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Chapter 15. Makes road surfaces slippery Harder to see others and for others to see you Roadway markings can disappear Hearing and seeing can be difficult.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15. Makes road surfaces slippery Harder to see others and for others to see you Roadway markings can disappear Hearing and seeing can be difficult."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15

2 Makes road surfaces slippery Harder to see others and for others to see you Roadway markings can disappear Hearing and seeing can be difficult

3 Always use your low-beam headlights to increase your visibility Watch for other vehicles that may not have their lights on Use windshield defroster and rear defogger to keep condensation off windows Be on the lookout for pedestrians darting across the street to get out of the rain Increase your space cushion in case you or drivers begin to skid Signal earlier Drive in the tracks already made by vehicles in front of you

4 Reduce speed by 25% when driving on straight roads and by 50% on curves Dont make sudden moves with the steering wheel Dont apply brakes too hard on wet surfaces Wet brakes stop more slowly than dry brakes Let car coast to reduce speed If rainfall becomes too heavy, pull over to a safe area and wait for the rain to let up

5 Occurs when a thin sheet of water gets between the road surface and a vehicles tires, causing them to lose contact with the road Can start and speeds as slow as 30 mph and in water little more than 1/8 inch deep As speed increases, so does the chance of hydroplaning Ability to slow, stop, or even steer is reduced Any sudden jerk of the wheel or a gust of wind can send you in a uncontrolled skid Take foot off the gas pedal and resist applying the brake Let the cars momentum ease down until you get grip Make sure your tires are properly inflated with good tread

6 Warning signs of standing water Visible reflections Dimples created by raindrops hitting the water Slushing sound from the tires Loose feeling in your steering wheel

7 Avoid it If water is running, do not try to cross Water as shallow as 18 inches can carry away an average car If you cant avoid it: Make sure the water is low enough it does not reach the bottom of the car You are risking getting water into the engine through the carburetor, air filter, or exhaust pipe Can short out your electrical system Stay close to the center and not the shoulder Use a lower gear

8 Snow can limit your vision Roadway markings covered by snow Traffic signals hard to see Cars that are not properly cleaned If the sun is shining, sunlight can reflect off snow and ice causing a glare Winterizing your vehicle Add deicing solvent to your windshield washer solution Tire chains Make sure your spare is good Have a flashlight, ice scraper, snow brush, ice pick, snow shovel, gloves, road flares, jumper cables Have cell phone handy and carry extra clothes and blankets

9 Clear your vehicle of snow Drive back and forth to make a path for your vehicle Use a shovel if the snow is deep Dont spin your wheels

10 Freezing and thawing occur constantly during the winter months The greatest danger is when sleet turns into a thick sheet of ice If it is raining or sleeting at the freezing point, ice can form instantly Because air circulates below bridges and overpasses, they tend to freeze before other parts of the roadway Roads can be completely dry and overpasses can still have ice on them Sand and/or salt is laid down to melt the ice on a roadway Not always effective

11 Stay in tracks created by other vehicles Reduce speed and increase following distance Avoid hard braking or accelerating Coasting is the best maneuver

12 Avoid parking on snowy or icy roads Especially if they are plowing the roadway If you have to park downhill, make sure there is enough room for you to get out without backing up Dont set parking brake Can freeze and leave you unable to move your vehicle

13 Fog Most common early in the morning, late at night, at high altitudes, and near bodies of water Some of the worst crashes have occurred in fog Reduce your speed and increase your space cushion Fog can give you false depth perception Use low beam headlights High beams make visibility worse Pull over if you have to

14 Dust and Sand Storm Common in deserts, agricultural areas, and sandy beach areas Avoid driving in such conditions Drivers could rear end you and visibility could be reduced to zero Hail Usually occurs in spring or summer rains Pea-sized hail can reduce visibility and layer the road with slippery pellets of ice Larger hail can crack windshields and dent car bodies beyond repair Park your vehicle in a garage to keep it out of harm

15 Lightning Storms Get indoors or stay in your vehicle Avoid using any electronic devices, such as the radio or cellular phone Tornados and Hurricanes If you are caught in a tornado while driving Pull over immediately and seek shelter under an overpass or in a ditch Dont try to chase a tornado Hurricanes are accompanied by strong winds and heavy rain Try to park under a covered area, but stay away from trees, telephone poles, or similar objects that can topple and crush your vehicle

16 Extreme temperatures can create special problems for vehicles Cold weather Engines have to work harder in cold weather Mixture of air and fuel in your engine is affected If there is not enough anti-freeze or the wrong kind, the radiator can freeze Blocks coolant from getting to the engine, which can cause it to overheat

17 Cold weather puts added strain on your engine Battery has less power, and oil, transmission fluid, and other lubricants get thicker Keep vehicle parked in a garage if possible If you arent going to use your vehicle, it is a good idea to have someone start it up for you and let it run for a while Engine block heater?

18 Cold temperature causes windows to ice up, reducing visibility Use an ice scraper and your defroster once the engine is warm Moisture can build up inside the car, causing windows to fog up even with the defroster on Keeping a window open can help aid this Sometimes, using your air conditioner can work faster

19 Hot weather can put stress on your vehicle just as much as the cold Heat causes liquids to evaporate Make sure you check all your fluids regularly in this instance Heat can shorten the life of a cars battery and cause hoses and belts to crack and tear

20 In very hot weather, gasoline can boil and turn to vapor, causing your vehicle to lock or stop running If this happens, shut the vehicle off and let it cool down Once the fuel cools and condenses, you should be able to restart Vehicles do not have this problem with the use of fuel pumps, which push the fuel to the engine

21 Driving for long periods in hot weather, in heavy traffic, up inclines, or using the air conditioner at full blast on a very hot day, can cause the engine to overheat Pull over and let the vehicle cool Open the hood, windows, even turn on the heater to draw heat away from the engine Water can also be used as a temporary coolant if needed Make sure the engine has cooled enough or risk cracking the engine block If it continues to overheat, dont drive Call a tow truck and have it looked at immediately

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