Presentation on theme: "Mrs. Passell’s Weather Test Review revised"— Presentation transcript:
1Mrs. Passell’s Weather Test Review revised 2.9.14 The test will assess your understanding of clouds, precipitation, water cycle, fronts, high & low pressure areas, weather maps, weather instruments, heat transfer & storms .It will not cover the layers of the atmosphere or air as a mixture.
2WHO’S STUDYING THE WEATHER? Besides Mrs. Passell’s students?METEOROLOGISTS!TV weatherpersons usually don’t have a degree in meteorology, the study of weather.
3CLASSIFYING TYPES OF CLOUDS Clouds are classified by their shapes and their altitude. You will need to be able to identify stratus, cirrus, and cumulus clouds and describe the kind of weather each one brings.
5STRATUS CLOUDS Stratus clouds are not individual “units’. These are the lowest clouds.They produce widespread rain or snow that may last days longer than a thunderstorm.Fog is a stratus cloud close to the ground.
6Puffy clouds like the ones you drew in first grade Fair weather clouds CUMULUS CLOUDSPuffy clouds like the ones you drew in first gradeFair weather clouds
7CUMULONIMBUS CLOUDS Bring heavy rains, lightning, thunder May bring violent weatherAlso called Thunderheads
8CIRRUS CLOUDS High altitude, thin clouds Wispy, like feathers Made of ice crystalsSometimes called “mare’s tails”
9FRONTSAn AIR MASS is the large body of air that has the characteristics of the land over which it develops. The whole air mass will have the same temperature, pressure and humidity.A FRONT is the placewhere two air massesmeet.
10SYMBOLS FOR FRONTS think of cold pointy icicles think of the warm sun rising in the east- not on the testthink of a stationaryexercise bike - - you’repedaling but not going anywhere!
11MOVEMENT OF FRONTSThe front is moving in the direction of the points or half-circles.Stationary fronts are stationary so they are not moving!
12MOVEMENT OF FRONTS Remember that COLD AIR IS MORE DENSE than WARM AIR. Because WARM AIR is less dense, it doesn’t push under the cold air. It rises up over it.When the COLD AIR approaches warm air, it pushes under the warm air.Think of a cotton ball (less dense warm air) approaching a stone (more dense cold air). Can’t push under, got to go over!
13WARM FRONTRemember that warm air is less dense than cold air so it will slide up over the more dense cold air.
14WARM FRONTThe weather is rainy or snowy as the front approaches and the temperature starts to rise.Warm Front. Image Credit: NOAA;
15COLD FRONTA cold front pushes under the less dense warm air. Violent storms can occur.
16STATIONARY FRONTThe WARM FRONT and COLD FRONT come together along a stationary front. The weather will be unsettled and for a few days.
18WATER CYCLE/ HOW CLOUDS FORM During CONDENSATION the moisture that has evaporated and becomes water vapor cools as it rises in the atmosphere. The water vapor condenses to form clouds. Water drops that form in the clouds fall back to earth as precipitation.WATER CYCLE FOR KIDSThink about a cold window. If you breathe on the window, your warm breath will form water droplets on the cold surface.
19PRECIPITATION : RAIN & SNOW Rain – liquid water; most common form of precipitationSnow - - Just like rain except it passes through layers of freezing air as it returns to Earth
20PRECIPITATION : SLEET, HAIL & FREEZING RAIN Sleet - - rain passes through cold air close to the groundHail - - ice crystals rise & fall within the thunder- cloud; when they become too large, they fall to EarthFreezing Rain – regular land that freezes when it lands on surfaces that are 32º or lower
21ISOBARS These lines connect places that have equal air pressure. The closer together the lines are, the stronger the winds will be.
22HIGH PRESSURE AREASHigh pressure is indicated with an “H” The weather will be fair with clear skies & maybe some puffy cumulus clouds..
26WINDSEnergy from the sun causes uneven heating of Earth’s surfaces. This causes winds.
27Air moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. WINDSAir moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.
28HURRICANE OR TORNADO?Tornadoes are very different from hurricanes even though they are windstorms that cause much destruction .A hurricane is a large low pressure system that covers a wide area.A tornado is a a more localized storm that lasts a shorter amount of time.
29HURRICANESThese storms form along the warm tropical waters near the equator.
30HURRICANESIf you could slice into a tropical cyclone, it would look something like this. The small red arrows show warm, moist air rising from the ocean's surface, and forming clouds in bands around the eye. The blue arrows show how cool, dry air sinks in the eye and between the bands of clouds. The large red arrows show the rotation of the rising bands of clouds.(http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/hurricanes/)
31TORNADOA tornado forms from a thunderstorm. Warm moist air meets cool dry air. Changes in wind speed and direction at different altitudes cause the spinning to begin.
33DROUGHTDrought occurs when there is little or no precipitation for a long time.
34HOW LARGE BODIES OF WATER AFFECT WEATHER Large bodies of water hold their heat longer than areas of land far from water.56 ° °
35WEATHER INSTRUMENT: ANEMOMETER *measures the speed of the wind;strong winds cause the cups to spin faster
36WEATHER INSTRUMENT: BAROMETER measure air pressure in inches or mercury or millibars
37WEATHER INSTRUMENT: HYGROMETER or PSYCHROMETER measures the humidity (the amount of moisture in the air)
38WEATHER INSTRUMENT: WEATHER VANE or WIND VANE shows the direction the wind is blowingNevit Dilmen
39WEATHER INSTRUMENT: THERMOMETER measure the temperature
40WEATHER INSTRUMENT: RAIN GAUGE measure the amount of rainfall
41How Does Air Pressure Change With Altitude? As you climb higher up the mountain the air pressure is less than down at sea level and it becomes more difficult to breathe.
42HEAT TRANSFER: CONVECTION When air or water is heated, the molecules move faster and farther apart, reducing their density and causing them to rise.Cooler air or water molecules move more slowly and are denser than warm air or water. The cold air sinks down. When it warms up again, it will rise again.Remember the rising air helps sailplanes & eagles to soar.
44HEAT ENERGY TRANSFER: CONDUCTION Conduction is heat transfer by direct physical contact. The object has to be touching the heat source!Conduction can happen in solids, liquids and gases.Example: An ice cube will melt in your hand because the heat from your hand is absorbed by the ice.
45HEAT TRANSFER : RADIATION Radiation is energy transfer through empty space.It travels in the form of light waves.Sunlight is a form of radiation.