Presentation on theme: "Parallel Structure Balancing Ideas. Sentence elements that are alike in function should also be alike in construction. These elements should be in the."— Presentation transcript:
Sentence elements that are alike in function should also be alike in construction. These elements should be in the same grammatical form so that they are parallel. Using parallel structure in your writing will help with economy clarity equality smoothness
Use parallel structure with elements joined by coordinating conjunctions. ( and, but, or, and nor ) Faulty: The committee studied all aspects of the problem-- humane, political, and cost. Correct: The committee studied all aspects of the problem-- humane, political, and financial. Faulty: According to my teacher, my composition revealed exceptional creative ability but that I make too many spelling errors. Correct: According to my teacher, my composition revealed exceptional creative ability but too many spelling errors. Correct: According to my teacher, my composition revealed that I have exceptional creative ability but that I make too many spelling errors.
Use parallel structure with elements in lists or in a series. Faulty: The captain had a harsh voice, a weather beaten face, and was very stocky in build. Correct: The captain had a harsh voice, a weather beaten face, and a stocky build. parallel not parallel parallel
Use parallel structure with elements being compared. Faulty : Her novel was praised more for its style than for what it had to say. (noun paired with clause) Correct: Her novel was praised more for its style than for its ideas. (noun paired with noun) Faulty: Water-skiing no longer interest me as much as to go scuba diving. (gerund paired with infinitive) Correct: Water-skiing no longer interests me as much as scuba diving. (gerund paired with gerund)
Correlative expressions (both, and; not, but; not only, but also; either, or; first, second, third; and the like) should be followed by the same grammatical construction. Many violations of this rule can be corrected by rearranging the sentence.
Place correlative conjunctions immediately before the parallel terms. Faulty: Mrs. Sayers is not only president of the National Bank but also of the Chamber of Commerce. (Not only precedes a noun, president, whereas but also precedes a prepositional phrase, of the Chamber of Commerce) Correct: Mrs. Sayers is president not only of the National Bank but also of the Chamber of Commerce.
The team both felt the satisfaction of victory and the disappointment of defeat. Try It...
Repeat an article, a preposition, or a pronoun whenever necessary to make the meaning clear. Before the meeting I talked with the secretary and treasurer. (The sentence may mean that I talked with 1 person who holds both offices.) Before the meeting I talked with the secretary and the treasurer. The weather was a greater handicap to the invading army than their enemy. (The sentence may mean that the invaders were handicapped more by the weather than by their enemy.) The weather was a greater handicap to the invading army than to their enemy.
We feel certain that she is capable, she will succeed, and you will be proud of her. (In a series of parallel that clauses, the meaning is usually clearer if the introductory word is repeated in each clause.) We feel certain that she is capable, that she will succeed, and that you will be proud of her. More Examples:
Your Turn 1. The factory workers were ready, able, and were quite determined to do a great job. 2. The computer network is safer, stronger, and more secure. 3. We cannot be worried or terrified of difficulties in life. Correct only those sentences that are not parallel.
4. The actor taught his student how to read, how to stand, how to cry, and to talk with fans. 5. The requirements for a chemistry degree are not as strict as a medical degree. 6. Either you can join the army or the navy.
7. The reorganization of the company is neither simple nor it will be cheap. 8. When I was in high school, I learned piano and how to play the guitar. 9. Fred supports the idea because, first, its simplicity; second, it is unique. 10. They are either our friends or they are not.
A verb is in the active voice when it expresses an action performed by its subject. A verb is in the passive voice when it expresses an action performed upon its subject of when the subject is the result of the action. Active: The car hit the tree. (subject acting) Passive: The tree was hit by a car. (subject acted upon) Active: In the novel the spy stole the secrets. Passive: In the novel the secrets were stolen by the spy
Active: The plumber fixed the leaky pipe. Passive: The leaky pipe was fixed by the plumber. Active: The captain usually reads the lineup Passive: The lineup is usually read by the captain. Notice that in the passive voice the main verb is always a past participle, and the tense is expressed by an appropriate form of be.
The event was completed when a triple somersault was done by Mario. Mario completed the event by doing a triple somersault. Use the passive voice sparingly.
When to Use Passive Voice To express an action in which the actor is unknown. Ex: All the tickets had been sold many days ago. To express an action in which it is desirable not to disclose the actor. Ex: Poor judgment was used in making this decision.
Your Turn: 1. After the computers had been installed by the service reps, a training session was held for us by them. 2. If the children had been enchanted by Mr. Wrights stories before, they would be even more enthralled by his new tale of a fantasy kingdom. 3. A community meeting was held by the area homeowners to discuss the landfill project, which had been proposed by the City Council.