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SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, 2006 1 Developing Classroom Assessments for South Asian Languages Ursula Lentz CARLA, University of Minnesota.

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Presentation on theme: "SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, 2006 1 Developing Classroom Assessments for South Asian Languages Ursula Lentz CARLA, University of Minnesota."— Presentation transcript:

1 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Developing Classroom Assessments for South Asian Languages Ursula Lentz CARLA, University of Minnesota Frameworks and Models

2 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Some Assessment Frameworks and Models OPI-Oral Proficiency Interview (ACTFL) SoPI-Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview tape-mediated (Center for Applied Linguistics) CLEAR Test Development Workbook and Video (Center for Language Education and Research)

3 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, CoSA and CoWA (Contextualized Speaking/Writing Assessments) Backwards Design-approach to test/task design Integrated Performance Assessments (ACFTL)

4 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, CLEAR Test Development Workbook and Video Unit 1: Rules for Item Writing Unit 2: Test Purposes Unit 3: Test Item Grid Unit 4: Detailed Text-Based Item Design Tables Unit 5: Detailed Oral/Aural Item Design Tables Unit 6: Test Specifications Unit 7: The Test Development Process and Test Administration Center for Language Education and Research. (1998). Test Development Workbook and Video. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Board of Trustees.

5 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Consideration in test design using Test Development Workbook and Video. 1. What are the instructional goals and objectives? aligning course objective with assessment 2. What type of syllabus design is being used? notional-functional situational skill-based task-based topical combination Center for Language Education and Research. (1998). Test Development Workbook and Video. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Board of Trustees.

6 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, What is the purpose of the test? proficiency placement diagnostic achievement 4. How will this test fit into the curriculum, class or program? 5. How much time is required and available to create, administer, score, and make decisions based on this test? (Practicality) Center for Language Education and Research. (1998). Test Development Workbook and Video. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Board of Trustees. p. 1.

7 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Assessing Writing and Speaking Writing: The good news Purpose of writing assessment: demonstrate proficiency in the target language Easiest to do form most frequently used by textbook companies good test topics/ideas available from other subject areas From Blaz, D.(2001). A collection of performance assessment tasks and rubrics. Larchmont: Eye on Education. p.59-62

8 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, ……….and the bad news: we have difficulty deciding on how to grade them rough drafts to assess or not assess use a rubric like that for the final product? incorporate the draft as a category on the rubric targeted peer edit-prevents help from outside need to include ss improvement on the rubric to reinforce improvement Blaz, D. (2001). A collection of performance tasks and rubrics: Foreign languages. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education, p.59

9 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Possible writing assessment tasks Guidebook, pamphlet, autobiography, handout, parody, biography, headline, pen pal letter, book report, interview script, petition, booklet/brochure, job description, play, poem, business letter, joke, poster, cartoon, journal, prediction, celebrity profile, law, puppet show, checklist, lesson plan, quiz, comic book, list, recipe, commercial script, log, report, comparison, lyrics. * Blaz, D. (2001). A collection of performance tasks and rubrics: Foreign languages. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education, p.59.

10 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Contd. Review, magazine/news article, riddle, creative writing, critique, metaphor, script, description, movie review, short story, dialogue, newsletter, slogan, diary/journal, new story ending, story problem, editorial, essay, notes, survey, fact, file, oath, telegram, fairy tale/myth, observation sheet, travel log, glossary, outline, yearbook entry, advertisement * Blaz, D. (2001). A collection of performance tasks and rubrics: Foreign languages. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education, p.59.

11 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Concerns in Assessing Oral Language What to assess: content or form How to assess: objective or subjective When to assess Logistics: practical concerns – numbers of students, administration and rater time required

12 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Possible oral assessment tasks Anecdote, dramatization, monologue, ballad, explanation, narration, book report, fairy tale, newscast, campaign speech, free verse, oath, character portrayal, interview, recipe, choral reading/speech, jingle/ad, riddle, debate, demonstration, joke, role-play, dialogue, lecture, seminar, discussion, lesson, skit, documentary, mock interview, weather report. * Blaz, D. (2001). A collection of performance tasks and rubrics: Foreign languages. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education, p.35.

