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Coastal Navigation Jack Dale ISPA Yachtmaster Offshore Instructor CYA Advanced Cruising Instructor.

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Presentation on theme: "Coastal Navigation Jack Dale ISPA Yachtmaster Offshore Instructor CYA Advanced Cruising Instructor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Coastal Navigation Jack Dale ISPA Yachtmaster Offshore Instructor CYA Advanced Cruising Instructor

2 Navigational Equipment Plotters Dividers Hand Bearing Compass Ships Compass TSD Computer Calculator Pencils / Erasers Binoculars Knotmeter Depth Sounder / Lead Line Watch Barometer GPS VHF Radio

3 Plotter Portland Plotter Douglas Protractor Parallel Rules Course Arm Plotter

4 Dividers One handed Straight Used for Measuring distance Determining Latitude and Longitude

5 Hand Bearing Compass Used to take bearings Lines of position Danger bearings

6 Ships Compass Binnacle Compass Bulkhead Compass

7 Fluxgate Compass Digital compass Sensor

8 Nautical Slide Rule Time speed distance calculations

9 Calculator Time speed distance calculations Can be used for celestial navigation

10 Pencils / Erasers O.9 mm pencil Soft lead White erasers

11 Binoculars 7 X 50 May have built-in compass

12 Knotmeter Measures speed through the water. Usually includes a trip log Distance covered

13 Depth Sounder / Lead Line Used to measure depths Be aware of offset May not work at extreme depths

14 Clock / Watch Ships clock is official time

15 Barometer Used to make weather forecasts Rapidly falling barometer indicates severe weather

16 GPS Position finding Speed over ground Velocity made good ETA Horizontal datum should match chart

17 VHF Radio Marine weather forecasts Notices to Shipping GMDSS Communication with other vessels, marinas

18 Navigational Publications Notices to Mariners Chart 1 - Symbols and Abbreviations Catalogue of Nautical Charts and Related Publications Sailing Directions Current Atlas Canadian Aids to Navigation System Tide and Current Tables List of Lights, Buoys and Fog Signals Radio Aids to Marine Navigation

19 Other Publications International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea (ColRegs) Safe Boating Guide

20 Charts a graphic representation of a maritime area and adjacent coastal regions.

21 Chart Information Charts show depths of water and heights of land, natural features of the seabed, details of the coastline, navigational hazards, locations of natural and man-made aids to navigation, information on tides and currents, local details of the Earth's magnetic field, man-made structures such as harbours and bridges

22 Chart Classification Sailing Charts Offshore passages 1:600,000 Very little detail General Charts Making landfalls 1:150,000 to 1:600,000

23 Chart Classification Coastal Charts Inshore navigation 1:50,000 to 1:150,000 Harbour Charts Navigating harbours and waterways Larger than 1:50,000 Large scale = lots of detail

24 Care of Charts Use soft pencils only Use white erasers only Level, flat surface Keep them updated Keep them dry Use below decks Stow flat / folded

25 Reading Charts Title Block Chart Symbols and Abbreviations

26 Title Block Region Identification Main Title Scale Identification Projection Identification

27 Title Block Depths Notes Elevation Notes Horizontal Datum Source Classification Symbol Reference Notes (Chart 1)

28 Title Block Tides and Current Notes Aids to Navigation Notes Cautionary Notes Conversion Table Metres, Feet, Fathoms

29 Compass Rose Variation May be as many as four per chart May vary Use the closest one

30 Transferring Charts Determine position Determine range and bearing to object on both charts Verify with latitude and longitude

31 Important Chart Symbols Rock awash at chart datum Dangerous underwater rock of 2m (6 ft) or less

32 Important Chart Symbols Rock which covers and uncovers, with drying height Rock which does not cover, with elevation

33 Important Chart Symbols Kelp Wreck showing any portion of hull or superstructure

34 Important Chart Symbols Wreck, masts visible Flood current direction with rate

35 Important Chart Symbols Whirlpools, eddies Wd Weed seabed

36 Important Chart Symbols Underwater cable Limit of restricted area

37 Important Chart Symbols Lighted navigational aid (not floating) Church

38 Coordinates Latitude (L) Parallels run east and west Denote location north or south of the Equator Poles are 90º North and 90º South Longitude (λ) Meridians run north and south Denote location east or west of Prime Meriden Greenwich Converge at poles

39 Latitude and Longitude

40 Graticule This latitude/longitude "webbing" is known as the common graticule. Location can be specified by both latitude and longitude.

