Presentation on theme: "Meteorology made simple - Fundamentals"— Presentation transcript:
1Meteorology made simple - Fundamentals Dr. Dipl.-Met. Christian Werner
2Outline Introduction What is Meteorology? Focus: Synoptic Meteorology The AtmosphereMeteorological variablesAtmospheric StabilityThe graphical presentation of air density and humidity at different heightsKey Drivers for Climate and Weather in AustraliaEnvironmental ForecastingGraphical presentation of meteorological variablesQ&A
3Introduction How can meteorologists add value? "We're scientists working on analysis and forecasting problems and the pilots require scientific support to ensure safe operations, applied risk management, fly faster and further, so essentially we're delivering scientific products to help them make the best decisions possible for their chosen flight.“ - Dr. Christian Werner, Managing Director3
4What is Meteorology?Meteorology is the multi and interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere.Meteorology is part of the atmospheric sciences.Meteorology is often referred to as atmospheric physics.The word "meteorology" is from Greek μετέωρος metéōros "lofty; high (in the sky)" (from μετα- meta- "above" and ἐωρ eōr "to lift up") and -λογία -logia "-(o)logy".Aviation - Gliding MeteorologyWeather Prediction & NWP
5Synoptic MeteorologyThe word synoptic is derived from the Greek word συνοπτικός (sunoptikos), meaning seen together (overview).Meteorological phenomena in space and how they change over time => weather forecastingSynoptic methodology: Weather analysis (diagnosis) and prognosisFundamental is the knowledge of the current state of the atmosphere and the physical diagnosis of the development state of the observed weather patterns at a given point in time.Scale analysis (horizontal equation of motion)WMO No. 418: small scale (<100km), meso scale ( km), large scale ( km), planetary scale (>5000km)The Prediction Problem: F=ma, F=dp/dt = d(mv)/dt => dp = sum (F x dt), (p=impulse), this is a prognostic equation for the future state of motion, assuming the initial state is known.5
6The Atmosphere Air pressure = 1013.25 hPa Air temperature = 15 degC Rel. Humidity = 0%Air density = kg/m^3Lapse rate = 0.65 degC/100mTropopause = 11000mTropopause temp = degCIsothermic up to 20km, then temperature increase to 32km with 1 degC/km, composition of air constant up to 80km6
7Meteorological Variables Temperature, humidity, pressure, windDew point temperatureRadiative ProcessesCloudsPrecipitation7
8Atmospheric Stability dT/dz = lapse rate = -0.98degC/100mdT/dz = dT/dz > <=> dry stabledT/dz < <=> dry unstabledT/dz = <=> dry indifferentEnvironmental lapse rate (ELR) - actual change of temperature with z (stationary atmosphere - environment - outside)Dry adiabatic lapse rate (DALR) - dT/dz of a parcel of air (inside) as it moves up/down assuming adiabatic conditionsOutside and inside dT fully independent!Moist adiabatic lapse rate (MALR)8
9Thermodynamic diagrams Graphical presentation of air temperature and humidity at different heightsEmagramTephigramStueve diagram (uses straight lines, but no equal area requirement)Skew-T log-P diagramIsobarsIsotherms (and potential temperature)Dry adiabatesMoist/saturated adiabatesMixing ratio (dew point)9
10Thermodynamic diagrams Steep lapse rate => unstableShallow or negative lapse rate => stableWhen temperature decreases rapidly during climb (approx 3 degC/1000ft), indication of unstable air.10
12Key Drivers for Climate and Weather in Australia Large-scale circulation patterns - basically the spatial and temporal distribution of pressure systemsLarge-scale circulation patterns are heavily influenced by ENSO - El Nino Southern OscillationENSO is the main reason for interannual variability of meteorological variablesCloncurry heat low associated with the QLD trough, driven by insolationSea breeze activity for coastal areas
13Environmental Forecasting for Australia - Challenges & Solutions
14Environmental Forecasting for Australia - Challenges & Solutions
15Environmental Forecasting for Australia - Challenges & Solutions
16Environmental Forecasting for Australia - Challenges & Solutions
17Environmental Forecasting for Australia - Challenges & Solutions Challenge: How to best represent topography in environmental models to produce realistic weather and climate patterns? Flatter topo leads to larger forecast errors!
18Environmental Forecasting for Australia - Challenges & Solutions Challenge: How to best represent topography in environmental models to produce realistic weather and climate patterns?
19Environmental Forecasting for Australia - Challenges & Solutions Challenge: How to best represent topography in environmental models to produce realistic weather and climate patterns? When is enough enough? => TOPO needs to be 1km or less.
20Environmental Forecasting for Australia and beyond - Challenges & Solutions Input data:
21Environmental Forecasting - Challenges & Solutions Input data => Data Assimilation
22Environmental Forecasting - Challenges & Solutions Input data => Data AssimilationNWP represents an initial value problem (mathematically)Need to know as precisely as possible the current state of the weather.Need to know not just at the location of interest, but globally.Data volume to be processed is approx million information quanta, higher data volumes betterProblem: data gaps and delayed data => under-determined initial value problem => weather forecasts are not accurate. Other sources of error/uncertainty are based on numerical schemes employed in the programs, choice of compiler and compiler options.Solution: additional information, which is statistical and dynamical => use 3D and 4D (VAR) data assimilation, which is used on the basis of incomplete and possibly incorrect observations to analyse the likely current state of the atmosphere and to determine the error in the analysis.Observations used are: land and sea based weather stations (METAR, SYNOP and SHIP), buoys, aircraft reports, radiosondes, polar-orbiting and geostationary statellites, scatterometer data (winds at sea level height), Doppler RADARS, GPS-signals (additional temperature and humidity profiles).New ensemble prediction system:
23Environmental Forecasting - Challenges & Solutions Ensemble: A set of multiple predictions valid for the same time.Generated from different initial conditions and/or different models or versions of models.Provides reliable information on forecast uncertainties from the spread amongst the ensemble members. Provides information about the likelihood of extreme events.
24Graphical Presentation of meteorological variables
25Graphical Presentation of meteorological variables 25
27Q&AParcel boundary is flexible, parcel volume expands, which cools the air on the inside.As the parcel rises, the outside temperature is usually dropping (ELR). Important here is that the outside and inside temperature changes are completely independent, assuming adiabatic process. The outside temperature is dropping as with increasing height we are moving away from the warmer surface. The inside of the parcel is decreasing due to the expanding volume (decreasing pressure).27