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English 306A; Harris 1 Pragmatics Interpersonal function Austinian Speech Acts Gricean Conversational Maxims.

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Presentation on theme: "English 306A; Harris 1 Pragmatics Interpersonal function Austinian Speech Acts Gricean Conversational Maxims."— Presentation transcript:

1 English 306A; Harris 1 Pragmatics Interpersonal function Austinian Speech Acts Gricean Conversational Maxims

2 English 306A; Harris 2 Speech acts Sam-I-Ams been here. I cant find any whisky! Conversational maxims

3 English 306A; Harris 3 Meaning Semantics Propositions Truth/falsity Context-free Language-in-vitro Pragmatics Utterances Appropriateness Context-dependent Language-in-vivo

4 English 306A; Harris 4 Functions Ideational function: What does The cat is on the mat mean as an expression in the system of English? How? Denotation, truth conditions, event schemata, semantic roles, … Interpersonal function: What does The cat is on the mat mean to hearer X, when said by speaker Y, in context Z? How? Speech acts, conversational maxims, face principles, deixis, …

5 English 306A; Harris 5 Functions Ideational function: What does The cat is on the mat mean as an expression in the system of English? How? Denotation, truth conditions, event schemata, semantic roles, … Interpersonal function: What does The cat is on the mat mean to hearer X, when said by speaker Y, in context Z? How? Speech acts, conversational maxims, face principles, deixis, …

6 English 306A; Harris 6 Ideational function What weve been studying to this point: Language from the perspective of encoding ideas, and the mechanics of transmitting those ideas, within the system of a language.

7 English 306A; Harris 7 Interpersonal function Language from the perspective of making and maintaining human contact, so we can coöperate, negotiate, decide, get along, build bridges, and generally function as social animals.

8 English 306A; Harris 8 Interpersonal function A supplement to the ideational functionnot a substitutebut a crucial supplement. The ideational function is necessary, but not sufficient.

9 English 306A; Harris 9 Phatic communion social contact Communicative mental contact Interpersonal function

10 English 306A; Harris 10 Interpersonal function Phatic The use of language to establish or maintain social relations Sam!

11 English 306A; Harris 11 Phatic Utterances whose chief function is to establish or maintain contact; much like canine gluteus- maximus reciprocal olfactory analysis. Hi, Hello, yo, … How are you, Hows it going, Hows it hanging, … Live long and prosper, Keep on truckin, Keep it real, … Nice weather, Cold enough for you?, Hope the rain dont hurt the rhubarb, ….

12 English 306A; Harris 12 Interpersonal function Communicative The use of language to encode and transmit intentions I will try them. You will see.

13 English 306A; Harris 13 Interpersonal function Communicative The use of language to encode and transmit intentions I will try them. You will see.

14 English 306A; Harris 14 Interpersonal function Communicative The use of language to encode and transmit intentions Take, for instance, the utterance, If you will let me be, I will try them. You will see. Ideationally, its just a pair of propositions. Communicatively, its a surrender, a capitulation, a collapse of my resolve, and a prediction that I wont like your damn viridescent chow!

15 English 306A; Harris 15 Communicative Utterances whose chief function is to share mental contents Information Attitudes Worldviews The cat is on the mat. Homer eats crap. Huh? Try them, try them, and you may, I say. My kingdom for a horse. Please put the lid back down. Put the F&^#ing lid down! e = mc 2

16 English 306A; Harris 16 Phatic and Communicative = Sam! If you will let me be, I will try them. You will see.

17 English 306A; Harris 17 Phatic and Communicative Every utterance has both phatic and communicative dimensions.

18 English 306A; Harris 18 Speech Acts & Conversational Maxims J. L. Austin People do things with words beyond asserting truth. We act through speech. H.P. Grice The way people coordinate their speech is very intricate. We follow maxims.

