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Geographic Information Systems and Science: Enabling a Location-Based Technology Michael F. Goodchild University of California Santa Barbara.

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Presentation on theme: "Geographic Information Systems and Science: Enabling a Location-Based Technology Michael F. Goodchild University of California Santa Barbara."— Presentation transcript:

1 Geographic Information Systems and Science: Enabling a Location-Based Technology Michael F. Goodchild University of California Santa Barbara

2 Geographic information n Information that links properties to positions on or near the Earth's surface –the information of maps –but much more besides n The atomic form – –point observations, e.g. at weather stations –observations about lines, areas

3 Three technologies n Earth measurement –the accurate determination of position on the Earth's surface

4 Eratosthenes, 200 BC

5 Perfect sphere, radius 6378 km Ellipsoid of rotation, flattening 1/300

6 EllipsoidSemi-major axis1/flattening Airy Modified Airy Australian National Bessel 1841 (Namibia) Bessel Clarke Clarke Everest (India 1830) Everest (Sabah and Sarawak) Everest (India 1956) Everest (Malaysia 1969) Everest (Malaysia, Singapore) Everest (Pakistan) Modified Fischer Helmert Hough Indonesian International Krassovsky GRS South American WGS WGS

7 Clarke Ellipsoid of 1866 a = m 1/f = World Geodetic System of 1984 a = m 1/f =

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9 The Global Positioning System

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13 Three technologies n Remote sensing –satellite-based –aircraft, drones

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22 Roofs versus roads Road types Major/minor roads Vegetation cover Shadows Construction areas

23 Three technologies n Geographic information systems –digital representation of geographic data –editing, transformation, analysis, modeling, visualization, decision support –virtually any conceivable task n The Canada Geographic Information System –1966

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32 The geographic information industries n GPS industry –$1 billion –European Galileo n Data supply industry –remote sensing NASA $10 billion other US civilian agencies $10 billion military and intelligence $30 billion 500,000,000,000,000 sq m petabytes of information online (1PB=10 15 bytes)

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36 The geographic information industries n GIS software –desktop, Web, enterprise –$1 billion –ESRI 30% –Intergraph 20% n Location-based services –Web –cellphones

37 Location-based services n Information services –provided by systems that know where they are –and modify information accordingly

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39 How does a system know where it is? n GPS onboard –cellphone n Triangulation from towers n Determined at system build time n IP address

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41 What kinds of information? n Nearby services n Visualization of invisible features –underground –around the corner –in the past –visually impaired user

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46 Location-based games n Played on location-enabled devices –cellphones

47 New directions n Social sciences –most early applications were environmental –health, business, social services n Dynamics –from how the world looks to how the world works

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52 Simulations n 1.8 vehicles per driveway n Driver behavior influenced by: –lane width –slope –view distances –traffic control mechanisms –information feedback –driver aggressiveness n 770 homes –clearing times > 30 minutes 2D clip 3D clip

53 Policy implications n Addition of new outlets n Better deployment of traffic control resources n Understanding the risk n Reduce cars used per household n Problems of shut-ins, elderly, latch-key kids

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55 Putting it all together n

56 Conclusion n A rapidly growing industry –tightly connected sectors n Applications across the spectrum of human activities –commerce –research –everyday life n Growing familiarity –GIS a widely recognized acronym –in-car navigation, LBS, Web mapping n Exciting new directions


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