3 History of The Weather Balloon The basic concept of the weather balloon has changed little since its development in the late 1800s, although improvements to the balloon material and data collection have occurred over the years. Surprisingly, with all of today's advanced technology, weather balloons are very similar to those that first lifted off the ground and they still gather the weather data we depend on daily. Today's weather balloons rely on the same principles as their predecessors. A weather balloon today, as it has since its conception, uses gas to lift a data gathering device to a high altitude, where it either remains to transmit data, begins to descend, or bursts and releases its device to float to Earth on a parachute.HistoryThe first weather balloons came into existence in France in Devices aboard measured barometric pressure, temperature and humidity but had to be retrieved in order to collect the data. These large balloons inflated with gas and remained open at the bottom like a hot-air balloon. When the temperature cooled in the evening, the gasses cooled and then the balloon deflated and descended. However, no control over the balloon descending back to Earth existed. Sometimes they would drift hundreds of miles, making data gathering difficult.
4 History (cont.)TypesA closed rubber balloon, inflated with a gas that caused it to rise and expand 30 to 200 times its original size and then burst at a high altitude was developed. The attached data-gathering device then dropped from the balloon, fastened to a small parachute. This limited the amount of drift from the launch site making it easier to find the data gathering instruments. This balloon concept still helps meteorologists today, however an attached radiosonde improves data gathering.SignificanceA data gathering and transmitting device that was developed in the 1930s vastly improved the data gathering capabilities of weather balloons. Radiosondes containing sensors that detect air pressure, humidity and temperature as well as a radio transmitter for sending the data back to meteorologists were developed. During ascent, it transmits data to meteorologists. After the balloon reaches its maximum altitude and bursts, the radiosonde, attached to a parachute, descends back to Earth. The parachute slows its descent and prevents harm to persons or property. Radiosondes attached to weather balloons are still in use today and approximately 900 climb into the atmosphere daily while transmitting their data back to Earth every two seconds.FeaturesAnother development in 1958 allowed meteorologists to send semi-permanent balloons to a designated height and leave them there to gather data over a period of time. Zero-pressure balloons and later super-pressure mylar balloons, invented by a research branch of the Air Force, could reach greater altitude, and based on the gas inside, be calculated to remain at that altitude for a period of weeks or months, where they record and transmit data. These could also be launched over water, which increased the amount of data that could be collected. These balloons transmitted data to satellites.ConsiderationsToday both semi-permanent, super-pressure mylar balloons and closed rubber balloons that burst at a high altitude remain in use. Currently, approximately 900 rubber balloons with attached radiosondes similar to those used since 1958 ascend Earth's atmosphere twice per day, throughout the year, delivering vital weather data to forecasters around the globe. Flights last up to two hours and ascend to 20 miles high. All 900 radiosondes transmit data back to meteorologists every couple of seconds for their entire journey.
5 Pressure Sensor/Gyro Senior Project For our senior project we are going to be integrating a pressure sensor into the electronics on the High Altitude Balloon. The reason for implementing this sensor is to cut down on battery and memory usage when setting up the balloon for launch.The Gyro will be used to mount a camera and have real time video capabilities. Also a remote device will be used so that the camera can be moved on the horizontal plane.
6 Block DiagramThis is our block diagram of our system:Power
7 Weather Balloon Project Scope The problem:Having to turn on the devices and then set everything else up, which causes loss of battery power as well as unnecessary memory usage. As well as only having one fixed view from camera.The goal:To turn components on at a specified barometric pressure.Ability to control camera rotation remotely while in flight.The Project Objectives:Finding specific pressure sensor. (Andrew Kempinski)Design circuit for the pressure sensor. (Andrew Kempinski)Find specific gyro. (Bob Charles)Design mounting hardware for both pressure and gyro circuits. (Bob Charles)Design R/C circuit. (Dan Dymond)Integrate circuitry for gyro and pressure circuits. (Dan Dymond)
8 Project Scope (cont.) The Success Criteria: Find adequate pressure sensor able to withstand atmospheric conditions.Successful test circuit for pressure sensor.Find light weight gyro able to be carried by the balloon.Test on mounting hardware for both circuits was successful.R/C was successfully designed and tested.All circuits were integrated and successfully tested.The assumptions, risks and objectives:Assumptions:Assuming everything will work with careful design, proper weather conditions, remote access has the range capabilities.Risks:Possible failure of devices, due to upper atmospheric weather conditions and temperatures.Objective:Design and build the circuit, test using weather balloon launch.