19 English 306A; Harris 19

20 English 306A; Harris 20 Speech acts Locution the utterance of a sentence with specific denotation Illocution the making of a statement, offer, promise, … Perlocution the bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering a sentence (persuading, entertaining, scaring, …)

21 English 306A; Harris 21 Locution the utterance of a sentence with specific denotation Illocution the making of a statement, offer, promise, … Perlocution the bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering a sentence (persuading, entertaining, scaring, …) Speech acts

22 English 306A; Harris 22 Locution the utterance of a sentence with specific denotation Illocution = the speech act Perlocution the bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering a sentence (persuading, entertaining, scaring, …) Speech acts

23 English 306A; Harris 23 Illocutions/ Speech Acts pronouncement statement confirmation despisement (iconic statement) Felicity Conditions

24 English 306A; Harris 24 despisement The physical and social conditions under which a speech act can be performed Illocutions/ Speech Acts Felicity Conditions

25 English 306A; Harris 25 The physical and social conditions under which a speech act can be performed I christen thee The Good Ship Lollypop! Felicity Conditions

26 English 306A; Harris 26 Acts through speech Offer, decline, accept, promise, bet, warn, threaten, suggest, advise, declare, marry, christen, compliment, insult, joke, … Felicity conditions: appropriate intentions; appropriate circumstances; appropriate actions. Try them! Try them! Try them and you may I say! Sam! If you will let me be, I will try them. You will see.

27 English 306A; Harris 27 Categories of speech acts (Dirven and Verspoor, Table 1, chapter 7) Ritualized social circumstances (thank someone when something has been exchanged, sentence at termination of trial, pronunciation of marriage,…); utterance primarily constitutes act. Communicate, or request communication of information (assert facts, question truth of facts, solicit the completion of an assertion, …); utterance primarily engages in trafficing information. Commit self or solicit others to do something (offer assistance, request favour, make a bet, …); utterance primarily concerns future conduct. Constitutive Informative Obligative

28 English 306A; Harris 28 Communicate, or request communication of information (assert facts, question truth of facts, solicit the completion of an assertion, …); utterance primarily engages in trafficing information. Commit self or solicit others to do something (offer assistance, request favour, make a bet, …); utterance primarily concerns future conduct. Categories of speech acts (Dirven and Verspoor, Table 1, chapter 7) Expressive Declarative thanking, apologizing, … sentencing, pronouncing, … Constitutive Informative Obligative

29 English 306A; Harris 29 Commit self or solicit others to do something (offer assistance, request favour, make a bet, …); utterance primarily concerns future conduct. Categories of speech acts (Dirven and Verspoor, Table 1, chapter 7) Expressive Declarative Assertive Interrogative thanking, apologizing, … sentencing, pronouncing, … asserting, describing, … asking Constitutive Informative Obligative

30 English 306A; Harris 30 Final Exam 7: :00 PM! Thursday 16 December RCH 305

31 English 306A; Harris 31 Your 306A Grade Greater of (M1 + M2 + F) OR F i.e., 100% Final, if it helps

32 English 306A; Harris 32 Categories of speech acts (Dirven and Verspoor, Table 1, chapter 7) Expressive Declarative Assertive Interrogative Directive Commissive thanking, apologizing, … sentencing, pronouncing, … asserting, describing, … asking requesting, ordering, … promising, offering, … Constitutive Informative Obligative

33 English 306A; Harris 33 Acts through speech Speech acts: offer, decline, accept, promise, bet, warn, threaten, suggest, advise, declare, marry, christen, compliment, insult, joke, … Felicity conditions: appropriate intentions; appropriate circumstances; appropriate actions.

34 English 306A; Harris 34 H. P. Grice

35 English 306A; Harris 35 How to talk Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk- exchange in which you are engaged.

36 English 306A; Harris 36 How to talk Co ö perate.

37 English 306A; Harris 37 How we do, in fact, talk Co ö perate.

38 English 306A; Harris 38 And how we listen, too Co ö perate.

39 English 306A; Harris 39 Relation Quality Quantity Manner Be relevant. Be truthful. Be sufficient (but not prolix). Be perspicacious. How to talk, more specifically Grices Maxims

40 English 306A; Harris 40 How to talk and interpret; conversational implicature Grices Maxims Not moral or social injunctions Empirically derived principles Maxims that people naturally follow, and generally expect others to follow To speak To understand (conversational implicature) Observable mostly in violation

41 English 306A; Harris 41 Maxim of relation Is there a gas station around here? (=Tell me where I can get gas. I need it and Im a stranger.) Be relevant. A1:Yep, there s a gas station at King and Weber. [closed] A2:Nope, you ll have to go all the way to Erb Street; everything s closed around here because of the anthrax scare.

42 English 306A; Harris 42 Maxim of quality Is there a gas station around here? (=Tell me where I can get gas. I need it and Im a stranger.) Be truthful. Say what you believe to be true. Dont say what you believe to be false.

