Presentation on theme: "Supported by Appuyé par PAGS E PFST Bacon & Eggheads Breakfast Petit-déjeuner avec des têtes à Papineau Gordon McBean Western University Reducing Risks,"— Presentation transcript:
Supported by Appuyé par PAGS E PFST Bacon & Eggheads Breakfast Petit-déjeuner avec des têtes à Papineau Gordon McBean Western University Reducing Risks, Gaining Benefits – Coping with Weird Weather in a Changing Climate Réduire les risques et obtenir des avantages : sadapter à la météo incertaine dans le contexte des changements climatiquess
Professor Gordon McBean C.M., O.Ont, Ph.D., FRSC Chair, Canadian Climate Forum Centre for Environment and Sustainability Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction Western University President-elect International Council for Sceince
A Changing Climate
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 4 CLIMATE IS THE STATISTICS OF WEATHER AND THE CLIMATE IS CHANGING
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 5 IPCC (2007) - Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level. Eleven of the last twelve years ( ) rank among the 12 warmest years in the instrumental record of global surface temperature (since 1850). The World Meteorological Organization (2011): 2010 ranked as the warmest year on record, together with 2005 and The ten warmest years on record have all occurred since Over the ten years from 2001 to 2010, global temperatures have averaged 0.46°C above the average, and are the highest ever recorded for a 10-year period since the beginning of instrumental climate records.
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 6 Weather-climate related disasters in Canada ( ) * Only two years of decade Number 10 Year Period Severe storms Floods Wildfire
Projections for the future climate and weird weather. Weird is unusual and the opposite of normal. In climate we define normal in terms of 30-y (or at least decadal) means and statistics.
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | SCIENCE UNCERTAINTY SCIENCE UNCERTAINTY WARMING O C PER DECADE WARMING O C PER DECADE PROJECTED WARMING IN THE FUTURE FUTURE GROWTH OF 3-5°
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 9 WINTERSUMMER 4.5°C 3.5°C Focus on 2050 SEASONAL CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE (relative to 1961–1990) Canada will warm more than global average warming + 1.5C by 2050 Much warmer winters and warmer summers by 2050.
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 10 WINTERSUMMER More precipitation in winters by More rain and less snow. Summers – variable change. 30% 10% <10% SEASONAL CHANGE IN PRECIPITATION BY 2050 (relative to 1961–1990) Hot weather and reduced rain – desertification risk
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 11 % CHANGES IN PROJECTED SNOW DEPTH (MARCH 2050) UP TO 100% REDUCTIONS ACROSS MID- LATITUDES
Weird Weather in a Changing Climate and its Costs Weird (unusual) Weather will become the new normal.
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 13 CANADIANS AND PEOPLE AROUND THE GLOBE WILL NEED TO ADAPT: making adjustments in our decisions, activities and thinking because of observed or expected changes in climate, in order to moderate harm or take advantage of new opportunities. CANADIANS AND PEOPLE AROUND THE GLOBE WILL NEED TO ADAPT: making adjustments in our decisions, activities and thinking because of observed or expected changes in climate, in order to moderate harm or take advantage of new opportunities. REDUCING RISKS, GAINING BENEFITS – COPING WITH WEIRD WEATHER IN A CHANGING CLIMATE WEIRD WEATHER – HOW TO ADAPT?
14 Human Health in a Changing Climate: A Canadian Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptive Capacity (2008) Climate change is expected to increase risk to the health of Canadians through many pathways: they food they eat, the air they breathe, the water they drink, and their exposure to extreme weather events and infectious diseases found in nature. Climate change is the biggest global health threat of the 21st century – Lancet and UCL, 2009
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 15 Projected Observed *A hot day is defined as a day with a maximum temperature above 30C Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis IN EUROPE: RECORD SETTING AUGUST 2003 (MORE THAN 70,000 DEATHS) WILL BE EVERY SECOND SUMMER BY MID-CENTURY IN EUROPE: RECORD SETTING AUGUST 2003 (MORE THAN 70,000 DEATHS) WILL BE EVERY SECOND SUMMER BY MID-CENTURY NUMBER OF HOT DAYS* PER YEAR
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 16 The 8 day heat event in 2009 in the Vancouver and Lower Fraser area caused 134 deaths A 1990s 1-in-20 year hottest day is likely to become a 1-in-3-5 (Year) event by TIMES AS MANY HOT DAYS. By 2050, for every 100,000 people, 6-8 additional deaths and about $500,000 costs– across southern Canada. NRTEE – 2011: Paying the Price: The Economic Costs of Climate Change for Canada Extreme Events MORE HOT DAYS Heat warnings - Water Green space and shade Design of structures Attention to elderly and handicapped
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 17 Extreme Events FREEZING RAIN Extreme events - the unborn and children : Children whose mother experienced high stress (during the Quebec 1998 ice storm) scored lower on IQ and language performance tests than those whose mothers had less stress. Eastern Canada Ice Storm deaths $5 b + damages Months of impact Freezing rain events by 2050 Ottawa –Montreal-Quebec City: 50% INCREASE in the number of freezing rain events of more than 4 hours. Close to 80% increase of events of more than 6 hours.
