Weather and Climate 7 th Grade ESS 7.2 and LS 7.2
Engagement Why is weather important in Ohio? Is climate important in Ohio? Spend 2 minutes sharing your thoughts with 1 partner.
Climate is what you expect; Weather is what you get. ~Mark Twain Weather is what you wear each day, and climate is whats in your closet!
Show video http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/sc ience/earth-sci/climate-weather-sci/ http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/sc ience/earth-sci/climate-weather-sci/
Vocabulary Terms Weather Radiation Absorption Convection Currents Meteorology Atmosphere Forecast Climate Air pressure Water Cycle Fronts Humidity Temperature Precipitation
Recognize that the Sun provides the energy that drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents; How does the Suns energy drive our weather and climate systems?
Think-Pair-Share The Sun warms the Earths atmosphere primarily because 1.The sunlight is absorbed by the atmosphere. 2.The sunlight and heat from the Sun are absorbed by the atmosphere. 3.The sunlight is absorbed by the land and oceans. 4.The sunlight and heat from the Sun are absorbed by the land and oceans.
Earths Radiation Budget From http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/ceres_brochure.php?page=2http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/ceres_brochure.php?page=2 Visible Light
The solar radiation heats the surface of the Earth. Heat is transferred to air molecules that come in contact with the ground or ocean.
As the Warmer Air Rises… Cooler air is pulled in from other places Convection Cooler air is pulled in from other places
Convection current – the transfer of heat energy through a fluid due to gravity
Image from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/deserts/atmosphere/
Think, Pair, Share… How does a convection current work? Why do we have wind?
How does the Suns energy drive ocean currents? Image from Windows to the Universe
Visuals of Currents and Winds http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/per petual-ocean.html#.Uj9caNKsiSo http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/conten t/visualizations/es2401/es2401page01.cfm?chapter_no=visu alization
The Wind Result of uneven heating of the Earths surface – causes differences in air pressure to develop (cold air near the poles, warm air near the Equator) – Molecules always move from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure Image courtesy of NASA.NASA
Leading edge of an air mass 4 kinds of fronts: –Cold front –Warm front –Stationary front –Occluded front Leading edge of an air mass 4 kinds of fronts: –Cold front –Warm front –Stationary front –Occluded front front boundary
Cold Front: mass of cold air moving into area of warmer air Cold Front: mass of cold air moving into area of warmer air Warm Front: mass of warm air moving into area of cooler air Warm Front: mass of warm air moving into area of cooler air Stationary Front: masses of cold & warm air meet from opposite directions and stop moving Stationary Front: masses of cold & warm air meet from opposite directions and stop moving Occluded Front: mass of cold air overtakes mass of warm air moving in same direction Occluded Front: mass of cold air overtakes mass of warm air moving in same direction
Cold Front mass of cold air moving into area of warmer air cold air forces warm air up & over the cold air; often creating storms mass of cold air moving into area of warmer air cold air forces warm air up & over the cold air; often creating storms Image courtesy of http://www.srh.noaa.gov/crp/?n=education-airmasseshttp://www.srh.noaa.gov/crp/?n=education-airmasses
Warm Front mass of warm air moving into area of cooler air As front enters, rain showers, then light rain, then clearing and warmer mass of warm air moving into area of cooler air As front enters, rain showers, then light rain, then clearing and warmer Image courtesy of http://www.srh.noaa.gov/crp/?n=education-airmasseshttp://www.srh.noaa.gov/crp/?n=education-airmasses
Stationary Fronts air masses are not moving against each other forms when a cold front or warm front stops moving may stay put for days often cloudy with rain or snow air masses are not moving against each other forms when a cold front or warm front stops moving may stay put for days often cloudy with rain or snow Image from http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/tstorm/stat_front.html http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/tstorm/stat_front.html
Occluded Fronts forms when a cold air mass overtakes a warm front Light to moderate rain before and during Clearing and cooler after forms when a cold air mass overtakes a warm front Light to moderate rain before and during Clearing and cooler after Image courtesy of the http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/tstorm/occl_front.html http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/tstorm/occl_front.html
Oceans Show movie http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a011000 /a011056/The_OCEAN.mov http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a011000 /a011056/The_OCEAN.mov
Where does weather take place? The Earth has 4 layers within its atmosphere. Almost all of the weather that occurs on Earth takes place in the lowest layer of the atmosphere known as the troposphere.
Lower Layers of Atmosphere Troposphere: lowest layer – extends up to 10km; contains 99% of the water vapor and 75% of the atmospheric gases. The troposphere is the first layer above the surface and contains most clouds (we live here).troposphere Most weather occurs in this layer. Most of the layers heat is from Earth. Temperature cools about 6.5 degrees Celsius per kilometer of altitude.
Lower Layers of Atmosphere Stratosphere – directly above troposphere, extending from 10 km to about 50 km above Earths surface Portion of the upper layer contains high levels of a gas called ozone. The ozone layer absorbs harmful rays from the Sun. Many jet aircrafts fly in the stratosphere because it is very stable. stratosphere
Upper Layers of Atmosphere Mesosphere – extends from the top of the stratosphere to about 85 km above Earth Coldest layer. Meteors burn up in the mesosphere.mesosphere *Ionosphere* is found here – layer of charged particles
Upper Layers of Atmosphere Thermosphere – thickest atmospheric layer found between 85 km and 500 km above Earths surface The thermosphere is a layer with auroras, known for its high temperatures.thermosphere Warms as it filters out X-rays and gamma rays from the Sun *Ionosphere* here, too – help carry radio waves.
Upper Layers of Atmosphere *Exosphere* – The upper part of the Thermosphere that merges into space. The exosphere is the upper limit of our atmosphere and is extremely thin. Outer layer where space shuttle orbits.
What is a Biome? Scientists have developed the term Biome to describe areas on the earth with similar climate, plants, and animals. The plants and animals that live in a specific biome are physically well adapted for that area. Plants and animals that live in a specific biome share similar characteristics with other plants and animals in that biome throughout the world. The types of biomes that will be explored during this exercise include: Tundra, Deserts, Grasslands, Taiga, Temperate Forests, and Rainforests
Tundra Rainforest Grassland Taiga Temperate Forest Desert Click on the Biome you wish to explore EXIT
Group Project Tundra Deserts Grasslands Taiga Temperate Forests Rainforests