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**Coastal Navigation Jack Dale ISPA Yachtmaster Offshore Instructor**

CYA Advanced Cruising Instructor

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**Navigational Equipment**

Plotters Dividers Hand Bearing Compass Ship’s Compass TSD Computer Calculator Pencils / Erasers Binoculars Knotmeter Depth Sounder / Lead Line Watch Barometer GPS VHF Radio

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**Plotter Portland Plotter Douglas Protractor Parallel Rules**

Course Arm Plotter

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**Dividers One handed Used for Measuring distance**

Determining Latitude and Longitude Straight

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**Hand Bearing Compass Used to take bearings Lines of position**

Danger bearings

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Ship’s Compass Binnacle Compass Bulkhead Compass

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Fluxgate Compass Digital compass Sensor

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Nautical Slide Rule Time speed distance calculations

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**Calculator Time speed distance calculations**

Can be used for celestial navigation

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Pencils / Erasers O.9 mm pencil Soft lead White erasers

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Binoculars 7 X 50 May have built-in compass

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**Knotmeter Measures speed through the water.**

Usually includes a trip log Distance covered

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**Depth Sounder / Lead Line**

Used to measure depths Be aware of offset May not work at extreme depths

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Clock / Watch Ship’s clock is official time

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**Barometer Used to make weather forecasts**

Rapidly falling barometer indicates severe weather

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**GPS Position finding Speed over ground Velocity made good ETA**

GPS Position finding Speed over ground Velocity made good ETA Horizontal datum should match chart

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**VHF Radio Marine weather forecasts Notices to Shipping GMDSS**

Communication with other vessels, marinas

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**Navigational Publications**

Notices to Mariners Chart 1 - Symbols and Abbreviations Catalogue of Nautical Charts and Related Publications Sailing Directions Current Atlas Canadian Aids to Navigation System Tide and Current Tables List of Lights, Buoys and Fog Signals Radio Aids to Marine Navigation

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Other Publications International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea (ColRegs) Safe Boating Guide

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Charts a graphic representation of a maritime area and adjacent coastal regions.

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**Chart Information Charts show depths of water and heights of land,**

natural features of the seabed, details of the coastline, navigational hazards, locations of natural and man-made aids to navigation, information on tides and currents, local details of the Earth's magnetic field, man-made structures such as harbours and bridges

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**Chart Classification Sailing Charts General Charts Offshore passages**

1:600,000 Very little detail General Charts Making landfalls 1:150,000 to 1:600,000

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**Chart Classification Coastal Charts Harbour Charts**

Inshore navigation 1:50,000 to 1:150,000 Harbour Charts Navigating harbours and waterways Larger than 1:50,000 Large scale = lots of detail

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**Care of Charts Use soft pencils only Use white erasers only**

Level, flat surface Keep them updated Keep them dry Use below decks Stow flat / folded

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Reading Charts Title Block Chart Symbols and Abbreviations

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**Title Block Region Identification Main Title Scale Identification**

Projection Identification

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**Title Block Depths Notes Elevation Notes Horizontal Datum**

Source Classification Symbol Reference Notes (Chart 1)

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**Title Block Tides and Current Notes Aids to Navigation Notes**

Cautionary Notes Conversion Table Metres, Feet, Fathoms

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**Compass Rose Variation May be as many as four per chart May vary**

Use the closest one

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**Transferring Charts Determine position**

Determine range and bearing to object on both charts Verify with latitude and longitude

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**Important Chart Symbols**

Rock awash at chart datum Dangerous underwater rock of 2m (6 ft) or less

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**Important Chart Symbols**

Rock which covers and uncovers, with drying height Rock which does not cover, with elevation

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**Important Chart Symbols**

Kelp Wreck showing any portion of hull or superstructure

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**Important Chart Symbols**

Wreck, masts visible Flood current direction with rate

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**Important Chart Symbols**

Whirlpools, eddies Wd Weed seabed

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**Important Chart Symbols**

Underwater cable Limit of restricted area

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**Important Chart Symbols**

Lighted navigational aid (not floating) Church

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**Coordinates Latitude (L) Longitude (λ) Parallels run east and west**

Denote location north or south of the Equator Poles are 90º North and 90º South Longitude (λ) Meridians run north and south Denote location east or west of Prime Meriden Greenwich Converge at poles

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**Latitude and Longitude**

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Graticule This latitude/longitude "webbing" is known as the common graticule. Location can be specified by both latitude and longitude.