43 English 306A; Harris 43 Maxim of quality Is there a gas station around here? (=Tell me where I can get gas. I need it and Im a stranger.) Be truthful. Say what you believe to be true. Dont say what you believe to be false. A1:Nope. [ommitting that there is gas bar at the Canadian Tire.] A2:Well, there s a gas bar, if you just need some gas.

44 English 306A; Harris 44 Maxim of quality Is there a gas station around here? (=Tell me where I can get gas. I need it and Im a stranger.) Be truthful. Say what you believe to be true. Dont say what you believe to be false. A1:Nope. [false; there is one] A2:Yep, two lights up on the left there s a new Petrosaurus Station.

45 English 306A; Harris 45 Maxim of quantity Is there a gas station around here? (=Tell me where I can get gas. I need it and Im a stranger.) Provide enough information But not too much A1:Yep. A2:Sure, King and Erb. A3:Yep, King and Erb. They have a sale on gumboots at the hardware store across the street from it, too.

46 English 306A; Harris 46 Maxim(s) of manner Is there a gas station around here? (=Tell me where I can get gas. I need it and Im a stranger.) Be clear Dont be obscure Dont be ambiguous Be brief Be orderly

47 English 306A; Harris 47 Maxim(s) of manner Is there a gas station around here? (=Tell me where I can get gas. I need it and Im a stranger.) Be clear Yes. Somewhere near the theatre. Dont be obscure Dont be ambiguous Be brief Be orderly

48 English 306A; Harris 48 Be clear Dont be obscure Yep. Next to the old Smith place. Dont be ambiguous Be brief Be orderly Maxim(s) of manner Is there a gas station around here? (=Do you know where I can get some gas? Im a stranger)

49 English 306A; Harris 49 Be clear Dont be obscure Dont be ambiguous Maybe there is, maybe there isn t. Be brief Be orderly Maxim(s) of manner Is there a gas station around here? (=Do you know where I can get some gas? Im a stranger)

50 English 306A; Harris 50 Be clear Dont be obscure Dont be ambiguous Be brief Sure quite a few. I know where every gas station built in the KW area since the Great War was located. First, there was the Ollie Petrie Service Station at the corner of … Be orderly Maxim(s) of manner Is there a gas station around here? (=Do you know where I can get some gas? Im a stranger)

51 English 306A; Harris 51 Be clear Dont be obscure Dont be ambiguous Be brief Be orderly Sure. At Erb, turn right off King. To get to King, take Westmount, and turn left when you get there. Before that, go three lights down University and turn left at Westmount. First, however, … Maxim(s) of manner Is there a gas station around here? (=Do you know where I can get some gas? Im a stranger)

52 English 306A; Harris 52 [T]hough some maxim is violated at the level of what is said, the hearer is entitled to assume that that maxim, or at least the overall cooperative principle, is observed at the level of what is implicated. How to listen (Conversational implicature)

53 English 306A; Harris 53 Grices Maxims The important point: Grice charted the many, many ways we coordinate our speech to each others needs and expectations.

54 English 306A; Harris 54 Intention; figuration All language dialogic (conversational). Grices maxims form a baseline of expectations. Figures of thought (tropes) function by violating maxims, deviating from baseline. The first reading doesnt make sense, so hearers figure out the speakers intention--not what the utterance means, but what the speaker means by that utterance.

55 English 306A; Harris 55 Metonymy

56 English 306A; Harris 56 Metonymy Violates quality

57 English 306A; Harris 57 Metonymy Violates quality Satisfies relation, quantity, manner

58 English 306A; Harris 58 Metaphor My love is red, red rose.

59 English 306A; Harris 59 Metaphor My love is red, red rose. Violates quality

60 English 306A; Harris 60 Metaphor Violates quality Satisfies relation, quantity, manner My love is red, red rose.

61 English 306A; Harris 61 Repetitio My love is red, red rose. Violates manner (brevity) Satisfies relation, quantity, quality

