). 1978, first experimental satellite (Block-I) II.GLONASS: 24 satellites in 3 orbital planes. 1982, first operational satellite. 1995 – 24 satellites, now again 24. III.Galileo: 30 satellites in 3 orbital planes. 2005, first esperimental satellite (GIOVE-A) Navigation satellites Tasks: navigation, positioning, time transfer, mapping, geographical & geophysical sciences, search, tracking and rescue, location-based media

10 10 1.Early era: I.TIROS I: April 1, 1960. First successful weather satellite II.Kosmos-122: 1966. The first USSR dedicated weather satellite 2.Later and present systems: I.USA: GOES II.Europe: Meteosat III.USSR/Russia: Meteor, Meteor-M IV.China: Fengyun V.Japan: MTSAT-1R Weather satellites Tasks: weather forecast, climate changes, pollution, prediction of catastrophic events (storms, typhoons etc.), long-term & short-term changes (ocean level, deserts areas, volcanoes, vegetation, snow etc.) Weather satellites are mostly on geostationary or polar orbits

11 11 1.Early era: I.Sputnik-2: November 3, 1957. The first animal in space II.Explorer 1: February 1, 1958. Research of space in different heights, van Allen belts discovered. First USA satellite 2.Later noticible missions: Explorer series, Orbital Geophysical Observatory (OGO) satellites (USA), Proton satellites (USSR heavy satellites launched by 2-stage version of Proton rocket) 3.Todays outstanding missions I.Gravity Probe B: Space experiment for verification of the general theory of relativity (2004 – 2005, data is still being analyzed) II.Planck satellite: ESA space experiment to study anisotropies of cosmic microwave background (2009). Research satellites Tasks: research of atmosphere, the Sun, particles, fields, verification of physical theories, biological experiments and many more

12 12 1.Early era: I.OAO: 3 satellites 1968 – 81, prominent UV and X-ray space observatories II.Uhuru: 1970-73, famous X-ray observatory 2.Great Observatories: I.Hubble Space Telescope (HST): launched 1990. Optical, UV, near IR. Still in service II.Compton -Ray Observatory: 1991 – 2000 III.Chandra X-Ray Observatory: 1999 – IV.Spitzer Space Telescope: 2003 –, IR-telescope 3.Recent & future missions: I.Kepler mission: 2009. Exoplanets search through detection of stellar transits II.Hershel Space Observatory: 2009, ESA mission, IR & sub-mm III.James Webb Space Telescope: 2018 (?). IR telescope in the L2 point Space telescopes Tasks: observations of fields and particles free of influence of the Earths atmosphere

13 13 1.Early era: I.Luna-1: January 2, 1959, the first solar satellite (gained the escape velocity) II.Luna-2: September 12, 1959, first reached the Moon (Sep. 14) III.Luna-3: October 4, 1959, first photographed the far side of the Moon IV.Mariner 4: First Mars fly-by, first close photos of Mars (Jul. 1965) V.Venera-3: First reached the planet (Mar. 1965) VI.Luna-9: First lunar soft landing Feb. 6, 1966, first Moon panoramas VII.Luna-17: First automatic rover Lunokhod, 1970 – 71 VIII.Pioneer 10/11: First Jupiter & Saturn fly-byes (1973, 1979), close-up images 2.Later outstanding missions: I.Voyager 1/2: great planets fly-byes (Uranus 1986, Neptune 1989) II.Viking 1/2: First Mars landers & orbiters, 1975 – 80 III.Magellan: Venus high-resolution mapping, 1990 – 94 IV.Galileo: Jupiter orbiter & atmospheric probe, 1995 – 2003 V.Mars Exploration Rovers: Twin martian rovers mission, 2004 – VI.Cassini/Huygens: Saturn orbiter & Titan probe, 2004 – Solar System missions Tasks: probes to the Moon, the planets, their satellites, comets, asteroids

14 14 1.Early era: I.Vostok-1: April 12, 1961, first human to space, Yu.Gagarin II.Voskhod: October 12, 1964, first spacecraft for more than one men III.Voskhod-2: March 18, 1965, first spacewalk (A.Leonov) IV.Gemini VIII: March 1966, first docking V.Soyuz-1: April 1967, first disaster and casualty (at landing), V.Komarov VI.Salyut: 1971, first space station 2.New age: I.Space Shuttle: 1981 – 2011, first reusable space winged vehicle II.Mir: 1986 – 2001, first modular consistently inhabited space station III.International Space Station (ISS): 1998 – Manned orbital spacecraft Tasks: provide flights of human beings to Low Earth Orbit, their long-term stay and work

