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Session 1 World Bank Institute

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1 Session 1 World Bank Institute
What is Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning? Basic Concepts and Terminology Session 1 World Bank Institute Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning

2 Urban Vulnerability Factors
Large concentration of people, physical and financial assets Continuous inflow of people attracted by socio-economic opportunities for jobs and income generation Large number of urban poor in unsafe living conditions Located in coastal areas exposed to hydro-meteorological hazards and in geologically active zones Differential vulnerability due to differences in economic base, political institutions and management capacity Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning 2

3 Urbanization and Disasters
Recorded disaster events and world urban population (1950–2006) Data Sources: EM-DAT, CRED database, United Nations, 2005 Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning 3

4 Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning
High and Low Probability Events Small Shocks Large Shocks Exposure to risk Individuals and small groups Communities, city regions, cities, global Systems at risk Individual health and livelihoods, subcomponents of critical infrastructure, local economic or ecological systems Social stability, critical infrastructure, urban economies, ecosystem Frequency of hazard event High (everyday) Low (episodic) Associated loss High aggregate loss Large loss from individual event Type of hazard Localized hazard events such as flooding or small fire outbreaks or irresponsible driving Widespread hazard events such as severe earthquakes or major release of toxic chemicals Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning

5 Urbanization and Disaster Risk
Unregulated Development Settlements in hazard-prone areas Unsafe, sub-standard building and infrastructure construction Lack of open spaces Unplanned urban growth Lack of or inadequate planning and poor plan implementation Inadequate Governance Ineffective enforcement mechanisms Environmental Mismanagement Unsustainable land use practices Social Destitution Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning

6 Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning
Proliferation of Urban Slums Nearly 1 billion people live in urban slums, and predicted to grow to 2 billion by 2030 Inadequate and insecure living conditions that generate hazards Home to many people with few resources and thus, high vulnerability Have fewer assets, supporting institutions, and opportunities Result of poverty, limited access to affordable land, lack of political will, bad policy and inadequate planning Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning 6

7 Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning
New Risk: Climate Change Rising global temperatures, changes in weather patterns and sea levels Increased number of extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones, flooding and heat waves Migration from rural to urban areas Cities contribute to global warming through carbon emissions Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning

8 Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning
Land Use: Creates and Solves Problems Human activity changes the land natural state Land use affects physical, social and economic development of the community Socio-economic conditions of the community influence land use Land use decisions change the communities’ vulnerability and disaster risk Reduces or mitigates existing risk Can create new vulnerabilities Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning 8

9 Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning
Involves management of natural as well as built environment Proactive and on-going exercise to regulate use and development of land Minimizes damage to physical and institutional assets, environmental capital, and human life Primarily a government function pursued at the local rather than national level Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning

10 Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning
Land Use Planning and Risk Reduction Effective tool for incorporating disaster risk reduction into urban development processes Risk reduction-driven land use planning is able to: Promote sustainable urban growth with no new risks Identify and mitigate risks embedded in existing land use Modify and reduce vulnerabilities of people and places Reduce human losses and increase ability to recover Reduce the economic, social and environmental costs of disasters Pursued at local level (ideal level), which allows to: Address environmental issues in detail Regulate land use patterns at individual parcel level Enforce safe construction practices at project level Coordinate community-based early warning systems and provide support Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning

11 Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning
Land Use Planning and Disaster Phases Pre-disaster period: reduce vulnerability and increase resilience by undertaking mitigation and preparedness Disaster period: facilitate emergency response and relief operations Post-disaster period: reconstruct in a more sustainable manner, and link response and reconstruction to pre-disaster development goals Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning

12 Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning
Land Use Planning: Institutional Aspects 1 Institutional arrangements for land use planning: Take the form of optional or a mandatory function Involve a single institution or multiple organizations with related functions Permit multi-stakeholder participation by involving various levels of government, private sector, non-governmental bodies, and community organizations Delegate land use planning powers to local government units Expand the scope of land use planning to include aspects of disaster risk management Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning

13 Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning
Land Use Planning: Institutional Aspects 2 Role of central and state governments in influencing local land use and development takes the form of: Direct intervention Land use regulation Investment in land or infrastructure Indirect intervention Planning mandates Regulatory mandates Incentives and information overlays Financial assistance Technical assistance, education and training, information Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning

14 Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning
Land Use Planning: Legal Aspects Based on the level of decentralization, local governments are empowered to exercise Planning power To gain community agreement on a land use plan Educate, persuade, coordinate, encourage participation and consensus, Regulatory power To direct and manage community development Zoning, subdivision regulations, building codes, design standards, urban growth boundaries, wetland and floodplain regulations Spending power To control public expenditures Capital improvement programs and budgets Taxing power To support community programs Special taxing districts, open-space uses Acquisition power To gain public control over lands Eminent domain, purchase development rights, conservation easements Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning

15 Land Use Management Approaches
Design based / Structural (Ensure safe construction) Location based (Limit development in hazardous areas) Regulatory Non-regulatory Regulatory Building codes Retrofit standards Hazard resistance standards Standalone Ordinances Public information Training programs Low cost loans & subsidies Investment to induce development in non-hazardous areas Zoning & microzoning Subdivision regulations Buyouts Eminent domain Taxation Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning 15

16 Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning
Land Use Planning Approaches Land Use Planning (Scale/level of intervention) Systemic / Strategic Site-specific Considers the planning area as a system Links environmental management and development processes Individual project level Localized in spatial coverage Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning 16

17 Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning
Types of Plan Comprehensive Plan Land classification Land use design Verbal policy Land use management Separate, stand-alone disaster risk reduction plan General policy vs. specific actions Specific location vs. community-wide Special hazards vs. all hazards Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning

18 Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning
Barriers to Risk-sensitive Land Use Planning Low public interest in natural hazards Pressure for local economic development Lack of political will Difficulty of operating programs in an intergovernmental setting Deficiencies in management capacity Lack of budgetary allocations for proactive measures Emphasis on relief and reconstruction activities Weak link between existing laws governing DRR and LUP functions Gap between scientific and technological advancements and policies Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning 18


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