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Potential Hazards n performers need to be aware of potential hazards, both to yourself and to others n the environment in which you are playing could potentially.

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Presentation on theme: "Potential Hazards n performers need to be aware of potential hazards, both to yourself and to others n the environment in which you are playing could potentially."— Presentation transcript:

1 Potential Hazards n performers need to be aware of potential hazards, both to yourself and to others n the environment in which you are playing could potentially be a danger n there are potential hazards in the following, in which you need to be aware of:


3 n COURT AREAS - n court areas can be used for a variety of different sports such as netball, basketball, tennis, football, etc. As well as sport they are widely used as the general playground for schools where pupils spend break time and lunch n litter can be a problem causing people to slip, drink cans are especially dangerous along with other sharp objects n it is vital that the playing area is checked before use and maintained, all potential hazards need to be removed

4 n they might include: 7 broken/ protruding bits of surround fencing 7 nails and splinters 7 corners of building that are too close 7 wobbly portable posts or portable posts with feet sticking out into the playing area 7 surfaces affected by the weather 7 projecting post sockets which may not be in use but which may be in the middle of the playing area e.g. tennis post sockets 7 nearby windows not protected by grills or fencing

5 THE GYMNASIUM n potentially the gymnasium can be the most hazardous activity areas n wall bars, window ladders and beam uprights can often project into the working area even if they are stored away correctly n all of the equipment that may appear around the gymnasium could potentially be very hazardous if not used appropriately n sometimes pupils will need to remove shoes/trainers before entering the gym. The reason for this is it can leave dirt on the floor that can unsafe and dangerous n before a lesson in the gym you should check:

6 7 the floor is clean and dry 7 if portable apparatus items have been stored away 7 If items of fixed apparatus such as beams, ropes, etc have been stored away in their fixed position 7 check wall fixing to ensure they are safe and have not come away 7 that fixed bolts or catches are securely in place on equipment to be used and that the equipment is safe to use


8 n ACTIVITIES ON LAND n the location on land may be remote. It could be exposed to bad weather and the terrain may be difficult to walk on n this means the way we dress and communicate becomes extremely important n land-based activities include: é assault courses é camping or expeditions é caving and potholing é cycling and mountain biking é rock climbing and many more

9 ACTIVITIES ON WATER n the main hazard when on water may be whether the water is enclosed like a swimming pool or whether its open or coastal, how deep it is and whether there are dangerous currents n water-based activities include: é angling é canoeing and kayaking é rafting é rowing é windsurfing é swimming and many more

10 THE PLAYING FIELD n playing fields like courts can be difficult to close off effectively n these spaces can often be used for all kinds of activities and by ordinary members of the public n potential hazards include dog faeces, broken glass, crushed drink cans and general litter n the grass on rugby pitches can often be quite long and potentially dangerous objects can be difficult to see n as with all surfaces it is important to check before a session

11 n other potential hazards that may cause injury include: 7 long grass, uneven or pitted surfaces 7 frost, ice, snow or heavy rainfall 7 use of sticks or poles n wobbly portable goalposts n rugby goalpost without protective padding at their base n corner flags or other marker posts that are not flexible and which could snap n people wearing smooth-soled footwear, particularly in contact sports can be very dangerous

12 THE SPORTS HALL n the sports hall potentially has many hazards n like the gymnasium it is important to wear the correct footwear n sports halls often have more than one means of access and the number of students entering or leaving during activities may be greater than in a gymnasium n you need to check its safe to enter before entering the room n potential hazards in the sports hall are; n apparatus and other equipment which is not in use must be safely stored or fastened away in order to minimise obstacles n walls and other surfaces should be smooth and free from projections or jagged/sharp objects

13 All playing areas need to be checked that they are safe

14 THE SWIMMING POOL n the potential hazards could be: –pool-based activities –the pool and its immediate surroundings

15 POOL - BASED ACTIVITIES n the governing bodies of activities that take place in water such as the ASA and the RLSS, publish clear guidelines on all aspects of safety and potential hazards n the biggest potential hazard in any swimming pool are the people who use it n people can drown in swimming pools n to ensure safety it is essential that you: à only enter the pool when you are told à engage in activity you asked to perform only à leave the water when and in the manner you are instructed

