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Coastal Navigation Jack Dale ISPA Yachtmaster Offshore Instructor

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Presentation on theme: "Coastal Navigation Jack Dale ISPA Yachtmaster Offshore Instructor"— Presentation transcript:

1 Coastal Navigation Jack Dale ISPA Yachtmaster Offshore Instructor
CYA Advanced Cruising Instructor

2 Navigational Equipment
Plotters Dividers Hand Bearing Compass Ship’s Compass TSD Computer Calculator Pencils / Erasers Binoculars Knotmeter Depth Sounder / Lead Line Watch Barometer GPS VHF Radio

3 Plotter Portland Plotter Douglas Protractor Parallel Rules
Course Arm Plotter

4 Dividers One handed Used for Measuring distance
Determining Latitude and Longitude Straight

5 Hand Bearing Compass Used to take bearings Lines of position
Danger bearings

6 Ship’s Compass Binnacle Compass Bulkhead Compass

7 Fluxgate Compass Digital compass Sensor                            

8 Nautical Slide Rule Time speed distance calculations

9 Calculator Time speed distance calculations
Can be used for celestial navigation

10 Pencils / Erasers O.9 mm pencil Soft lead White erasers                                                         

11 Binoculars 7 X 50 May have built-in compass

12 Knotmeter Measures speed through the water.
Usually includes a trip log Distance covered                            

13 Depth Sounder / Lead Line
Used to measure depths Be aware of offset May not work at extreme depths                                  

14 Clock / Watch Ship’s clock is official time

15 Barometer Used to make weather forecasts
Rapidly falling barometer indicates severe weather

16 GPS Position finding Speed over ground Velocity made good ETA
                                                                                           GPS Position finding Speed over ground Velocity made good ETA Horizontal datum should match chart

17 VHF Radio Marine weather forecasts Notices to Shipping GMDSS
Communication with other vessels, marinas

18 Navigational Publications
Notices to Mariners Chart 1 - Symbols and Abbreviations Catalogue of Nautical Charts and Related Publications Sailing Directions Current Atlas Canadian Aids to Navigation System Tide and Current Tables List of Lights, Buoys and Fog Signals Radio Aids to Marine Navigation

19 Other Publications International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea (ColRegs) Safe Boating Guide

20 Charts a graphic representation of a maritime area and adjacent coastal regions.

21 Chart Information Charts show depths of water and heights of land,
natural features of the seabed, details of the coastline, navigational hazards, locations of natural and man-made aids to navigation, information on tides and currents, local details of the Earth's magnetic field, man-made structures such as harbours and bridges

22 Chart Classification Sailing Charts General Charts Offshore passages
1:600,000 Very little detail General Charts Making landfalls 1:150,000 to 1:600,000

23 Chart Classification Coastal Charts Harbour Charts
Inshore navigation 1:50,000 to 1:150,000 Harbour Charts Navigating harbours and waterways Larger than 1:50,000 Large scale = lots of detail

24 Care of Charts Use soft pencils only Use white erasers only
Level, flat surface Keep them updated Keep them dry Use below decks Stow flat / folded

25 Reading Charts Title Block Chart Symbols and Abbreviations

26 Title Block Region Identification Main Title Scale Identification
Projection Identification

27 Title Block Depths Notes Elevation Notes Horizontal Datum
Source Classification Symbol Reference Notes (Chart 1)

28 Title Block Tides and Current Notes Aids to Navigation Notes
Cautionary Notes Conversion Table Metres, Feet, Fathoms

29 Compass Rose Variation May be as many as four per chart May vary
Use the closest one

30 Transferring Charts Determine position
Determine range and bearing to object on both charts Verify with latitude and longitude

31 Important Chart Symbols
Rock awash at chart datum Dangerous underwater rock of 2m (6 ft) or less

32 Important Chart Symbols
Rock which covers and uncovers, with drying height Rock which does not cover, with elevation

33 Important Chart Symbols
Kelp Wreck showing any portion of hull or superstructure

34 Important Chart Symbols
Wreck, masts visible Flood current direction with rate

35 Important Chart Symbols
Whirlpools, eddies Wd Weed seabed

36 Important Chart Symbols
Underwater cable Limit of restricted area

37 Important Chart Symbols
Lighted navigational aid (not floating) Church

38 Coordinates Latitude (L) Longitude (λ) Parallels run east and west
Denote location north or south of the Equator Poles are 90º North and 90º South Longitude (λ) Meridians run north and south Denote location east or west of Prime Meriden Greenwich Converge at poles

39 Latitude and Longitude

40 Graticule This latitude/longitude "webbing" is known as the common graticule. Location can be specified by both latitude and longitude.

