10Central Place Theory Walter Christaller – 1920s Explains the location patterns of urban areasSimilar to…???Weber’s Least Cost Theory for manufacturing and industryVon Thunen’s model of rural agricultural land use
11Quick Draw!Place a circle on your paper about the size of a quarter – the center of this circle is your neighborhood and the surrounding part in West LinnDraw a medium-sized circle around “West Linn” – this is the economic area connected to West Linn, like Clackamas and BridgeportDraw three more medium circles further out and not connected to West Linn
12Chritsaller’s Central Place Theory Economic relationships between cities and their hinterlands (areas further away)Christaller’s assumptions:People will purchase goods from the closest placeWhen demand for a good is high, it will be offered in close proximity to the population
13Chritsaller’s Central Place Theory Areas of a central place are ranked by size:HamletVillageTownCityRegional Capital
14Chritsaller’s Central Place Theory Low-order goods – things that are replenished frequently (like food)Purchased oftenSmaller businesses can survive selling low-order goods in smaller towns outside large city
15Chritsaller’s Central Place Theory High-order goods – specialized items bought less frequently (cars, furniture, fine jewelry)Business often cannot survive in smaller townsMust locate in a big city with more people to buy
16Chritsaller’s Central Place Theory Each of these central places are located at the point where equilateral triangles connectCreates equidistant connections to high-order goodsCreates a system of centers of various sizesEach center will supply particular types of goods
17Central Place TheoryThreshold – the minimum number of people required to support a businessRange – the travel time it takes a consumer to reach the business
18Central Place Theory: Implications The larger the settlements are in size, the fewer in number they will bethere are many small villages, but few large cities.
19Central Place Theory: Implications The larger the settlements, the greater the distance between themvillages are usually found close together, while cities are spaced much further apart.
20Central Place Theory: Implications As a settlement increases in size, the range and number of its functions will increase
21Central Place Theory: Implications As a settlement increases in size, the number of higher-order services will also increase
22Small cities, towns, villages Urban HierarchyBigCitiesHigh-order goods, large, few.Mid-sized citiesSome high-order goods, fewer, further apartSmall cities, towns, villagesLow-order goods, small, a lot of them, close together
23Central PlaceA city or town that provides goods and services to the surrounding populationPeople travel to a central place for goods and services
24Central Place Function A good or service that a central place provides
25Market Area The area of consumers for a particular good or service people travel from a market area
26Central Place TheoryGeographic model and location patterns of central places that sell goods and services to hexagonal-shaped market areas
27Vocab Review Central Place Theory High-order and Low-order goods Market areaCentral place functionThresholdRange
28Farmer’s shopping preferences in southwest Iowa Central Place TheoryFarmer’s shopping preferences in southwest IowaWrite an explanation of why we see different patterns in these maps. Use the following terms in your answer:Central place theoryCentral placeMarket areaThresholdRangeHigh-order goodsLow-order goodsFoodLegal servicesHospitals
29Central Place Theory: Is it obsolete? Many new technologies since the 1920sInterstate highway systemInternetChanges in retail markets (big box stores)
30Central Place Theory: Case Study Sun Belt phenomenonMillions of Americans have migrated south over the past 4o yearsApply Central Place Theory:What would happen to some southern cities?
32Why do cities and towns form where they do? Resource node – close to resourcesTransport node – at an intersection of lines of transportationGold
33Types of cities Megacity or Supercity – very large city. Megalopolis – Several large supercities that have merged to form a very large urban region.World city (global city) – serve an important node in global economic system
35Megalopolis Examples“Blue Banana” – the economic core of the European Union
36Types of citiesWorld city (global city) – serve an important node in global economic systemAlpha++ cities are vastly more integrated with the global economy than any other cities.Alpha+ cities complement Alpha++ cities by linking them to major economic regions.