16 n potential hazards might include: n wet floor surfaces around the pool and in the showering and changing areas n diving boards, spring boards, etc n the use of swimming aids in the water by inexperienced swimmers n venturing out of your depth n submerging grating or grilles - danger of swimmers being caught on these and held under water n swimming pools are sometimes used for other activities such as the teaching of basic canoeing skills or for training and testing in life-saving and personal survival n its obvious but there is a general rule that swimmers and canoes do not mix

17 Prevention Of Injury n there are risks involved with virtually every single physical activity or sport as with the surroundings in which they take place n recognising and removing potential hazards is very important for helping the prevention of injuries n particular attention needs to be given in the following areas:


19 n APPROPRIATE LEVEL OF COMPETITION n problems can be associated in some sports with big differences between contestants in: n AGE - there are regulations controlling the age of participants playing together. Physically it is not safe for someone who is bigger and stronger to play or compete against a person who is younger, and therefore usually not as strong

20 n SEX - as boys get a little older they usually become physically more stronger than girls so this can be a problem. It is also important to identify both activities and the age at which segregation is desirable. In sports where it is a problem governing bodies usually publish regulations on such matters n PHYSICAL SIZE/WEIGHT - being big can be an advantage and a disadvantage. There can be a safety concern when different sizes play together. There are few regulations that restrict people of different sizes and weight from competing in the same high contact sports

21 n CORRECT CLOTHING AND FOOTWEAR - n in most sports, clothing fulfils three major purposes: identity (e.g. team strips) protection from cold weather in the warm-up period (e.g. a tracksuit) suitability / safety for the specific activity

22 n FOOTWEAR n ideally sports shoes should be designed to provide support to the arches of the feet, to cushion the ankle joint when impact is made with the ground in activities such as running and jumping n some sports require specialist footwear for example cricketers wear spikes or rubber soles whereas rugby and football players wear boots with studs JEWELLERY n all jewellery must be removed before any physical activity takes place. If for any reason it cannot be removed then it must be taped or covered so it cannot cause an injury

23 CORRECT TECHNIQUE n one benefit of using the correct technique is improved performance. The correct technique can also minimise the chance of personal injury and injuries to others. For example a badly executed tackle in football could have serious implications personally or to the opposition, an example could be thought off in all sports a poorly directed javelin in athletics could result in death n it is important to know the appropriate safety procedure for particular activities. Safety procedures are important in: setting up/preparing for an activity ensuring safe play completion and clearing away

24 LIFTING/ CARRYING/ PLACING EQUIPMENT n it is important that everyone who uses the equipment helps to store it away safety do not just leave it to the teacher n however, it is as equally important that equipment is stored away under the guidance of the teacher. E.g. javelins n you should always be aware of the following; n how to take out and move or carry equipment safely n how to make secure and use equipment safely n how to put the equipment away safely

25 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT n personal protective equipment is very important and indeed in some sports and schools compulsory. In cricket batsmen have to wear helmets, in football shinpads must be worn, in hockey the goal keeper wears protective clothing. Sometimes it is up to the individual if they wear protective equipment in rugby for example with gum shields, scum caps and shoulder pads

26 Batsman and wicket-keeper both wearing appropriate protective clothing

27 RULES, CODES, LAWS n the rules of any sport aim to: establish a framework of rules, which as far as possible ensures fair competition set clear guidelines as to what is safe and fair practice and to identify a range of sanctions for use against offenders

28 WARM/ COOL DOWN n a proper warm up reduces the risk of injury n a gradual and controlled cool down contributes to the most effective recovery from physical exertion

29 GOOD PERSONAL HYGIENE n personal hygiene is an essential consideration for any athlete. It helps to keep you healthy n you need to wash after physical activity to remove body odour and bacteria, deodorant will only disguise the smell of body odour not remove the bacteria n it is also important to keep clothes clean as they absorb sweat and allow bacteria to bread

