Presentation on theme: "Geography 12 Weather and Climate Big Idea: What creates the climate of an area? We will do some work on climate controls, discuss weather, and then return."— Presentation transcript:
Geography 12 Weather and Climate Big Idea: What creates the climate of an area? We will do some work on climate controls, discuss weather, and then return to climate zones of the world Created by Ms. Inden
Here is what you will learn today: Climate is what you can expect the weather to be like over a long period of time There are several things that determine what the climate will be: –How far is the place from the equator? –What season is it – is the area tilted away from the sun? –Are there warm or cold ocean currents nearby? –What is the altitude (metres above sea level)? –Is it on or near a large body of water, like the ocean? –Connected to this is – is it inland (continental or maritime) –What are the prevailing winds in the area?
WALPOC W ater A ltitude L atitude P revailing winds O cean Currents C ontintentality Another way to remember this is to use the mnemonic, WALPOC Lets go over them one by one
Idea to understand: What is the difference between weather and climate?
Weather Weather is day-to- day What is happening at any moment –Sun –Rain –Wind –Snow –Fog –cloud Weather tells you what to wear on a daily basis Will I need my toque today? http://www.bluenose2.ns.ca/Catalogue/Clothing/ OhCanadaLongToque.html
Climate Climate is what is normally expected in a place year after year What weather would you expect day after day in these two places and why? http://www.circlearanchhostel.com/recgal.html http://www.brazadv.com/brazil_tours/montane_rainforest.htm
Climate and Seasons In the pictures on the previous slide, we looked at two places where the weather is the same all year long – the desert, and the rainforest. Very little changes, month to month In other places, like Fort St. James, we have a climate that changes with every season Think about why we have seasons, while other places do not… more on this in a moment What is interesting about all this is that there are many different things that impact what the climate is in a place
Idea: The difference between climate and weather What kinds of questions would we ask? Climate! –How much precipitation do we usually get in a year – can we farm here? –How should we build this house – does it need a strong roof to carry a lot of snow? –Are there four seasons (spring, summer, winter and fall?) in this area? –Can our town have a ski hill? Weather! –What should I wear today? –What will the roads be like today or tomorrow? –Is it going to rain when we go camping this weekend? –Do I need to wear my coat?
The world has several climate zones or areas. This PowerPoint is about WHY that is. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Basic_Geography/Climate/Global_Climate
Why are there different climates in different parts of the world? W ater A ltitude L atitude P revailing winds O cean Currents C ontintentality
1. Climate Control: Latitude Look at this globe You can see that the earth is titled a bit on its side (on its axis – which is an imaginary line through the middle of the planet) Axis Go to: http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072482621/stud ent_view0/animations.html#http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072482621/stud ent_view0/animations.html# Click on Chapter 8 Animations, Earths Rotation Axis If you have earphones you can listen to the audio of the link mentioned above Go To: http://esminfo.prenhall.com/science/ geoanimations/animations/01_Earth Sun_E2.htmlhttp://esminfo.prenhall.com/science/ geoanimations/animations/01_Earth Sun_E2.html
The Earths tilt on its axis You can see that the northern part of the world - where we live - spends LONG HOURS in the sun at the beginning of the clip (summer), but only gets a VERY FEW hours once it is tipped away from the sun (winter) Notice that the equator gets about 12 hours of sun ALL YEAR ROUND, so they dont have seasons like ours
Where on Earth are we? This is the equator – no real seasons in most areas: 12 hours of daylight all year. We live way up here, far north of the equator. We have long days in the summer and short days in the winter. We have four very distinct seasons because of our latitude. http://www.jupiterimages.com/itemDetail.aspx?itemID=23501499
Length of time a place is exposed to the sun The north and south of the planet are exposed the sun for fewer months of the year The less sun, the colder it is
Climate Control: Latitude Less time in the sun, but also, less strength in the sun Equator There is another important idea about latitude as a control Because the earth is round, and titled, the suns rays hit the earth at different angles So, you can see that at the equator, the sun comes straight in and heats the area more strongly North and south of the equator, the rays are spread out and less strong Key term: Insolation: amount of sun received at the earths surface
Heres another picture to show how important the idea of latitude is to climate See that the same amount of sun is coming in, but the sun is much more concentrated or strong in the first example MUCH WARMER!!
