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Geography Sec 1 E learning Lesson

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1 Geography Sec 1 E learning Lesson
Weather and Climate

2 What we will cover… What is weather and what is climate? Their difference? Elements of climate and weather (Temperature and Rainfall How do we measure temperature and rainfall? Different types of major climates.

3 What is Weather and Climate?
Weather is defined as the condition of a place over a short period of time. Climate refers to the weather pattern of a place over a long period of time.

4 How do you determine weather and climate?
Use of Temperature Rainfall Wind

5 Temperature Defined as the degree of hotness or coldness of the air
It varies: Throughout the day (eg. Cooler in the early morning and hot in the afternoon)

6 Temperature There is a difference between temperatures at the equator and poles It is hotter near the equator then the poles


8 Temperature The height of land (High mountain to lowland)
As you go higher, it gets colder. As you get closer to the surface, it gets warmer. This is because air is warmest at the surface

9 Measuring Temperature
Temperature can be measured in different ways. You use a THERMOMETER to measure temperature. First measurement: Maximum Temperature (high) and Minimum Temperature (low).

10 Calculating Temperature
Mean Daily Temperature (Daily Max. Temperature + Daily Min.Temperature) ÷ 2 Daily Temperature Range Daily Max. Temperature – Daily Min. Temperature Mean Monthly Temperature Sum of mean daily temperature for the month ÷ Number days in month.

11 Calculating Temperature
Mean ANNUAL temperature Sum of monthly temperatures in the year ÷ 12 Annual temperature range Max. mean monthly temperature – Min. monthly temperature

12 Stevenson Screen

13 Stevenson’s vital stats
It is a wooden box with louvers (Openings)rculate for the air to circulate. The roof is made of double layers to protect the instrument from the direct rays of the sun It is painted white to reflect the heat from the sun The box stands on four legs about 1 meter above the ground.


15 Rainfall Refers to the amount of rain an area receives over a period of time.

16 Measuring rainfall We use a rain gauge

17 Rain Gauge It is made up of 5 parts (an outer casing, a copper cylinder, a glass bottle, a funnel and a separate measuring cylinder)

18 Measuring Rainfall Measured in millimeters (mm) or centimeters (cm)
Rainwater collected after 24 hours is emptied and measured. This is called daily rainfall. Monthly Rainfall refers to rainfall in a month Annual Rainfall refers to rainfall in a year

19 Climograph


21 Wind Wind is the movement of air from one place to another.
This is due to difference in air pressure caused by heat.

22 Measuring Wind We use a Wind Vane to record the direction of the wind.

23 Major Types of climate Tropical Climate
It lies on between the equator and the tropic of cancer and capricorn. The sun’s rays are more intense at or near the equator Experience high temperatures ranging from 20ºC to 30ºC Receives same amount of energy all year round Has high annual rainfall ranging from 1000mm to 2000mm or more. Hot and wet climate Examples???



26 Major Types of climate Temperate Climate
Lie between Tropic of Cancer and Arctic Circle, and Tropic of Capricorn and Antarctic Circle Experience four seasons every year: Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter Receive different amounts of sunlight in different periods of the year. Moderate temperatures and moderate rainfall throughout the year Examples???



29 Major Types of climate Polar Climate
Lies between Arctic Circle and North Pole, and Antarctic Circle and South Pole. Experience summer and winter From March to September: North Pole experience six months of sun. From October to February: South Pole experience six months of sun Very Dry because of lack of water vapour Examples???



32 Impacts of weather and Climate on people
Daily Activities Weather will determine whether we stay indoors or participate in outdoor activities.

33 Impacts of weather and Climate on people
Housing Humans like to live in places that are not too hot or cold.

34 Impacts of weather and Climate on people
Tourism Some climates provide different tourism experiences

35 Impacts of weather and Climate on people
Production of Electricity Use of wind energy

36 Impacts of weather and Climate on people
Food and Water Supplies Different crops thrive under different conditions

37 Impacts of weather and Climate on people
Loss of lives and property Extreme conditions can destroy lives and property

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