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The built-up, non-rural area and its population Includes recently developed suburbs Better picture of a metro area than just the political city boundary.

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Presentation on theme: "The built-up, non-rural area and its population Includes recently developed suburbs Better picture of a metro area than just the political city boundary."— Presentation transcript:


2 The built-up, non-rural area and its population Includes recently developed suburbs Better picture of a metro area than just the political city boundary

3 Urbanizations Cost in China

4 Urban hierarchy True in some regions Largest city 2 nd Largest 3 rd Largest 1/2 1/3 12 million 6 million 4 million

5 In some regions… A large and exceptionally influential city The next largest city is much smaller and with much less influence Often a result of… ta-da!... Colonialism!

6 Mexico City, Mexico Manila, Philippines London Paris




10 Walter Christaller – 1920s Explains the location patterns of urban areas Similar to…??? Webers Least Cost Theory for manufacturing and industry Von Thunens model of rural agricultural land use

11 Place a circle on your paper about the size of a quarter – the center of this circle is your neighborhood and the surrounding part in West Linn Draw a medium-sized circle around West Linn – this is the economic area connected to West Linn, like Clackamas and Bridgeport Draw three more medium circles further out and not connected to West Linn

12 Economic relationships between cities and their hinterlands (areas further away) Christallers assumptions: People will purchase goods from the closest place When demand for a good is high, it will be offered in close proximity to the population

13 Areas of a central place are ranked by size: Hamlet Village Town City Regional Capital

14 Low-order goods – things that are replenished frequently (like food) Purchased often Smaller businesses can survive selling low- order goods in smaller towns outside large city

15 High-order goods – specialized items bought less frequently (cars, furniture, fine jewelry) Business often cannot survive in smaller towns Must locate in a big city with more people to buy

16 Each of these central places are located at the point where equilateral triangles connect Creates equidistant connections to high-order goods Creates a system of centers of various sizes Each center will supply particular types of goods

17 Threshold – the minimum number of people required to support a business Range – the travel time it takes a consumer to reach the business

18 The larger the settlements are in size, the fewer in number they will be there are many small villages, but few large cities.

19 The larger the settlements, the greater the distance between them villages are usually found close together, while cities are spaced much further apart.

20 As a settlement increases in size, the range and number of its functions will increase

21 As a settlement increases in size, the number of higher-order services will also increase

22 Big Cities High-order goods, large, few. Mid-sized cities Some high-order goods, fewer, further apart Small cities, towns, villages Low-order goods, small, a lot of them, close together

23 A city or town that provides goods and services to the surrounding population People travel to a central place for goods and services

24 A good or service that a central place provides

25 The area of consumers for a particular good or service people travel from a market area

26 Geographic model and location patterns of central places that sell goods and services to hexagonal-shaped market areas

27 Central Place Theory High-order and Low-order goods Central place Market area Central place function Threshold Range

28 Farmers shopping preferences in southwest Iowa Food Hospitals Legal services Write an explanation of why we see different patterns in these maps. Use the following terms in your answer: Central place theory Central place Market area Threshold Range High-order goods Low-order goods

29 Many new technologies since the 1920s Interstate highway system Internet Changes in retail markets (big box stores)

30 Sun Belt phenomenon Millions of Americans have migrated south over the past 4o years Apply Central Place Theory: What would happen to some southern cities?


32 Resource node – close to resources Transport node – at an intersection of lines of transportation Gold

33 Megacity or Supercity – very large city. Megalopolis – Several large supercities that have merged to form a very large urban region. World city (global city) – serve an important node in global economic system


35 Blue Banana – the economic core of the European Union

36 World city (global city) – serve an important node in global economic system Alpha++ cities are vastly more integrated with the global economy than any other cities. Alpha+ cities complement Alpha++ cities by linking them to major economic regions.

37 Cate­goryCities Al­pha++ London New York City Al­pha+ Hong Kong Paris Singapore Shanghai Tokyo Beijing Sydney Dubai

38 A total population of more than 10 million Tokyo, Japan Seoul, South Korea Mumbai, India New York Los Angeles

39 Unrestricted growth of urban areas in many U.S. cities Los Angeles


41 Phoenix

42 Las Vegas urbanization U.S. Dept of Interior: These progressive geo-referenced databases of urban land use change are developed by merging information from historic maps, census statistics, commerce records, remotely sensed data, and digital land use data.

43 Movement to outer edges of cities Has been going on since the end of WWII Things that supported suburbanization: Automobiles 40 hour work week Baby boom after the war created a high demand for family housing Federal home loans like the G.I. Bill

44 Key Statistics Of Urban Sprawl Between 1982 and 1997 America converted approximately 25 million acres (39,000 square miles) of rural land to developed land

45 Key Statistics Of Urban Sprawl Over a 20-year period ( ), the 100 largest Urbanized Areas in the United States sprawled an additional 14,545 square miles. Thats more than 9 million acres of natural habitats, farmland and other rural space covered over by the asphalt, buildings and sub- divisions of suburbia.

46 Megalopolis of northeastern United States Conurbation A region of several large cities, towns and suburbs merged to form one large urban area

47 Conversion of agricultural land to residential

48 Single-use zoning Separate areas for residential, retail, industrial

49 Low-density zoning Houses with big lawns One-story commercial buildings with spaces in between

50 Automobile dependency Little or no public transportation Fewer sidewalks because people dont walk to stores and other places


52 Job sprawl Businesses relocate to the suburbs because of more affordable low-density areas

53 Types of development Housing developments Strip malls Shopping malls Fast food chains

54 Environmental impact Because of…???

55 Human health impact Because of…???

56 Decreased social capital Because of…???

57 Spatial mismatch – economic inequality Because of…???

58 The purpose of a certain area of a city Examples: CBD (central business district) Industrial Zone The urban area that is not suburban


60 Burgess Chicago in the 1920s Urban zones grow around the CBD

61 Hoyt Zones grow outward from the core

62 Harris & Ullman As zones expand, the CBD loses its dominant position New centers develop

63 Harris & Ullman As zones expand, the CBD loses its dominant position New centers develop

64 Large suburb outside the CBD that develops its own economic core Large shopping center Industrial/Business park Office complexes Hotels Entertainment

65 Is perceived by the population as one place. Has more jobs than bedrooms. Was nothing like a "city" as recently as 30 years ago. Then it was just bedrooms, if not cow pastures. Bedroom Community – Young suburb with mainly residential housing



68 Edge cities that are connected each other and the core by highways or freeways


70 Urban growth boundary Controls urban expansion onto farm and forestry land (sprawl) Under Oregon law, each city or metropolitan area has an urban growth boundary that separates urban land from rural use. The boundary controls urban expansion onto farm and forest lands.

71 Urban growth boundary Keeps urban core vital Because of limited land for new developments, businesses are motivated to use current buildings instead of leaving them empty

72 Urban growth boundary Helps businesses and local governments plan for infrastructure Since cities and towns know that outlying farm lands cannot be developed, they can plan for roads and utilities more effectively within the core

73 Urban growth boundary Encourages more efficient development and use of infrastructure Instead of putting money and time into creating more and more roads leaving the core, local governments can put resources into making current roads and services more effective.

74 Urban growth boundary Encourages long-term planning Portlands urban growth plan is defined through 2040.

75 Urban growth boundary Benefits of Portlands 2040 Growth Concept: Promotes efficient land use by directing most development to existing urban centers Promotes a balanced transportation system biking, walking, public transit, and driving Builds complete communities by providing shopping and jobs near where people live



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