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Climate and Weather ISCI 2001. Climate and Weather.

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Presentation on theme: "Climate and Weather ISCI 2001. Climate and Weather."— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate and Weather ISCI 2001

2 Climate and Weather

3 Climate Zones

4 The Earths Atmospheres Mostly nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%) Troposphere Temperature -50 to 40 Celsius Stratosphere Ozone layer (O 3 ) UV light

5 Greenhouse Effect Terrestrial radiation trapped by greenhouse gases Carbon dioxide

6 Greenhouse Effect – Greenhouse Gases (1). Carbon dioxide – Fossil fuels; deforestation; organic decay; forest fires (2). Ozone – Sunlight chemically reacts with O 2 (natural) – Photochemical smog production (3). Methane – Wetlands; biomass burning; termites; organic decay (4). Chlorofluorocarbons – Refrigerants; aerosol spray propellants; cleaning solvents (5). Nitrous Oxide – Fertilizers; burning of fossil fuels; forests; grasslands

7 Importance of Ozone Absorbs UV radiation Formed in the stratosphere Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Ozone Holes

8 GH Effect Importance Naturally warms the surface of the Earth Keeps the average temperature of the Earth normal (sustain life) -18 C otherwise Global Warming Increased GH effect, GH gases

9 Atmospheric Pressure Density of air decreases with altitude thinning of air Sea Level 1cubic meter Mass 1.2 kg (at 10 km 0.4 kg) kPa or 1 atmosphere of pressure Barometer

10 Atmospheric Pressure

11 How Winds are produced Air that flows from high to low pressure areas Uneven heat of the Earths surface Warm air is lower density and low air pressure Cool air higher density and higher air pressure Isobars Produces a convection current Local winds Small scale changes in convection cells and pressure gradients Global wind patterns – prevailing winds

12 Winds – Convection Cells

13 Prevailing Winds – Hadley Cells

14 Coriolis Effect Earth Rotation effects global wind patterns Objects deviate from straight-line path including winds – deflected Deflects winds to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the Left in the Southern Hemisphere Jet Streams

15 Cloud Formation and Precipitation Aggregates of water droplets formed by rising air that expands and cools Cumulus, stratus or cirrus

16 Cloud Classification

17 Cirrocumulus Cirrostratus Altocumulus Cumulonimbus

18 Air Masses and Fronts Air Mass Arctic, polar, tropical Weather Fronts Warm vs Cold Fronts Stationary Animation

19 Fronts

20 Formation of Cyclones Hurricanes Tornados

21 Solar Radiation, Tilting of the Earth and the Seasons

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