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M.T. Amin, M.Y. Han Socially and economically acceptable drinking water supply from rooftop rainwater and improved solar disinfection 6th World Water Forum.

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Presentation on theme: "M.T. Amin, M.Y. Han Socially and economically acceptable drinking water supply from rooftop rainwater and improved solar disinfection 6th World Water Forum."— Presentation transcript:

1 M.T. Amin, M.Y. Han Socially and economically acceptable drinking water supply from rooftop rainwater and improved solar disinfection 6th World Water Forum SNU RRC KSURFA

2 Contents 1 Introduction 2 3 4 Materials and Methods Results and Discussion Conclusions

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4 Background Lots of countries have water shortage problems over the world Rainwater harvesting (RWH) can be alternative water resource to these countries Because RWH system is simple to install and manage, this system has been spread to water shortage areas. Sited from ELLIAS SAIDIN and AMINUDDIN BAKI, RAINWATER HARVESTING: POTENTIAL ALTERNATIVE WATER RESOURCES IN MALAYSIA, WATER MALAYSIA 2009 6th World Water Forum SNU RRC KSURFA

5 What is rainwater harvesting system? Gardening Cleaning Emergency Drinking 6th World Water Forum SNU RRC KSURFA

6 Rainwater as drinking water ? -At least one-third of the population in developing countries has no access to safe drinking water -Rainwater can be used as drinking water if microbial contamination is controlled. Simple disinfection method can make and supply safe drinking water by rainwater 6th World Water Forum SNU RRC KSURFA

7 Solar Disinfection (SODIS) Inactivation of microorganisms by UV-A-radiation and thermal treatment Suited for providing safe drinking water in rural and semi-urban communities in developing countries Promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) Solar and Longwave Radiation Reflection and Back-Radiation Conduction Attenuation By Plastic? UV DO/pH Infrared Cellular Breakdown Pasteurization Temp. Used PET bottle 6th World Water Forum SNU RRC KSURFA

8 Developing Solar Disinfection a. SODIS b. W-SODISc. SOCODIS d. W-SOCODIS e. I-SOCODIS 6th World Water Forum SNU RRC KSURFA

9 Limitation of SODIS Few scientific and engineering data for rainwater disinfection Only strong sunlight radiation for about 6~8 h daily is adequate for the complete disinfection SOCO-DIS (Solar Collector Disinfection) system Improving SODIS to achieve more concentrated sunlight radiation W-SODIS (Wrapping Solar Disinfection) system Improving SODIS to achieve more concentrated temperature effects 6th World Water Forum SNU RRC KSURFA

10 Limitation of SOCO-DIS Sunlight radiation for about 6~8 h daily is not adequate for the complete disinfection in the weak weather I-SOCO-DIS (Improved Solar Collector Disinfection) system Improving SOCO-DIS to achieve more high pH W-SOCO-DIS (Wrapping Solar Collector Disinfection) system Improving SOCO-DIS to achieve more concentrated temperature effects and sunlight radiation 6th World Water Forum SNU RRC KSURFA

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12 Sample collection site Completion date2005.10 Roof area 3,892 Green roof area 935 residence about 1,000 persons RWH Beginning date 2006. 4 A kind of catchment concrete, terrace, green roof Catchment area 3,652 Tank volume250 ton Consumed60~90 ton/day Usestoilet * RWH : Rainwater harvesting system 6th World Water Forum SNU RRC KSURFA

13 Outline of experiment Seoul, Republic od Korea, Seoul University Engineering Building (37° N, 126° E) Rain Water Tank a. SODIS b. W-SODIS c. SOCODIS d. W-SOCODIS e. I-SOCODIS 6th World Water Forum SNU RRC KSURFA

14 The quality of rainwater samples PHYSIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERSMICROBIAL PARAMETERS Initial Temp. 0 CpH EC μS/cm DO mg/l Turbidity NTU TC CFU/100ml E-Coli CFU/100ml 23-257-9150-5005-91-5880-1100200-250 Main target Samples were always collected from the same outlet point, about 1.35 m from the base of the tank The reason for the different initial values of all the parameters is the effect of the season and residential time in the tank These are used as the standard initial values for the rainwater samples in this study. 6th World Water Forum SNU RRC KSURFA

15 Weather conditions Weather is categorized into three different types, depending upon weak, moderate sunlight radiations. The temperature difference is about 2~10 0 C, with the great temperature rise in the SOCO-DIS & W-SOCO-DIS system. Weak WeatherModerate Weather RadiationTemperatureRadiationTemperature 6th World Water Forum SNU RRC KSURFA

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17 The effects of weather condition In case of SODIS, No parameter met the potable guideline values The difference of disinfection efficiency of SOCO-DIS & W- SOCO-DIS system is about 20-40% with that of simple SODIS mostly because of the enhanced effects of concentrated radiations and heat. Weak WeatherModerate Weather

18 Rainwater using lemon and vinegar as catalysts(for acidic pH) offered best disinfection efficiency for SOCO-DIS system for all microbial parameters without any exception. Overall disinfection efficiency increased from 10 to 20% by decreasing pH values from basic to neutral and then acidic states, respectively. The effects of initial pH SODISSOCODIS

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20 Conclusions Disinfection efficiency of the W-SOCO-DIS or I-SOCO-DIS is 20~40 % better than SODIS and it managed complete disinfection under moderate weather condition Developed SODIS system - SOCODIS : disinfection efficiency of SOCODIS system is better than SODIS about 20-40% because of the enhanced effects of concentrated radiations. - W-SOCODIS : The maximum temperature increase due to wrapping with plastic bags was about 4-7 C°, which enhanced the disinfection efficiency by about 5-8%. - I-SOCODIS : using lemon and vinegar as catalysts makes low pH improving the efficiency from 10 to 20 % 6th World Water Forum SNU RRC KSURFA

21 Conclusions this method can be easily applied to any place to gain acceptable water in the world, especially where the centralized water supply system is not affordable in a short time period, eventually contribute to achieve the MDGs. 6th World Water Forum SNU RRC KSURFA

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