30 n athletes foot and verrucas are common feet infections ATHLETES FOOT - this is a fugal growth between the toes, found in war places that are moist. It causes the skin to crack ad peel making it feel itchy. It is important that feet are keep clean and dry particularly between the toes. Athletes foot cream, spray or talcum powder can be used

31 VERRUCAS - these are warts on the feet and are easily spread. They can be painful and difficult to get rid of. They are caused by a virus. It is important that verruca shock is used to prevent others from becoming infected. Ointment can also be used, in severe cases doctors will freeze dry the verruca off you foot USING FLIP-FLOPS IN COMMUNAL AREAS WILL HELP PREVENT INFECTIONS IN THE FIRST PLACE


33 Injury Treatment n Signs and symptoms can often be confused; n SIGNS are what you can SEE - swelling, bleeding, etc n SYMPTOMS are what the injured person can TELL you - pain, discomfort, etc

34 n it is the teachers or coaches responsibility to help the injured person. Serious or potentially serious injuries should be dealt with by a professional

35 n you should know about the following: n blisters n concussion n cuts/grazes n dehydration n exhaustion n ligament injuries n muscle injuries n tendon injuries n winding n RICE

36 BLISTERS n blisters form when the skin repeatedly rubs against another surface and causes friction n a tear occurs between the upper layers of the skin an although the outer surface remains unbroken fluid seeps into the space immediately beneath it CONCUSSION n concussion is normally the result of a severe blow to the head, this causes jarring of the brain against the inside of the skull and swelling of the brains surface n signs may be that the person is pale and breathing in short little breaths, they could be cold and have a fast pulse

37 n Medical attention must be sought as a matter of urgency n try and ensure they remain conscious and have no liquid CUTS AND GRAZES n a cut is the breaking of the skin with the release of blood from the damaged blood vessels n a graze is the scraping of the skin n both can occur during physical activity DEHYDRATION n dehydration often occurs in sport as a result of excessive perspiration

38 n Combined with an inadequate fluid intake n conditions usually found in endurance events - e.g. marathon n signs are usually that the person looks exhausted and are weak on their feet n symptoms are dry and tacky feel in the mouth, dizziness, sickness and problems with their balance/co-ordination n fluid intake is the best course of action, if this does not help get medical advice n serious dehydration which is untreated can cause seizure, brain damage or even death in really extreme cases

39 Martin Johnson: taking in plenty of fluid (isotonic drink) Isotonic drinks are ideal for rehydrating and refuelling Steven Gerrard, Liverpool

40 EXHAUSTION n can be associated with activities in extreme environments n signs can be similar to dehydration n problems co-ordinating their movement n low temperature n dilated pupils n weak pulse n pale, moist skin n fainting spells n they could also complain of headaches, dizziness, sickness and physical weakness n if the exhaustion is related to the heat or cold, then the person should be either cooled down or heated up

41 INJURIES TO LIGAMENTS, TENDONS AND MUSCLES STRAINS - to a muscle or tendon is often caused by overuse, excessive force or over stretching SPRAINS - is an injury to a ligament surrounding a joint can often be caused by a wrench or twist TEARS - may be compete or partial. It is caused when muscle fibres are torn away from the tendons attaching them to the bones. Usually happens when over stretching. Tears can also occur in muscles and ligaments

42 WINDING n is usually caused by a blow to the abdominal area, which temporarily paralyses the diaphragm n signs include difficulty in breathing and often grasping for air and the inability to speak n place the person in a reclining seated position until breath is regained RICE n the RICE method is recommended for all minor injuries. It stands for –R EST –I CE –C OMPRESSION –E LEVATION

43 n REST - allow the injury time to recover. Activity too soon will cause further damage and increase the recovery time n ICE - cover the injured part in ice for 10 to 20 minutes. The coldness results in less blood flowing to the injured part reducing bleeding and swelling n COMPRESSION - wrap a bandage not too tightly around the injured part, this provides support and immobilisation. Preventing further damage and reduce swelling

44 n ELEVATION - raise the injured part. Gravity will reduce the amount of fluid collecting in the injured tissue and the flow of blood to it

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