62 English 306A; Harris 62 Polyptoton Violates manner (brevity) Satisfies relation, quantity, quality

63 English 306A; Harris 63 Polyptoton Violates manner (brevity) Satisfies relation, quantity, quality

64 English 306A; Harris 64 Irony Lovely day!

65 English 306A; Harris 65 Irony Lovely day! Violates quality

66 English 306A; Harris 66 Irony Violates quality Satisfies relation, quantity, manner Lovely day!

67 English 306A; Harris 67 Paronomasia

68 English 306A; Harris 68 Paronomasia Violates manner (clarity)

69 English 306A; Harris 69 Paronomasia Violates manner (clarity) Satisfies relation, quantity, quality

70 English 306A; Harris 70 Now, for the high-brow stuff Polonius: What do you read, my lord? Hamlet

71 English 306A; Harris 71 Now, for the high-brow stuff Polonius: What do you read, my lord? Hamlet Words, words, words.

72 English 306A; Harris 72 Now, for the high-brow stuff Polonius: What do you read, my lord? Hamlet Words, words, words. Violates quantity and relation (Satisfies quality and mostly manner)

73 English 306A; Harris 73 Now, for the high-brow stuff Polonius: What is the matter, my lord? Hamlet

74 English 306A; Harris 74 Now, for the high-brow stuff Polonius: What is the matter, my lord? Hamlet Between whom?

75 English 306A; Harris 75 Now, for the high-brow stuff Polonius: What is the matter, my lord? Hamlet Between whom? Violates relation (satisfies quantity, manner, … quality?)

76 English 306A; Harris 76 Slanders, sir; for the satirical rogue says here that old men have grey beards, that their faces are wrinkled, their eyes purging thick amber and plumtree gum, and that they have plentiful lack of wit, together with most weak hams; all of which though I most powerfully and potently believe, yet I hold it not honesty to have set it thus down, for yourself, sir, shall grow old as I am, if like a crab you could go backward. Now, for the high-brow stuff Polonius: I mean the matter that you read, my lord. Hamlet

77 English 306A; Harris 77 Slanders, sir; for the satirical rogue says here that old men have grey beards, that their faces are wrinkled, their eyes purging thick amber and plumtree gum, and that they have plentiful lack of wit, together with most weak hams; all of which though I most powerfully and potently believe, yet I hold it not honesty to have set it thus down, for yourself, sir, shall grow old as I am, if like a crab you could go backward. Now, for the high-brow stuff Polonius: I mean the matter that you read, my lord. Hamlet Violates quantity

78 English 306A; Harris 78 Slanders, sir; for the satirical rogue says here that old men have grey beards, that their faces are wrinkled, their eyes purging thick amber and plumtree gum, and that they have plentiful lack of wit, together with most weak hams; all of which though I most powerfully and potently believe, yet I hold it not honesty to have set it thus down, for yourself, sir, shall grow old as I am, if like a crab you could go backward. Now, for the high-brow stuff Polonius: I mean the matter that you read, my lord. Hamlet Violates relation

79 English 306A; Harris 79 Slanders, sir; for the satirical rogue says here that old men have grey beards, that their faces are wrinkled, their eyes purging thick amber and plumtree gum, and that they have plentiful lack of wit, together with most weak hams; all of which though I most powerfully and potently believe, yet I hold it not honesty to have set it thus down, for yourself, sir, shall grow old as I am, if like a crab you could go backward. Now, for the high-brow stuff Polonius: I mean the matter that you read, my lord. Hamlet Violates manner (clarity, brevity, orderliness)

80 English 306A; Harris 80 Slanders, sir; for the satirical rogue says here that old men have grey beards, that their faces are wrinkled, their eyes purging thick amber and plumtree gum, and that they have plentiful lack of wit, together with most weak hams; all of which though I most powerfully and potently believe, yet I hold it not honesty to have set it thus down, for yourself, sir, shall grow old as I am, if like a crab you could go backward. Now, for the high-brow stuff Polonius: I mean the matter that you read, my lord. Hamlet Quality?

81 English 306A; Harris 81 Now, for the high-brow stuff Hamlet

82 English 306A; Harris 82 I ask to be, or not to be. That is the question, I ask of me. This sullied life, it makes me shudder. My uncle's boffing dear, sweet mother. Would I, could I take my life? Could I, should I, end this strife? Should I jump out of a plane? Or throw myself before a train? Should I from a cliff just leap? Could I put myself to sleep? … To sleep, to dream, now there's the rub. I could drop a toaster in my tub. Hamlet

83 English 306A; Harris 83 Pragmatics Interpersonal function Phatic and Communicative Speech acts Informative, Constitutive, and Obligative Grices Maxims The coöperative principle (and its ramifications) Speaking and understanding (conversational implicature)


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