2. Climate Control: Altitude Altitude – how high above sea level the land is This mountain is located in the Alps Why is there snow here… But not here?
Answer: Usually, air cools as it rises The higher the mountain, the cooler the temperature at the top In general, for every 150 metres of rise in altitude, the temperature drops 1 degree Celsius – the air becomes thinner and less able to hold onto heat Sometimes, an inversion occurs and it is warmer on the mountain than in the valley – like happens at our ski hill once in a while http://staffwww.fullcoll.edu/tmorris/elements_of_ecology/chapter_3.htm
Glaciers at the equator? This is a picture of a glacier located on Mount Kenya, in Kenya Africa It is located just south of the equator Why is it a surprise to find a glacier at the equator? What does it tell you about how altitude can change the climate of an area? The glaciers on this mountain are disappearing. What would cause this?
3. Climate Control: Ocean Currents Think about the idea that some ocean currents are warm and some are cold. What climate would you expect on a coast with warm water? What climate would you expect with cold water currents? Go to this link and look at ocean currents in the world. –Find Chapter 24: Examine Global Surface Currents and click on it to watch http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_sci ence/terc/navigation/visualization.cfmhttp://www.classzone.com/books/earth_sci ence/terc/navigation/visualization.cfm –When you put your cursor over the map, it shows how the wind blows. Does the wind have anything to do with the direction of the ocean currents?
Heres another look Where are most of the cold currents? Where are most of the warm currents? Wh y do you think it is this way? http://scripts.mit.edu/~gmaze/blog/
Animation On the previous map, locate the Gulf Stream Current and the Labrador Current Follow this link to see them in action – When you get there, look for The Gulf Stream animation http://homepages.ge.ucl.ac.uk/~awa yne/polar/climate.htmlhttp://homepages.ge.ucl.ac.uk/~awa yne/polar/climate.html
This is a cool way to look at ocean currents http://blue.utb.edu/paullgj/geog3333/lectures/physgeog.html
Based on the information on this map and on the animation you watched, why is London, England a warmer place to live than St. Johns Newfoundland, Canada? http://scripts.mit.edu/~gmaze/blog/ Use what you know:
4. Climate Control: Distance from the Sea The climate of an area will be different if it is located beside the ocean, or inland, away from any large body of water Think about what you know about the climate in Vancouver. What is it like there? Think about what you know about the weather here in Fort St. James, which is pretty far from the ocean. How are they different? Key Terms: maritime climate and continental climate
Climate Control: How close to the ocean? Places that are near water usually have a lot more rain or snow than places inland – especially if the ocean current is warm The warm moist air blows in off the ocean and drops its moisture on the land in the form of rain and snow
The climate of places on the ocean are usually milder than inland Mild means not that hot, and not that cold! Places like Vancouver or Victoria that are on or near water, will be WARMER in winter (NOT AS COLD), and COLDER(NOT AS HOT) in summer. Hmmmmm???? Why is that? Take a look at the next slide
There are two ideas here that are important! Water takes a long time to warm up, but water cools down very slowly Land warms up quickly, and also land cools quickly
North America Summer The land heats up fast, so summer temperatures away from the ocean are hot, HOT! The ocean heats up slowly, so summer temperatures on the ocean are much cooler during the summer, as cool ocean wind blows in.
North America Winter The land cools down quickly, so winter temperatures inland are COLD! The ocean cools down very slowly, so the air over it is warm, and this warm air blows into the colder land, keeping coastal areas warmer in winter.
Use what you know: Why would it be very hot in the Prairies (Alberta, Saskatchewan) in the summer?
Prevailing Winds Air pressure and winds (caused by air pressure) We will take a longer look at this, and why it happens, but for now: Winds off a warm ocean will bring rain Winds coming from the Arctic will be dry and cold Prevailing means the winds you can expect over the long term, so they can impact the kind of climate you expect in a certain place
Prevailing winds of the earth – more on this to come
To sum up, or review: Climate is what you can expect the weather to be like over a long period of time There are several things that determine what the climate will be: –How far is the place from the equator? –What season is it – is the area tilted away from the sun? –Are there warm or cold ocean currents nearby? –What is the altitude (metres above sea level)? –Is it on or near a large body of water, like the ocean? –What are the prevailing winds?