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Deception Pass L 48 24.4’N 122 40.2W

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**Degrees Minutes Seconds**

360 degrees in a circle Symbol º 60 minutes in a degree Symbol ' 60 seconds in a minute Symbol "

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**Formats Latitude – Longitude DM Degree:Minute DMS Degree:Minute:Second**

L 49º 30.0’ N λ123º 30.0’W DMS Degree:Minute:Second L49 º 30’ 00”N λ123º 30’ 00”W DD Decimal Degree L º N λ ºW generally with 4 decimal numbers.

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**Chart Projections Mercator Polyconic “Normal” projection for charts**

May be used in the Great Lakes

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Mercator Projection

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Conic Projection

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**The Ships Compass and North**

Cardinal Points North East South West North is usually at the top

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**North True North Magnetic North Compass North**

No variation or deviation Magnetic North Accounts for variation only Compass North Accounts for variation and deviation

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**Variation Difference between true north and magnetic north**

North pole and magnetic pole differ Annual change Found on compass rose Varies globally

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**Compass Rose 004 1/2°W 1985 (8' E) 4.5º West variation in 1985**

8’ annual change Current variation 3ºW 8 X 19/60 = 1.424º change 4.5 – 1.5 = 3 Subtract when annual change and variation directions differ Add when same

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**Deviation Difference between ship’s compass and magnetic bearing**

Ferrous metal affects magnetic field on vessel Relative to vessel’s heading Found on deviation card / table No deviation in hand bearing compass

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**Working Deviation Table**

Magnetic Deviation Compass 000 5 W 005 180 5 E 175 015 6 W 021 195 6 E 189 030 036 210 204 045 051 225 7 E 218 060 065 240 234 075 080 255 249 090 095 270 265 105 4 W 109 285 4 E 281 120 2 W 122 300 2 E 198 135 315 0 150 148 330 334 165 161 345 349

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**Deviation Card Created by Checked using ranges or transit**

Compass compensator Self Checked using ranges or transit

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**Accounting for Variation and Deviation**

Helm reads the ship’s compass Navigator works in true Navigator makes conversions Correcting Compass to True Uncorrecting True to Compass

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**Compass to True Conversions**

Correcting Memory Aid Can Dead Men Vote Twice At Elections Correcting Compass heading +/- Deviation = Magnetic heading +/- Variation = True heading Add East

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**Converting True to Compass**

Uncorrecting Memory Aid True Virgins Make Dull Company At Weddings Uncorrecting True heading +/- Variation = Magnetic heading +/- Deviation =Compass heading Add West

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**Correcting Examples Compass Deviation Magnetic Variation True 124 16°W**

253 12 °W 165 17 °E 337 13 °E

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**Uncorrecting Examples**

True Variation Magnetic Deviation Compass 017 13 °E 073 11 °W 206 9 °E 268 21 °W

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**Time, Speed, Distance Distance Speed Time Measured in nautical miles**

One mile equals 1 minutes of latitude 1.15 statute miles (6080 feet) 1.85 kilometers Speed Measured in knots (nautical miles per hour) Time Measured in minutes

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**The formula 60D = ST Distance times 60 equals speed times time**

S=60D/T T=60D/S

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**Guidelines Speed 1 knot 2 knots 3 knots 4 knots 5 knots 6 knots**

Time to travel 1 mile 60 minutes 30 minutes 20 minutes 15 minutes 12 minutes 10 minutes

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Examples You have been on route for 4 hours and 20 minutes at a speed of 6 knots. How far have you travelled? You need to get to Porlier Pass (20 miles away) by At what time should you depart, if your speed 6 knots? You leave Sidney for Ganges, a distance of 15 miles. You arrive 4 hours later. What was your speed?

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**Answers D=ST / 60 T=60D /S S=60D / T 6 X 240 /60 = 26 miles**

60 X 20 / 6 = 200 minutes (3h 20m) Depart at 1140 S=60D / T 60 X 5 / 240 = 3.75 knots

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**Deck Log Course (add east) POSITION C D M V T S REMARKS TIME SET DFT**

Deck Log Course (add east) TIME POSITION C D M V T S SET DFT CMG SMG REMARKS

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