2 So you actually want to go somewhere? Flying requires a lot of planning and foresightIt is imperative that you use proper flight planning proceduresIn this presentation I will present my process for flight planning, which is based on Jeppesen methodology and what I learned from my CFIAt all stages in the process, evaluate your go/no-go decisionMake every flight a safe flight!
3 Agenda CFRs Abbreviations Flight Overview Developing the Route Preflight Weather BriefingCompleting the Navigation LogEquationsFlight Plan
4 CFRs Relevant to Flight Planning 14 CFR 91.7 Civil aircraft airworthiness14 CFR Preflight action14 CFR Fuel requirements for flight in VFR conditions14 CFR VFR flight plan: Information required
5 14 CFR 91.7 – Civil Aircraft Airworthiness No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition.The pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft is in condition for safe flight. The pilot in command shall discontinue the flight when unairworthy mechanical, electrical, or structural conditions occur.Note: This is an excerpt of the CFRs pertinent to our discussion. Refer to your FAR/AIM for the complete list of CFRs.
6 14 CFR – Preflight ActionEach pilot in command shall, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all available information concerning that flight. This information must include --(a) For a flight under IFR or a flight not in the vicinity of an airport, weather reports and forecasts, fuel requirements, alternatives available if the planned flight cannot be completed, and any known traffic delays of which the pilot in command has been advised by ATC;(b) For any flight, runway lengths at airports of intended use, and the following takeoff and landing distance information:(1) For civil aircraft for which an approved Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual containing takeoff and landing distance data is required, the takeoff and landing distance data contained therein; and(2) For civil aircraft other than those specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, other reliable information appropriate to the aircraft, relating to aircraft performance under expected values of airport elevation and runway slope, aircraft gross weight, and wind and temperature.Note: This is an excerpt of the CFRs pertinent to our discussion. Refer to your FAR/AIM for the complete list of CFRs.
7 14 CFR 91.151 – Fuel requirements for flight in VFR conditions No person may begin a flight in an airplane under VFR conditions unless (considering wind and forecast weather conditions) there is enough fuel to fly to the first point of intended landing and, assuming normal cruising speed --During the day, to fly after that for at least 30 minutes; orAt night, to fly after that for at least 45 minutes.No person may begin a flight in a rotorcraft under VFR conditions unless (considering wind and forecast weather conditions) there is enough fuel to fly to the first point of intended landing and, assuming normal cruising speed, to fly after that for at least 20 minutes.Note: This is an excerpt of the CFRs pertinent to our discussion. Refer to your FAR/AIM for the complete list of CFRs.
8 14 CFR 91.153 – VFR flight plan: Information required Information required. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each person filing a VFR flight plan shall include in it the following information:The aircraft identification number and, if necessary, its radio call sign.The type of the aircraft or, in the case of a formation flight, the type of each aircraft and the number of aircraft in the formation.The full name and address of the pilot in command or, in the case of a formation flight, the formation commander.The point and proposed time of departure.The proposed route, cruising altitude (or flight level), and true airspeed at that altitude.The point of first intended landing and the estimated elapsed time until over that point.The amount of fuel on board (in hours).The number of persons in the aircraft, except where that information is otherwise readily available to the FAA.Any other information the pilot in command or ATC believes is necessary for ATC purposes.Cancellation. When a flight plan has been activated, the pilot in command, upon canceling or completing the flight under the flight plan, shall notify an FAA Flight Service Station or ATC facility.Note: This is an excerpt of the CFRs pertinent to our discussion. Refer to your FAR/AIM for the complete list of CFRs.