41 Deception Pass L 48 24.4’N 122 40.2W

42 Degrees Minutes Seconds
360 degrees in a circle Symbol º 60 minutes in a degree Symbol ' 60 seconds in a minute Symbol "

43 Formats Latitude – Longitude DM Degree:Minute DMS Degree:Minute:Second
L 49º 30.0’ N λ123º 30.0’W DMS Degree:Minute:Second L49 º 30’ 00”N λ123º 30’ 00”W DD Decimal Degree L º N λ ºW generally with 4 decimal numbers.

44 Chart Projections Mercator Polyconic “Normal” projection for charts
May be used in the Great Lakes

45 Mercator Projection

46 Conic Projection

47 The Ships Compass and North
Cardinal Points North East South West North is usually at the top

48 North True North Magnetic North Compass North
No variation or deviation Magnetic North Accounts for variation only Compass North Accounts for variation and deviation

49 Variation Difference between true north and magnetic north
North pole and magnetic pole differ Annual change Found on compass rose Varies globally

50 Compass Rose 004 1/2°W 1985 (8' E) 4.5º West variation in 1985
8’ annual change Current variation 3ºW 8 X 19/60 = 1.424º change 4.5 – 1.5 = 3 Subtract when annual change and variation directions differ Add when same

51 Deviation Difference between ship’s compass and magnetic bearing
Ferrous metal affects magnetic field on vessel Relative to vessel’s heading Found on deviation card / table No deviation in hand bearing compass

52 Working Deviation Table
Magnetic Deviation Compass 000 5 W 005 180 5 E 175 015 6 W 021 195 6 E 189 030 036 210 204 045 051 225 7 E 218 060 065 240 234 075 080 255 249 090 095 270 265 105 4 W 109 285 4 E 281 120 2 W 122 300 2 E 198 135 315 0 150 148 330 334 165 161 345 349

53 Deviation Card Created by Checked using ranges or transit
Compass compensator Self Checked using ranges or transit

54 Accounting for Variation and Deviation
Helm reads the ship’s compass Navigator works in true Navigator makes conversions Correcting Compass to True Uncorrecting True to Compass

55 Compass to True Conversions
Correcting Memory Aid Can Dead Men Vote Twice At Elections Correcting Compass heading +/- Deviation = Magnetic heading +/- Variation = True heading Add East

56 Converting True to Compass
Uncorrecting Memory Aid True Virgins Make Dull Company At Weddings Uncorrecting True heading +/- Variation = Magnetic heading +/- Deviation =Compass heading Add West

57 Correcting Examples Compass Deviation Magnetic Variation True 124 16°W
253 12 °W 165 17 °E 337 13 °E

58 Uncorrecting Examples
True Variation Magnetic Deviation Compass 017 13 °E 073 11 °W 206 9 °E 268 21 °W

59 Time, Speed, Distance Distance Speed Time Measured in nautical miles
One mile equals 1 minutes of latitude 1.15 statute miles (6080 feet) 1.85 kilometers Speed Measured in knots (nautical miles per hour) Time Measured in minutes

60 The formula 60D = ST Distance times 60 equals speed times time
S=60D/T T=60D/S

61 Guidelines Speed 1 knot 2 knots 3 knots 4 knots 5 knots 6 knots
Time to travel 1 mile 60 minutes 30 minutes 20 minutes 15 minutes 12 minutes 10 minutes

62 Examples You have been on route for 4 hours and 20 minutes at a speed of 6 knots. How far have you travelled? You need to get to Porlier Pass (20 miles away) by At what time should you depart, if your speed 6 knots? You leave Sidney for Ganges, a distance of 15 miles. You arrive 4 hours later. What was your speed?

63 Answers D=ST / 60 T=60D /S S=60D / T 6 X 240 /60 = 26 miles
60 X 20 / 6 = 200 minutes (3h 20m) Depart at 1140 S=60D / T 60 X 5 / 240 = 3.75 knots

64 Deck Log Course (add east) POSITION C D M V T S REMARKS TIME SET DFT
Deck Log Course (add east) TIME POSITION C D M V T S SET DFT CMG SMG REMARKS


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