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Dr. Rajasree.G, Dr. P. Rajasekharan & Dr. Shalini Pillai. P Kerala State Planning Board, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Rajasree.G, Dr. P. Rajasekharan & Dr. Shalini Pillai. P Kerala State Planning Board, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Rajasree.G, Dr. P. Rajasekharan & Dr. Shalini Pillai. P Kerala State Planning Board, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala

2 Agro meteorology is the study and use of weather and climate information to enhance or expand agricultural crops and/or to increase crop production.

3 Meteorological factorsHydrological factorsAgricultureForestryAnimal husbandry

4 Role of agro meteorology Estimating crop production Determining maturity dates Modifying environment


6 Complexity Multifactor interaction -with soil, micro climate etc. Assist in effective crop management

7 The surface air temperature influences the nut development, copra and oil yield in coconut. Pre-monsoon and monsoon rainfall accounts for 37 per cent of yield variability in I st crop of rice. Some pests severe in coconut during summer, others in rainy season. High maximum and minimum temperatures and relative humidity favourable during the establishment phase in rice. High maximum temperature is favourable during the ripening period., Huda et al. (1975). At Coimbatore and Aduthurai, additional rainfall was found to be detrimental to the rice crop during sowing, tillering and flowering periods, while it was found to be beneficial during elongation ( Sreenivasan and Banerjee, 1978).

8 Gall midge incidence in rice -positively correlated with rainfall and negatively correlated with maximum temperature (Thomas et al., 1975). Favourable conditions for the infestation of rice gall midge were found to be T max of 35.2 o C, T min of 19.8 o C with a RH of 89.94% and mean rainfall of 4.5 to 62.5 mm (per 5 day period) In Northern Kerala, blast disease is very severe in winter when the minimum temperature goes below 20 o C (Premnathan et al., 1999). High stem borer infestation was noted in paddy planted from October to November and low infestations in crop planted from June to October. The pest infestation is negatively correlated with rainfall and minimum temperature and positively with maximum temperature

9 Amount of Disease Crop Susceptibility, health Pathogen Amount of inoculum Virulence Environment Leaf wetness Temperature

10 Pathogens dependent on free moisture for infection are likely to be more successful eg. root pathogens Leaf wetness sensor & weather monitor Healthy and diseased bean roots

11 Higher atmospheric water vapor concentrations favor fungal spore production, accelerating epidemic development

12 Insects are cold-blooded Development rates rise and fall with temperature Temperature is the most important factor influencing: Development Reproduction rate Survival Distribution

13 Leaf Roller ( Cnapholocrocis medinalis)Attack in Rice Negative correlation with minimum temperature, evening relative humidity & rainfall Positive correlation with sunshine hrs & maximum temperature

14 Weather ~ Pests & disease complex Pests & disease surveillance Forewarnings Prophylactic measures

15 Cultivars Selection Choosing windows for Sowing/harvesting operations Irrigation scheduling – optimal water use Mitigation from adverse weather events such as frost, low temperature, heavy rainfall – at critical crop stages Nutrient Management : Fertilizer application Plant Protection : Pesticide/fungicide spraying schedules Feed, Health and Shelter Management for Livestock [Optimal temperature for dairy/ hatchery


17 Flash Floods East Fort, Thiruvananthapuram East Fort, Thiruvananthapuram

18 Floods Drought

19 More intense and longer droughts have been observed over wider areas since the 1970s


21 Frost damage to the different crops (Hisar, ) Frost damage is the number one weather hazard, on a planetary scale, as far as agricultural and forest economical losses are concerned Cold wave Mustard Ice Jatropha Papaya

22 Heat Wave (2003) - Damage to Poultry Andhra Pradesh ¤20 lakhs birds died in May & June 2003 ¤ Highest in E. Godavari-7 Lakhs; W. Godavari – 5 lakhs ¤ Egg production decreased in the state by 25% ¤ Total Loss by 27 Crores


24 Agricultural productivity sensitive to climate induced changes - Direct effect ( Temp, Rainfall, CO2 Concentration - Indirect effect (Changes in soil moisture and distribution and frequency of infestation by pests and diseases)

25 Climate Change effects- Agriculture +5 to -11% change in rice productivity of Western Ghats Maximum temperature likely to rise by 1 0 C to 3 0 C in southern region Mean sea level 1.3 mm/year along Indian cost. Fish stocks may face extinction or may move towards high latitude. Source: Climate change in India-A 4x4 assessment, MoEF, GoI, 2010

26 Crop T opt T max Yield (t/ha) T opt Yield (t/ha) 28 0 C Yield (t/ha) 32 0 C % decrease (28 – 32 0 C) Rice Soybean Dry bean Peanut Sorghum Source : ICRISAT, 2009