9 Abbreviations AFD AGL ATC CFR CFI FL FSS IFR MSL NOTAM POH SFC VFR WAC Airport Facilities DirectoryAGLAbove Ground LevelATCAir Traffic ControlCFRCode of Federal RegulationsCFICertified Flight InstructorFLFlight LevelFSSFlight Service StationIFRInstrument Flight RulesMSLMean Sea LevelNOTAMNotice To AirmenPOHPilot’s Operating HandbookSFCSurfaceVFRVisual Flight RulesWACWorld Aeronautical Chart
10 Flight Overview Consider your destination(s) Get an overall picture of your route
11 Consider Your Destinations Don’t waste time planning a route to an airport that won’t meet your needsAsk yourself whether the airport (check your AFD):Has a long enough & wide enough runway for me?Is far enough away & enough flight time to meet my target aeronautical experience requirement?Check 14 CFR for Private Pilot certificate requirementsHas fuel & oil if I need it?Has lighted runways if I need them?Has repair services (or make a contingency plan)?Is known for hellish crosswinds beyond my abilities?Is more than likely going to be fogged in?
12 Get an Overall Picture of your Route Plot your course on a sectional chart (or WAC if necessary)Do you need to avoid Class Bravo or Prohibited/Restricted/Special Use airspaces?Are there mountains in the way that are beyond your abilities/training?
13 Developing the RoutePlot your course on both the Sectional and Terminal Area Charts (also WAC if necessary)Choose & mark easily identifiable check points2 check points close together to get you aligned on your course and then every 15 minutes or soCheck points might be directly on your course, or just to the side so you can see themDetermine appropriate altitudesTerrain & obstruction heightsVFR Cruising AltitudesNote alternative airports and their facilitiesBegin filling out your Navigation Log with this information
15 What makes a good check point? DaytimeAirportsDamsLarge bodies of waterLarge highway intersectionsVORsQuarriesSLACNighttimeLighted citiesLighted highway intersectionsVORs
16 14 CFR 91.159 – VFR Cruising Altitude or Flight Level Except while holding in a holding pattern of 2 minutes or less, or while turning, each person operating an aircraft under VFR in level cruising flight more than 3,000 feet above the surface shall maintain the appropriate altitude or flight level prescribed below, unless otherwise authorized by ATC:(a) When operating below 18,000 feet MSL and --(1) On a magnetic course of zero degrees through 179 degrees, any odd thousand foot MSL altitude +500 feet (such as 3,500, 5,500, or 7,500); or(2) On a magnetic course of 180 degrees through 359 degrees, any even thousand foot MSL altitude +500 feet (such as 4,500, 6,500, or 8,500).14 CFR also specifies cruising altitude rules for higher flight levels
17 Preflight Weather Briefing Flight Service Station BriefingsOutlook BriefingMore than 6 hours in advanceStandard Briefing6 hours or less in advanceAbbreviated BriefingOnly need to update one or two specific items+1 (800) WX-BRIEFAdditional Weather Data SourcesNational Weather Service – NOAAAOPA – for members only
18 When you call FSS for a preflight briefing, tell them the following… Identify yourself as a private pilot flying VFRSpecify that you want an “Outlook,” “Standard,” or “Abbreviated” briefingAircraft tail numberOrigin, destination, & routeTime of departure and time enrouteCruising altitude
19 Completing the Navigation Log Write in:Check pointsVOR infoCourseAltitudeWinds aloftTrue AirspeedTrue CourseLeg distances between checkpointsHighlight Course Heading blocksHighlight ATA blocksAirport runway infoRadio frequenciesCalculate:WCATrue HeadingMagnetic HeadingCourse HeadingEstimated GroundspeedEstimated Time EnrouteFuel BurnTotal DistanceFuel Remaining
20 East is Least and West is Best Course EquationsTrue Course+/- Wind Correction AngleTrue Heading+/- VariationMagnetic Heading+/- DeviationCompass HeadingEast is Least and West is Bestwhen going fromTrue to Compass