13 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, CoSA and CoWA (Contextualized Speaking/Writing Assessments) Proficiency-based assessments End of course of study; e.g., end of a level of language, end of semester Development template/grid/framework adapts to level and appropriate topics and stimuli Miniguide for Developing Speaking and Writing Tasks for Second Language Assessment available at:

14 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Portfolio Assessment A purposeful selecton of student work that exhibits the students efforts, progress and achievements in one or more areas. The collection must include student participation in selecting contents, the criteria for selection, the criteria for judging merit and evidence of student self-reflection." (Paulson, Paulson, Meyer 1991) Judy Kemp at: systematic longitudinal collection of student work created in response to specific, known instructional objectives and evaluated in relation to the same predetermined scoring criteria Portfolio Assessment in the Second Language Classroom (1998). National Capitol Language Resource Center)

15 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Advantages of Assessment Portfolios Authentic picture of learning Improved teaching and student learning Electronic portfolios are easily managed Electronic Portfolios: Students, Teachers, and Life Long Learners

16 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Challenges of Assessment Portfolios Lower comparability and reliability do not easily translate into grades aligning the assessment tasks with curriculum and developing the scoring criteria and scoring tools. Cost ongoing expense for new task development

17 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Scoring developing and using scoring criteria requires labor intensive staff discussion and training. scoring student work using predetermined criteria is more time consuming than scoring a single-occasion, norm-referenced test; Fortunately, these same activities also lead to improved teaching and learning. Portfolio Assessment in the Second Language Classroom (1998). National Capitol Language Resource Center)

18 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Design Steps in Foreign Language Portfolio Assessment Set Assessment Purpose Identify Instructional Objectives Match Tasks to Objectives Set Criteria Determine Organization Monitor Progress Evaluate the Portfolio Process Portfolio Assessment in the Second Language Classroom (1998). National Capitol Language Resource Center ) p. 14.

19 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16,

20 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Portfolios Portfolios Portfolios for Use with Heritage Speakers How to handle the students of different ability levels or language experiences? Allows students to work on the skills that need work Shows progress over time and provides opportunity for students to take ownership

21 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Additional Resource for Portfolios:

22 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Assessing Listening Least understood One of most important areas of language assessment –Washback into classroom practice –Student focus on listening skills/strategies Central to teaching and assessing language proficiency

23 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Closely linked to speaking Students/teachers are required to engage in speaking activity Should be tested when speaking cannot be Source: J. Charles Alderson, Lyle F. Bachman in Buck, G. (2001). Assessing Listening. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

24 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, The Listening Construct Complex skill i.e. involves multiple types of knowledge Syntax, semantics, discourse Culture (formal and informal situations) Non-linguistic knowledge about the way the world works

25 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Metaphor for listening in foreign language: Running on a riverbank and speaking to someone in a boat. You have to keep running so the person wont get out of range. You cant stop the boat for words you dont understand and dont have time to translate everything into English because you will slow down and cant keep up with the boat. Source: Blaz, D. (2001). A collection of performance tasks and rubrics. Larchmont, New York: Eye on Education. p. 91.

26 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Listening Assessments Determine purpose Academic or real-life Select a stimulus authentic text, video, audio, monologue, realistic text, dialogue Determine appropriate response format academic responses realistic responses

27 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Academic responses Discrete-point exercise Complete-open ended statements Dictation Cloze Content question/answer Think aloud/retrospection

28 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Realistic-responses Oral response Main idea Paraphrase Summarize/condense Transfer to another skill (message, notes) Converse From: Long, D.R. and Macián, J.L. (1994) Listening Skills and Assessment. In C. Hancock (Ed.), Teaching, Testing, and Assessment: Making the Connection. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook. (p.130).

29 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, French Contextualized Listening

30 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Assessing Reading A definition of reading comprehension Three-level process described by Herber. (Thrasher, 2000) Literal - Reader examines words, what they say and information presented. Interpretive - Reader looks for relationships in statements and meaning conveyed. Readers experience with the topic influenced by previous knowledge.