9 Component Specifications Weight- Under 6 lbs; 4 lbs if possibleServos- under 30 mA , under ¼ of a pound, high enough torque to rotate camera.Gyro-under 1 poundPressure Sensor – capable range of 1 atm to 0 atm, current range around 30 uA.For testing purposes MHz RF Transceiver for controlling gyro and video feedback.Power- For RF module -- mA power= 1 WServos to 6 vPressure Sensor to 3.6V
10 Work Breakdown Structure Price= $30 Sensor + 74(2) Servos + 40(2) Transceivers + $50 Gyro construction = $308 (Approximately)
12 Key Components (Servo) HG-5000 Features:Optimized High Response Narrow Band HITEC Signal Universal Signal Selectable Precision Control Technology for Heading Lock Auto Detection of Any Transmitter & Receiver No initializing time when power up in Heading lock mode Optimal Solution for Constant Pirouette Rate Extreme Tolerance against Disturbance and Vibration Advanced Real Time Signal Processing Built-in Temperature Sensor for drift removal Remote Gain Adjustment Light Weight & Compact Size Self Diagnosis Function Simple and Vivid LED Display Easy Data Setting Low Power Consumption (20mA)
13 Key Components (Transciever) 433 MHz RF TransceiverThis easy to use and low cost module is capable of sending and receiving serial data wirelessly between microcontrollers or to a PC. The low power consumption makes this module ideal for use in battery powered applications. This module sends and receives data by AM or CPCA modulation, thus offering a higher average output power which extends its range. This module is equipped with an RSSI feature that can be utilized to improve power efficiency by waking up circuitry only when an external signal is detected. 3.3 to 5.0VDC; Transmit: 12mA, Receive: 6.1 mA, Power Down:11.5 uA
14 Key Components (Tranciever Cont.) Features: High speed data transfer rates: bps Asynchronous serial data (TTL/CMOS compatible) SIP header allows for ease of use with breadboards Compatible with most microcontrollers including the Propeller chip and all BASIC Stamp models Power-down mode for conservative energy usage (longer battery life) Line of sight range up to 250 feet (depending on operating conditions)Application Ideas: Remote controlled Boe-Bot robot Wireless data acquisition Remote signal beacon for adventure seekers Remote industrial monitoring Lighting control Keyless entryKey Specifications: Power requirements: 3.3 VDC to 5.0 VDC Communication: Asynchronous baud Dimensions (With Antenna): 3.82 x 0.94 x 0.41 in (97 x 24 x 10.5 mm)Operating temp range: +32°F to +158°F (0°C to +70°C)
22 Patent Numbers Related to Project Servo Patent #: 7,268,967A linear-type tape storage magnetic head device in which track density and the response of a magnetic head is improved is provided. A sliding portion constituting a main sliding surface in contact with a magnetic tape T and a magnetic head element chip portion. A tracking mechanism has a two-stage tracking mechanism of a rough-move tracking mechanism and a fine-move tracking mechanism, with the magnetic head element chip pardon being directly disposed in the fine-move tracking mechanism and the fine-move tracking mechanism being disposed in the rough-move tracking mechanism; the rough-move tracking mechanism makes the magnetic head element chip portion move across the tracks arranged in parallel in the width direction of the magnetic tape T; and the magnetic head element chip portion made lighter in weight provides improved speed-up and accuracy of tracking and high density of the tracks can be obtained.RFID Patent #: 7,755,486Systems and methods for providing expanded compatibility in identification tags such as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) devices. Integrated devices can be equipped with various combinations of passive and active tags configured for compatibility with passive and active readers, respectively. Additionally, the integrated devices can be equipped with various combinations of passive and active tag readers for compatibility with passive and active tags, respectively. A first combination comprises an active tag and a passive tag reader for collecting information over a passive channel, and sending the information over an active channel. A second combination comprises an active tag and a passive tag receiver/transceiver for communication over both active and passive channels. A third combination comprises an active tag and an active tag reader for collecting information over an active channel, and sending information over an active channel.
23 Team Song"We are the awesome team, the awesome team are we We've traveled far and long, so that here we could be. We shall launch our balloon, to go up very high All equipment should turn on when it's in the sky. When it finally descends from out of the clouds We'll definitely get good grades and we'll be so prouds.“
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