21 East is Best and West is Least Course EquationsCompass Heading-/+ DeviationMagnetic Heading-/+ VariationTrue Heading-/+ Wind Correction AngleTrue CourseEast is Best and West is Leastwhen going fromCompass to True
22 Wind Correction Angle Your E6B will help you compute your WCA True Course minus a Left WCA gives you True HeadingTrue Course plus a Right WCA gives you True Heading
23 VariationVariation is the error in the magnetic compass caused by the difference between true north and magnetic northThe Earth’s magnetic field is produced by the movement of molten iron more than 1,850 miles (3,000 km) below the surface in northern Canada and influenced to some degree by charged particles streaming from the sun.The magnetic north pole is moving out of Canada! Check:The amount of variation along your route of flight is shown on the Isogonic linesVariation is Easterly or WesterlyThe Agonic line is the line of 0° variationFor flight planning purposes, round variation to the nearest whole degree
24 DeviationDeviation is the error in the magnetic compass caused by surrounding metal and electromagnetic fieldsYour aircraft’s deviation card will tell you what compass heading to steer in order to achieve a particular magnetic headingInterpolation may be required if your desired magnetic heading falls in between two magnetic heading valuesIf deviation values are small, they may be negligibleYour heading indicator is marked in 5° incrementsHow steady can you fly your course anyway? Deviation Card for N1729YMH360030060090120150180210240270300330CH357326193121149178209238268299328
25 InterpolationThe process of estimating values between two known valuesMathematically finding the ratio of two ranges, in order to determine the middle valueMay or may not be required for flight planning, depending on what level of precision is requiredRember the “Keep it Simple” principle in order to lessen the chance of error!
26 Example of Interpolation Bill and Jorge decide to split a pizza.The pizza costs $9.00 and has 6 slices.Bill eats 5 slicesJorge eats 1 sliceHow much should Bill pay?Reference: University of Michigan Navy ROTC NavCompasses-Lesson5.ppt
27 Example of Interpolation Eating all the pizza slices costs $9.00Eating none of the pizza costs $0.00So Bill has eaten 5/6 of $9.005/6 times $9.00 = $7.50This is interpolation - calculation of an internal value by assuming a linear relationship with surrounding data.Reference: University of Michigan Navy ROTC NavCompasses-Lesson5.ppt
28 Computing Fuel Burn Check your POH for details for Taxi and run-up fuel allowanceClimb fuel burnCruise fuel burnErr on the conservative side!Round up to tenths of gallons that you will useIt is important that you use proper leaning techniques in flight, or else you won’t achieve the fuel burn you are expecting
29 Rate Equations Distancenautical miles = Speedknots * Timehours 60*Distancenautical miles = Speedknots * TimeminutesMnemonic: “Sixty D STreet”Fuel Burnedgallons = Burn RateGPH * Timehours60*Fuel Burnedgallons= Burn RateGPH * TimeminutesYour E6B will make these computations, but you need to understand how the numbers are derived
31 Flight Plan File your flight plan with FSS +1 (800) WX-BRIEFA flight plan is a request to search for you if you are overdue 30 minutesBegins with a telephone search, then full scale SAR missionIt is extremely important that you remember to close your flight plan, or update FSS enroute if you are delayedIf FSS doesn’t find you with a telephone search and initiates a SAR when you are not really lost, you will be fined!Make sure that if you update enroute with another FSS, they forward the info on to the FSS that you filed the plan with!Once the FSS I updated my flight plan with enroute forgot to tell my local FSS that I filed with…my local FSS started a search for me!