15 15 1.Moon race, 1961- mid 1970s: I.May 25, 1961, Kennedy speech that started the Moon race II.Apollo 8: December, 1968, first human beings on the lunar orbit III.Apollo 11: July, 21, 1969, first lunar walk (N.Armstrong) IV.Apollo 13: April 1970, serious failure in the deep space, emergency return without landing V.Apollo 15: 1971, first car on the Moon VI.mid 1960s – mid. 1970s, USSR program (failed) 2.Future plans: I.ISS: till 2020 II.Next generation expendable manned spacecraft and heavy launch vehicles, possible return to the Moon or visits to asteroids (uncertain) III.Beyond 2030: Mars exploration with manned vehicles Manned Moon and planetary missions Tasks: flights of human beings to the Moon and the planets

16 Syncom 3 geostationary communication satellite Geostatinonary orbit and Molniya orbit Syncom 3 first geostationary satellite

17 Molniya communication satellite Molniya orbit

18 TIROS I weather satellite First TV picture from space TIROS I launch

19 Sputnik-2 satellite Layka inside sealed container Model of Sputnik-2

20 Luna-3 Moon probe One of the first photos of the far side of the Moon Luna-3

21 Mars Exploration Rovers Martian panorama; landing platform MER, artistic concept

22 Vostok manned spaceship Gagarins reentry capsule Schematic representation of Vostok spaceship and its launch vehicle

23 Space Shuttle Space Shuttle landing after the first orbital flight Space Shuttle Columbia inauguration launch

24 Apollo program Apollo CSM on the lunar orbitApollo 11 Lunar Module on the Moon (Buzz Oldrin is in front)

25 Soviet lunar program Moon fly-by spaceships ZondN1 rocket launch

26 Space gun HARP gun shot Columbiad of Jules Vern Advantages: Launch is very cheap Problems: High acceleration Atmospheric drag Need for upper stage Historical background: HARP 16 inch gun, barrel 40 m, projectile 180 kg, velocity 3,6 km/s, altitude 180 km Project Babylon Gerald Bull supergun project for Iraq, parameters uncertain

27 Electromagnetic catapult (mass driver) Electromagnetic catapult for launch from the Moon (artists conception) Advantages: Launch is very cheap Enables moderate acceletations May be useful on small planets to propel small objects Problems: Even high accelerations on the Earth Atmospheric drag Massive bearing structure Historical background: Mass Driver 1 Prototype built by students in MIT, 1976 – 77

28 Space plane Mock-up of Dyna-SoarX-33 artists concept Advantages: No oxidizer onboard needed Aerodynamic forces available Lower thrust is sufficient for start Problems: Extra weight of wings High aerodynamic drag Complexity of engines Harsh flight environment Historical background: X-20 Dyna-Soar Rocket-launched space plane. Weight ~5 tons 1957 – 63 HOTOL British government call, several tons to orbit, 1986 – 88 VentureStar/X-33 (prototype) NASA call, Lockheed Martin project. Mass ~130 tons. Cancelled 2001

29 Ramjet/scramjet Scramjet engine X-43A attached to Pegasus Advantages: No oxidizer onboard needed Problems: Nonoperational at low velocities Orbital velocity inachievable Low trust-weight ratio High cost Historical background: X-30 DARP call. McDonnel Douglas, Rocketdyne etc. project, mid 1980 – 93 HyShot University of Queensland, Australia, 2002. First scramjet tests, rocket-launched engine X-43 X-43A scramjet launched by Pegasus rocket, 2004. Glider 3,7 m long, ~1400 kg. 3,4 km/s achieved

30 Exotic launch systems (proposals) Space elevator Rotovator Laser propulsion, artists concept

31 Old rockets and new rockets Launch of Delta IV HeavySoviet R-7 ICBM

32 32 Arian 5 launch

33 Small rockets and large rockets Saturn V, Energia, R-7, Vanguard

34 Ground, water & air launches Proton-K ground launch Baikonur Zenit-3SL sea launch Odyssey Launch Platform, Pacific Pegasus before its air launch aboard Lockheed L-1011 plane

35 35 Delta II failure

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