2WeatherThis is a description of atmosphere conditions from day to day.Ex. It’s sunny and warm now.
3ClimateThis is the pattern of weather conditions over a long period of time.Ex. It’s not that warm in June in Newfoundland.
4Global FactorsThe earth’s “controls” that result in different types of weather and climate. There are 4 global factors:1. Latitude2. Air Masses and Winds3. Ocean Currents5. Clouds and Precipitation
51st LatitudeFarther from the equator the average monthly temperature decreases.Higher latitude locations get less direct sunlight.Sunlight strikes these high altitudes at an angle. The sun has to heat up a bigger area.Areas closer to the equator have more intense radiation.Ex. Canada is, on average,colder than the USA.
62nd Air Masses and Winds(P. 34) These are large bodies of air with a few predictable atmospheric features.They move toward Canada and influence our weather and climate.They are formed in certain places on Earth.They have different characteristics that are reflected in their name.
72. Air Masses and WindsMaritime Tropical – warm water makes the air warm and moist (warm moist summer air from the south)Maritime Polar – cold water makes the air cold and moistContinental Arctic – cold land makes the air cold and dry (cold, dry winter air from the north)Continental Tropical - desert makes the air hot and dry
8Canada’s Four Air Masses Canada is affected by 4 air masses:1. Maritime Tropical2. Maritime Polar3. Continental Arctic4. Continental Tropical322411
9WindsThey generally blow from west to east across Canada (from B.C. to N.L)Canadian winds follow the direction of the high altitude wind called the jet stream.
10Jet StreamThe jet stream always flows eastward but changes its position and speed from summer to winter.It moves slower and is found further north in the summer.
11Jet Stream and Air Masses After air masses arrive in Canada they move eastward following the path of the jet stream.The jet stream is a high (8,000 – 15,000m), fast (300 – 400 km/h) windIn the winter they move quickly and in summer they move more slowly.
123rd Ocean CurrentsThey move immense amounts of heat and cold around the world.Air passing over it is influenced by its characteristic temperature.Four ocean currents affect Canadian climate:2 East Coast Currents2 West Coast Currents
13East Coast Currents They are: A. Labrador Current (cold) B. Gulf Stream Current (warm)
14West Coast Currents They are: A. Alaska Current (cold) B. North Pacific Current (warm)
154th Clouds & Precipitation Precipitation is a component of climate.When warm air, carrying water vapour, rises, cools, and releases the vapour as precipitation.Depending on the air temperature precipitation could be solid (ex. snow) or liquid (ex. rain).
16PrecipitationAir masses are also responsible for causing 3 types of precipitationA. Frontal PrecipitationB. Convectional PrecipitationC. Relief or Orographic Precipitation
17A. Frontal Precipitation The leading edge of an air mass is called a front.When the fronts with different air temperatures meet, warm air rises and precipitation is formed.
18Cold Front Precipitation You are located in an area with a warm air mass.A cold front arrives and forces the warm air upward.Precipitation begins.Front
19Warm Front Precipitation You are located in an area with a cold air mass.A warm front arrives and rises up over the cold air.Precipitation begins.Front
20B. Convectional Precipitation Sunlight heats a point on the earth surface.Warm air, over this hot spot, rises.The warm air cools and the vapour in it is released as precipitation.
25Zone B It is located in southern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Here the climate is dry.
26Zone CThis zone is found along the coast of British Columbia (including Vancouver Island).The climate is warm and moist.Vancouver Island has climate like that in southern Europe (Mediterrean)
27Zone D This is the largest climate zone in Canada – over 70%. The climate is cool and moist.Most of this zone has precipitation throughout the year.The northern part of this zone has very short summers.
28Zone E It is the second largest climate zone in Canada – about 25%. It’s located in the far north of Canada.Here the climate very cold and dry.
29Regional FactorsClimate regions may have features which make their weather unique.These features include:A. Altitude (elevation)B. Bodies of WaterC. Mountain Barriers
30A. Altitude As altitude increases the air temperature decreases. Places with higher elevation are colder.
32B. Bodies of WaterSummer sunshine heats up land quickly and heats up water slowly..In winter, land cools off quickly but water cools off slowly.As a result, bodies of water such as lakes and oceans influence climate.
33Bodies of Water In Summer Land is warm Water is cold Summer is cool, not hot.In WinterLand is coldWater is warmWinter is mild, not cold.
34B. Bodies of Water Because they are near large bodies of water: 1. places on the east and west coast of Canada have moderate climates.2. places near the Great Lakes have somewhat moderate climates.Note. Places far away from large bodies of water have much bigger changes in their climate throughout the year.
35C. Mountain BarriersIn Canada, almost all precipitation falls on the western slopes of large mountain chains.West SideEast Side
36C. Mountain BarriersPrevailing winds, traveling eastward, strike the western slopes first and drop their precipitation there.By the time the winds reach the other side of the mountain (eastern side) they are dry.The eastern side gets little or no precipitation.This effect is called rain shadow.
37Climographs This graph has one horizontal axis and two vertical axes. WinterlandTemperature( o C)Precipitation (mm)J F M A M J J A S O N DMonths of the Year
38In-Class AssignmentHandout: Climograph Construction and Analysis
39Climograph Data: St. John’s FMASONDTemp( o C)-4-5-2261116181384Precip(mm)1501301201101009580125145
40Climograph: Iqaluit Mo J F M A S O N D -25 -26 -23 -14 -3 3 8 7 2 -4 Temp( o C)-25-26-23-14-33872-4-12-21Precip(mm)1812153037403523
41Climograph: Whitehorse JFMASONDTemp( o C)-18-14-771214118-10-5Precip(mm)18153037403523
42Climograph Data: Regina JFMASONDTemp( o C)-20-15-710152018135-5-13Precip(mm)30407550
43Climograph Data: Victoria JFMASONDTemp( o C)35681114161074Precip(mm)14010075453530202540150
44In-Class AssignmentHandout: Explain the Climate Conditions