32 Example Flight: SQL-VCB Here’s how I would fly from San Carlos to Vacaville in a Cessna 172A note on my climb performance calculations:I choose to climb to cruising altitude at 85 knots indicated airspeed, instead of 73 knots, for better & safer visibilityThe aircraft I fly aren’t brand newHence I’ve observed empirically that I should add 35% to the climb performance numbers I found in the P.O.H. for my aircraft for more realistic & conservative calculationsYou need to determine what is appropriate for your aircraft
34 Helpful Hints for Navigation Logs My notation styleUnderline runway numbers with Right Pattern trafficHighlight Actual Time of Arrival (ATA) blocks so that in the air you immediately know what blocks to write in first at each checkpointHighlight course headings so that at a glance you know what heading to steerRound ETAs to nearest whole minute, and use a + or – to indicate whether the time was over or under that amountRound distance to the nearest whole nautical mileWith .5nm, sometimes I can’t decide which way to round Sometimes I draw small airport diagrams on my log in order to visualize expected traffic patterns
35 Helpful Hints for Navigation Logs Calculating fuel burnFor the climb portion of your flight, use your P.O.H. to tell you how many minutes you will be climbing and how much fuel you will burn in climbThen use your estimated ground speed during climb to calculate how much ground distance you will cover during your climbFor the cruise and descent segments of flight, use 60D=ST to calculate your time enrouteThen use your estimated fuel burn rate for that cruising altitude to calculate the amount of fuel used on that segmentAlways round up to be more conservative – don’t skimp on fuel requirements!Don’t forget to add in your fuel requirements for taxi & run-up at the beginning of your flight!
36 Example Flight Plan: SQL-VCB I would call +1 (800) WX-BRIEF to file this flight planI include my mobile phone number and my home base FBO phone number in the contact section—these would be used in an FSS initial telephone search
37 Helpful Hints for Student Pilots in Training As student pilots, you’ll have several cross country flights of specified distance and duration you need to makeYour CFI is required to review your flight plan and endorse you for that flight over the specified route on that day using a current weather briefingAvoid a last minute rush to finish your flight planning & meet your instructor with the tips on the following slides
38 Helpful Hints – Have Weather Alternates Avoid weather disappointments by planning several flights that will meet your objective to different areasChart the courses in advanceConsider details such as runway & fuel requirements, etc.Fill in the navigation logs in advance except for weather related informationA few hours before the flight, get the latest weather briefing, pick the route that has feasible weather, and complete the navigation log for that route
39 Helpful Hints – Aeronautical Experience Know the aeronautical experience requirements and make a plan on how you will meet them14 CFR ii defines Cross Country time (other than rotorcraft) as time acquired during a flight:Conducted in an appropriate aircraft;That includes a point of landing that was at least a straight-line distance of more than 50 nautical miles from the original point of departure; andThat involves the use of dead reckoning, pilotage, electronic navigation aids, radio aids, or other navigation systems to navigate to the landing point.14 CFR a defines aeronautical experience requirements for airplane single-engine rating
40 14 CFR 61.109a – Aeronautical Experience For an airplane single-engine rating Except as provided in paragraph (i) of this section, a person who applies for a private pilot certificate with an airplane category and single-engine class rating must log at least 40 hours of flight time that includes at least 20 hours of flight training from an authorized instructor and 10 hours of solo flight training in the areas of operation listed in § 61.107(b)(1) of this part, and the training must include at least --(1) 3 hours of cross-country flight training in a single-engine airplane;(2) Except as provided in § of this part, 3 hours of night flight training in a single-engine airplane that includes --(i) One cross-country flight of over 100 nautical miles total distance; and(ii) 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport.(3) 3 hours of flight training in a single-engine airplane on the control and maneuvering of an airplane solely by reference to instruments, including straight and level flight, constant airspeed climbs and descents, turns to a heading, recovery from unusual flight attitudes, radio communications, and the use of navigation systems/facilities and radar services appropriate to instrument flight;(4) 3 hours of flight training in preparation for the practical test in a single-engine airplane, which must have been performed within 60 days preceding the date of the test; and(5) 10 hours of solo flight time in a single-engine airplane, consisting of at least(i) 5 hours of solo cross-country time;(ii) One solo cross-country flight of at least 150 nautical miles total distance, with full-stop landings at a minimum of three points, and one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line distance of at least 50 nautical miles between the takeoff and landing locations; and(iii) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating control tower.