27 Climate Change Climate change adaptations in Agriculture Climate Change Mitigations in Agriculture

28 Reduce vulnerability to Climate Change Climate resilience throughCommunity & farm level managementTechnologyMarkets and institutional policy

29 Farm level adaptation Changes in inputs, irrigation practices, tillage, crop choice, crop rotation, diversification, harvesting & processing Social adaptation Social network, group actions, SHGs, local water management techniques, traditional water conservation measures Technology adaptation Micro irrigation, Water harvesting, Flood mitigation, land drainage Policy adaptation Policy of institutions dealing with water allocation, planning & management, regulations of local bodies

30 Crops and varieties that fit into new cropping systems and seasons Development of varieties with changed duration Varieties for high temperature, drought, inland salinity and submergence tolerance Crops and varieties that tolerate coastal salinity and sea water inundation Varieties which respond to high CO 2 Varieties with high fertilizer and radiation use efficiencyiciency

31 Crop-Crop Diversity for adapting to increased pest incidence Creation of crop diversity by the introduction of another crop is known as crop- crop diversity The insitu culturing of natural enemies lead to reduction of insect pests in diversified crop conditions. Sorghum, groundnut and blackgram as intercrops with pigeonpea: Cluster bean, cowpea and greengram with castor reduced the incidence of the insect pests. These results can go as component of Low External input IPM modules

32 Intercropping - the best way to Adapt to climate change by small holders

33 Agriculture responsible for 1/3 rd of GHG emissions in India Mitigation efforts should focus on reducing GHG emissions through ; FinancingTechnology Stringent policies Mitigation

34 Climate Change- tools for future strategy Long term trends in weather parameters Production trends Designing future production strategy

35 The seasonal rainfall influence on cassava production in Kerala Materials Monthly rain fall data ( IITM) Cassava production – ( DES, GoK)

36 SW monsoon influenced the cassava production declining trend in SW monsoon, increasing trend in Post monsoon RF, decrease in RF in June & July, Increase in RF in Aug & Sept North- East Monsoon & Pre – Monsoon rains had no effect


38 High Precision Weather forecasting Regional specific forecasting Linking with Agro Advisory Services

39 Crop-weather- pest-disease- management information to the farming community Web based services farmer services

40 Weather Based Crop Insurance aims to mitigate the hardship of the insured farmers against the likelihood of financial loss on account of anticipated crop loss resulting from incidence of adverse conditions of weather parameters like rainfall, temperature, frost, humidity etc. Weather based Crop Insurance uses weather parameters as proxy for crop yields in compensating the cultivators for deemed crop losses. National Agriculture Insurance Company- Weather based Crop Insurance scheme

41 Crop-weather calendars Crop- weather- farm operational calendar Crop-weather-pest management calendar Crop-weather-disease management calendars




45 Lack of sufficient network to draw weather data Absence of agroclimatic zone wise advisory service Absence of sufficient location specific research data Issues in dissemination Technical problems of forecast

46 A multi institutional collaborative project jointly undertaken by the Indian Space Research Organisation, CUSAT and State Planning Board linking with KAU and Dep. of Agriculture aimed at augmenting current meteorological network in Kerala so as to provide full fledged crop weather advisory services to farmers Initiated in 2004 by State Planning Board

47 Strengthening Weather Network in the State Dissemination of weather data Weather Advisory Services Generation of location specific data for research and development purpose Data Support for Weather Insurance Development of crop weather information system

48 ISRO developed AWS for the first time with indigenous technology Established 56 AWS Set up a portal CUSAT prepared reports KAU generating crop weather information systems Developed Block level/AEU wise forecasting models



51 The concept of agro-ecological delineations was developed by FAO (1976, 1978) with strong emphasis on comparable agro-climatic parameters to delineate agriculturally potential areas suitable for particular crops or combination of crops so that optimum production potential is achieved. The analysis of agro-ecology of the Kerala State based primarily on climate, geomorphology, land use and soil variability resulted in delineation of five agro-ecological zones and twenty three agro- ecological units..

52 Farming System Approach Schematic Production Support Weather Advisory Support PTD/FLD/OFT (KVK) Extension Support (Including IT + Field visit) ) Water Management (Ponds + ……..) Livelihood improvement Marketing at higher levels Future Agricultural Development in Kerala

53 Special Initiatives of KSPB Agro Ecological Planning Project Multi institutional-6 institutions NBSS & LUP, Bangalore Kerala Agri. University Kerala Univ. of Veterinary & Animal Sci. CWRDM, Loyola College C-DAC, Pune i


55 Kalavastha Portal (developed by C-DAC, Pune)




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