37World Cities Alpha++ New York City Alpha+ Paris Singapore Shanghai CategoryCitiesAlpha++ London New York CityAlpha+ Hong Kong ParisSingapore Shanghai Tokyo Beijing Sydney Dubai
38Megacity Examples A total population of more than 10 million Tokyo, JapanSeoul, South KoreaMumbai, IndiaNew YorkLos Angeles
39Urban Sprawl Unrestricted growth of urban areas in many U.S. cities Los Angeles
42Las Vegas urbanization U.S. Dept of Interior:These progressive geo-referenced databases of urban land use change are developed by merging information from historic maps, census statistics, commerce records, remotely sensed data, and digital land use data.
43Suburbanization in America Movement to outer edges of citiesHas been going on since the end of WWIIThings that supported suburbanization:Automobiles40 hour work weekBaby boom after the war created a high demand for family housingFederal home loans like the G.I. Bill
44Urban Sprawl in America: The hungry monster Key Statistics Of Urban Sprawl Between 1982 and 1997 America converted approximately 25 million acres (39,000 square miles) of rural land to developed land
45Urban Sprawl in America: The hungry monster Key Statistics Of Urban Sprawl Over a 20-year period ( ), the 100 largest Urbanized Areas in the United States sprawled an additional 14,545 square miles.That’s more than 9 million acres ofnatural habitats,farmlandand other rural spacecovered over by the asphalt, buildings and sub-divisions of suburbia.
46Urban Sprawl Megalopolis of northeastern United States Conurbation A region of several large cities, towns and suburbs merged to form one large urban area
47Characteristics of Urban Sprawl Conversion of agricultural land to residential
48Characteristics of Urban Sprawl Single-use zoningSeparate areas for residential, retail, industrial
49Characteristics of Urban Sprawl Low-density zoningHouses with big lawnsOne-story commercial buildings with spaces in between
50Characteristics of Urban Sprawl Automobile dependencyLittle or no public transportationFewer sidewalks because people don’t walk to stores and other places
60Urban zones grow around the CBD Concentric Zone ModelBurgessChicago in the 1920sUrban zones grow around the CBD
61Zones grow outward from the core Sector ModelHoytZones grow outward from the core
62As zones expand, the CBD loses its dominant position Multiple Nuclei ModelHarris & UllmanAs zones expand, the CBD loses its dominant positionNew centers develop
63As zones expand, the CBD loses its dominant position Multiple Nuclei ModelHarris & UllmanAs zones expand, the CBD loses its dominant positionNew centers develop
64Edge CityLarge suburb outside the CBD that develops its own economic coreLarge shopping centerIndustrial/Business parkOffice complexesHotelsEntertainment
65Loose Definition of Edge City Is perceived by the population as one place.Has more jobs than bedrooms.Was nothing like a "city" as recently as 30 years ago. Then it was just bedrooms, if not cow pastures.“Bedroom Community” – Young suburb with mainly residential housing
70Case Study: Portland Urban growth boundary Controls urban expansion onto farm and forestry land (sprawl)Under Oregon law, each city or metropolitan area has an urban growth boundary that separates urban land from rural use.The boundary controls urban expansion onto farm and forest lands.
71Case Study: Portland Urban growth boundary Keeps urban core vital Because of limited land for new developments, businesses are motivated to use current buildings instead of leaving them empty
72Case Study: Portland Urban growth boundary Helps businesses and local governments plan for infrastructureSince cities and towns know that outlying farm lands cannot be developed, they can plan for roads and utilities more effectively within the core
73Case Study: Portland Urban growth boundary Encourages more efficient development and use of infrastructureInstead of putting money and time into creating more and more roads leaving the core, local governments can put resources into making current roads and services more effective.
74Case Study: Portland Urban growth boundary Encourages long-term planningPortland’s urban growth plan is defined through 2040.
75Case Study: Portland Urban growth boundary Benefits of Portland’s 2040 Growth Concept:Promotes efficient land use by directing most development to existing urban centersPromotes a balanced transportation system—biking, walking, public transit, and drivingBuilds complete communities by providing shopping and jobs near where people live