31 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Applied - Reader takes literal (what author said) and interpretive (what author meant) applies to previous knowledge on subject to deepen understanding. (Herber, 40)

32 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16,

33 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Possible reading assessment types Traditional assessments Matching, Cloze Fill in the blank Short answers Difficult to assess with performance assessment Mental activity Assessed with spoken or a written product Method depends on the skill we wish to assess Blaz, D. (2001). A Collection of Performance Assessment Tasks and Rubrics. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education. Brown, H.D. (2003). Language assessment principles and classroom practices. White Plains, NY: Larchmont.

34 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Reading Activities/Tasks Activity types: Organize Demonstrate Process Create Job applicationAdDiscussion Letter Mind MapCritiqueJournal New ending Out lineMock InterviewRetellingUpdated Version TimelineScriptVideo Travel logSeminarQuestions Venn Diagram

35 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Authentic texts vs. texts constructed for language learners Use of authentic materials in assessment is not limited to higher levels. Level of the task is an essential part in determining the level of your assessment.

36 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Integrated Performance Assessments (IPAs) Assessment integrated with curriculum Provides real-life context Focus is on performance Allows for feedback to students American Council of the Teaching of Foreign Languages. (2003). Integrated performance assessments. New York: ACTFL.

37 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, The term "performance assessment units" describes: a linked series of performance assessments based on the three modes of communication developed by ACTFL that later evolved into the concept of "Integrated Performance Assessment" (IPA). ACTFL Integrated Performance Assessment by E. W. Glisan, B. Adair- Hauck, K. Koda, S. P. Sandrock, and E. Swender published in 2003.

38 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Assessment Units: are integrated occur over the course of a semester allow for feedback use authentic materials assess all skills under the umbrella of one unifying topic are a culminating assessment allow for engaging topics/ask bigger questions use backwards design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998)

39 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, They ask bigger questions/engaging topics... a. Clothes ______I. How do movies reflect culture? b. Sports______II. Can staying fit be fun? c. Holidays______III. How do you define vacation? d. Careers______IV. Does clothing tell a story? e. Geography______V. Who is in charge of my future? f. Movies______VI. Are traditions important

40 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Sample: Friends What makes a good friend good? What qualities define a good friendship? How does friendship change/start/is different/ in different cultures? What is the role of a friend? How do we prioritize-what is more important, your friends or your family? (in different cultures)

41 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Clothes What do your clothes say about you? Why do you wear what you wear? (ethnographic aspect) How does your environment affect the clothing you wear?

42 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Sports Can we play without winning? (Zero sum game) What is a sport? How is behavior impacted by the sports we enjoy? Why do sports involve balls? Is competitiveness in our nature?

43 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Friends What makes a good friend good? What qualities define a good friendship? How does friendship change/start/is different/ in different cultures? What is the role of a friend? How do we prioritize-what is more important, your friends or your family? (in different cultures)

44 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Holidays How does the way we celebrate bring our community together? How are holidays impacted by the retail industry? Famous People What is fame? How long does fame last?

45 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Careers What careers are there to choose? How does a 2nd language enhance your career choice? What is the meaning of career in target culture? How important is income to our choice in career? Why/how does gender affect your options? Will my choices today limit my choices tomorrow? What limits your choices?

46 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, They use Backward Design* What do we want students to know and be able to do? What evidence will we accept as proof? What kind of learning opportunities will we need to provide our students? What instructional resources/strategies are needed? * Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (1998). Understanding by design. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

47 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Sample Integrated Performance assessment THEME: Can One Person Make a Difference? The unit can be seen on CARLAs Virtual Assessment Center (VAC).

48 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Template for developing a performance assessment unit Can be downloaded from

49 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16,

50 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16,

51 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, What should a well-balanced portfolio of assessments include? multiple measures to provide information: discreet skills tested and reinforced, complementary, alternative purposeful assessments - face validity: good use of student and instructor time involving test takers and stakeholders in the process integrated teaching, learning and assessment diagnostic: instructional and learning strategies

52 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, on-going (formative) assessments not a one time event task-based, performance oriented assessments opportunities for all students to show their strengths

53 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Resources CARLA Summer Assessment Institute Web Site CARLAs Virtual Assessment Center (VAC) Virtual Item Bank (still in development) carla.umn.edu:16080/assessment/VIB/using_items.html

54 SALRC Workshop, Madison, WI, June 12-16, Virtual Picture Album


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