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 18 Extreme Events SUMMER STORMS Toronto Rain/Wind Event 2005 $624 m insured losses Calgary Rain/Wind – 2010 – $1B Calgary Rain/Wind – 2009 – $362 m SW Ontario Rain/Wind –2009 – $482 m Calgary Hail – 1991 – $885 m By 2050, a 1990s 1-in-20 year annual maximum daily precipitation amount is likely to become a 1-in-10 to 1-in-15 year event. ABOUT TWICE AS MANY HEAVY SUMMER STORMS.
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 19 Tornadoes Goderich tornado – 2011 GTA (Vaughan) tornado – 2009 Pine Lake Edmonton tornado – 1987 Extreme Events SUMMER STORMS – TORNADOES With more heavy precipitation and hot days -- Increased risk of tornadoes With more heavy precipitation and hot days -- Increased risk of tornadoes
COPING WITH WEIRD WEATHER Improved observations and predictions Better structural design of homes and property. Insurance Research Laboratory for Better Homes Wind Engineering, Energy and Environment Dome Meteorological Service Environment Canada
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 21 Flooding Alberta – 2005 – $327 m Saguenay – 1996 – $271 m Winnipeg – 1993 – $252 m Extreme Events FLOODING By 2050, with about twice as many heavy precipitation events, more floods are projected. Flood warnings Dykes, water control Land-use planning
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 22 The Drought In 2001 and 2002 drought years: $5.8 billion in lost GDP 41,000+ jobs lost 5 times as many forest fires in Alberta Blowing dust - contributing factor in two fatalities Consul, SK Prairie Drought - prelude of future droughts. Reduce vulnerability - early warning and more lead time for adaptations % of expected yield for spring wheat, barley, canola, and field peas
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 23 MORE THAN 50% INCREASE By 2030 Extreme Events WILDFIRES Slave Lake Fire 2011 $700 m insured losses Kelowna – 2003 – $227 m Fire proofing Land-use planning Fire control - warnings
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 24 Climate Change and Its Impact on Horticulture in Ontario Climate Change/Dealing with Adverse Weather Apple Crop in Ontario 2012 – 80% lost Better predictions Adaptations Crop selection BIOTRON
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 25 ATLANTIC CANADA Sea Level Rise – and Hurricanes with Stronger Winds Storm Warnings Coastal Defences Structural and Community Preparedness
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 26 Sea Level Rise Adaptation Primer A toolkit to build adaptive capacity on Canadas south coasts - January 2013 SEA LEVEL RISE- Impacting all our coasts
Current Impacts and Responses Greater Vancouver – sea level rise 1m of SLR would cause an about $12B in damages to City of Vancouver alone. Much of Vancouvers infrastructure was built to historical standards and will require significant reinforcement. In 2011, BCMoE issued guidelines specifying that coastal infrastructure should be designed to withstand 1.2m over 100 years (=3.3m with storm surge and king tide conditions); 2m over 200 years.
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 28 Cold winters are needed in order to build roads over otherwise impassable lakes and muskeg. IN THE NORTH Most years the Tibbitt to Contwoyto winter road is open 70 days, but the warm winter of meant only 50 days of use thanks to a late start and early closure. Only 6,841 loads out of the planned 9,000 loads made it by truck into the Diavik Diamond Mine, which then had to spend tens of millions of dollars flying in 13,000 tonnes of dry cargo and 11,000 tonnes of fuel. WITH THE WARMER CLIMATE, THIS WILL BE A MUCH BIGGER PROBLEM
Climate Change – as a national security issue Arctic Sovereignty Northwest Passage Continental Shelf Extension Exploration and exploitation of Arctic resources
Integrated Environmental Prediction – on all times scales Informing decision making for coping with the weather in a changing climate UK Met Office Agriculture: Analysis of past weather observations to manage climate risks; this informs crop choice and planting date to optimise yields and minimise crop failure risk. Disaster Risk Reduction: Predicting hazardous weather conditions and disseminating tailored and timely warnings to reduce the impact on vulnerable communities. Food security: Monthly to decadal predictions to warn local, national and international communities of expected drought conditions. Water Resources: Applying regional scale climate model predictions to inform climate change adaptation decisions.
Coastal Cities at Risk - Building Adaptive Capacity for Managing Climate Change in Coastal Megacities Vancouver, Bangkok, Manila, Lagos Partnering with Shanghai and others Better planned and safer cities and reduced socio- economic impacts as the climate changes. Highly Qualified Personnel in Canada and in our country partners
TELLING THE WEATHER STORY | 32 SUMMARY OF PRESENTATION Canadas climate is changing and these weather trends are already affecting Canadians; Severe weather is projected to increase over the next 40 years and beyond; Information about weather and climate on times scales from now to next decades will allow public and private sector leaders to reduce risks and gain benefits; Science, engineering and technology provide solutions.
The End Thank you for your attention Insurance Research Lab for Better Homes