41 Deception Pass L N W

42 Degrees Minutes Seconds 360 degrees in a circle Symbol º 60 minutes in a degree Symbol ' 60 seconds in a minute Symbol "

43 Formats Latitude – Longitude DM Degree:Minute L 49º 30.0 N λ123º 30.0W DMS Degree:Minute:Second L49 º 30 00N λ123º 30 00W DD Decimal Degree L º N λ ºW generally with 4 decimal numbers.

44 Chart Projections Mercator Normal projection for charts Polyconic May be used in the Great Lakes

45 Mercator Projection

46 Conic Projection

47 The Ships Compass and North Cardinal Points North East South West North is usually at the top

48 North True North No variation or deviation Magnetic North Accounts for variation only Compass North Accounts for variation and deviation

49 Variation Difference between true north and magnetic north North pole and magnetic pole differ Annual change Found on compass rose Varies globally

50 Compass Rose 004 1/2°W 1985 (8' E) 4.5º West variation in annual change Current variation 3ºW 8 X 19/60 = 1.424º change 4.5 – 1.5 = 3 Subtract when annual change and variation directions differ Add when same

51 Deviation Difference between ships compass and magnetic bearing Ferrous metal affects magnetic field on vessel Relative to vessels heading Found on deviation card / table No deviation in hand bearing compass

52 Working Deviation Table MagneticDeviationCompassMagneticDeviationCompass W E W E W E W E W E W E W E W E W E E W E W 349

53 Deviation Card Created by Compass compensator Self Checked using ranges or transit

54 Accounting for Variation and Deviation Helm reads the ships compass Navigator works in true Navigator makes conversions Correcting Compass to True Uncorrecting True to Compass

55 Compass to True Conversions Correcting Memory Aid Can Dead Men Vote Twice At Elections Correcting Compass heading +/- Deviation = Magnetic heading +/- Variation = True heading Add East

56 Converting True to Compass Uncorrecting Memory Aid True Virgins Make Dull Company At Weddings Uncorrecting True heading +/- Variation = Magnetic heading +/- Deviation =Compass heading Add West

57 Correcting Examples CompassDeviationMagneticVariationTrue 12416°W °W °E °E

58 Uncorrecting Examples TrueVariationMagneticDeviationCompass °E °W 2069 °E °W

59 Time, Speed, Distance Distance Measured in nautical miles One mile equals 1 minutes of latitude 1.15 statute miles (6080 feet) 1.85 kilometers Speed Measured in knots (nautical miles per hour) Time Measured in minutes

60 The formula 60D = ST Distance times 60 equals speed times time D=(ST)/60 S=60D/T T=60D/S

61 Guidelines Speed 1 knot 2 knots 3 knots 4 knots 5 knots 6 knots Time to travel 1 mile 60 minutes 30 minutes 20 minutes 15 minutes 12 minutes 10 minutes

62 Examples 1)You have been on route for 4 hours and 20 minutes at a speed of 6 knots. How far have you travelled? 2)You need to get to Porlier Pass (20 miles away) by At what time should you depart, if your speed 6 knots? 3)You leave Sidney for Ganges, a distance of 15 miles. You arrive 4 hours later. What was your speed?

63 Answers 1.D=ST / 60 6 X 240 /60 = 26 miles 2.T=60D /S 60 X 20 / 6 = 200 minutes (3h 20m) Depart at S=60D / T S=60D / T 60 X 5 / 240 = 3.75 knots


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