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Weather Merit Badge March 22, 2002. Requirements 1. Define meteorology. Explain how the weather affects farmers, sailors, aviators, and the outdoors construction.

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Presentation on theme: "Weather Merit Badge March 22, 2002. Requirements 1. Define meteorology. Explain how the weather affects farmers, sailors, aviators, and the outdoors construction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Weather Merit Badge March 22, 2002

2 Requirements 1. Define meteorology. Explain how the weather affects farmers, sailors, aviators, and the outdoors construction industry. Tell why weather forecasts are important to each of these groups. 2. Name five dangerous weather-related conditions. Give the safety rules for each when outdoors and explain the difference between a severe weather watch and a warning. Discuss the safety rules with your family. 3. Draw cross sections of a cold front and a warm front showing the location and movements of the cold and warm air, the frontal slope, the location and types of clouds associated with the front, and the location of rain. Tell the differences between a cold front and a warm front. 4. Tell what causes wind, why it rains, and how lightning and hail are formed. Explain the difference between high and low pressure systems in the atmosphere and tell which is related to good and poor weather. Continued…

3 Requirements 5. Identify and describe clouds in the low, middle, and upper levels of the atmosphere. Relate these to specific types of weather. 6. Draw a diagram of the water cycle and label its major processes. Explain the water cycle to your counselor. 7. Define acid rain. Identify which human activities pollute the atmosphere as well as the effects such pollution can have on people. 8. Do ONE of the following: b. Visit a National Weather Service office or talk with a local radio or television weathercaster, private meteorologist, local agricultural Extension service office, or university meteorology instructor. Find out what type of weather is most dangerous or damaging to your community. Determine how severe weather and flood warnings reach the homes in your community. 9. Do ONE of the following: a. Give a talk of more than five minutes to your unit explaining the camping safety rules in the event of lightning, flash floods, and tornadoes. Before your talk, show your outline to your counselor for approval.

4 1.What is Meteorology? Meteor = Greek for thing in the sky Meteor = Greek for thing in the sky -ology = Greek suffix for study of -ology = Greek suffix for study of Meteorolgy is Meteorolgy is study of things in the sky Today meteorology means the study of the weather. What causes rain, snow, cold days, hot dry days, etc? Today meteorology means the study of the weather. What causes rain, snow, cold days, hot dry days, etc?

5 Who is Interested in the Weather and Why? Aviators: Is it safe to fly, winds, freezing? Aviators: Is it safe to fly, winds, freezing? Farmers: Should I plant, irrigate, harvest? Farmers: Should I plant, irrigate, harvest? Sailors: Should I keep my ship in the harbor? Sailors: Should I keep my ship in the harbor? Construction Industry: Should I replace the roof? Pour concrete? Paint? Construction Industry: Should I replace the roof? Pour concrete? Paint? Travelers: Will the roads be icy or wet? Is it worth going to Florida? Travelers: Will the roads be icy or wet? Is it worth going to Florida? Party Planners: Should we plan an outside barbeque? Party Planners: Should we plan an outside barbeque? Others ? Others ?

6 2. Dangerous Weather Conditions Winter Storms (Snow, Freezing Rain, Sleet) Winter Storms (Snow, Freezing Rain, Sleet) Thunder Storms Thunder Storms Floods Floods Tornadoes Tornadoes Hurricanes Hurricanes Heat Waves Heat Waves

7 3.Cold Front Cold Air replaces Warm Air (causing warm air to rise) Cold Air replaces Warm Air (causing warm air to rise) If Warm Air is Humid Precipitation Occurs If Warm Air is Humid Precipitation Occurs Generally Brief but Severe Storms Generally Brief but Severe Storms Clouds: Cumulonimbus (Thunderstorm) Clouds: Cumulonimbus (Thunderstorm)

8 3. Warm Fronts Warm Air Replaces Cold Air Warm Air Replaces Cold Air If Warm air is Humid Precipitation Occurs If Warm air is Humid Precipitation Occurs Typically Long (days) of Inclement Weather Typically Long (days) of Inclement Weather Clouds: Cirrus, Stratanimbus Clouds: Cirrus, Stratanimbus

9 3. Stationary Fronts Boundary Remains Stationary Boundary Remains Stationary Days (or Weeks) of Cloudy, Wet Weather Days (or Weeks) of Cloudy, Wet Weather

10 3. Occluded Fronts

11 Current Frontal Boundaries

12 4.Low Pressure System When forecasters say a low pressure area or storm is moving toward your region, cloudy weather and precipitation result as the low pressure area approaches. Low pressure systems have different intensities with some producing a gentle rain while others produce hurricane force winds and a massive deluge.

13 4. High Pressure System Often, you hear a weather forecaster say that an area of high pressure will dominate the weather. This usually means your region has several partly to mostly sunny days in store with little or no precipitation. Air tends to sink near high- pressure centers, which inhibits precipitation and cloud formation. This is why high-pressure systems tend to bring bright, sunny days with calm weather.

14 Current Pressure Systems

15 4.Wind Warm Air Rises Warm Air Rises Cool Air Moves to Fill Vacuum Cool Air Moves to Fill Vacuum

16 4. Wind Pressure Differences Push air from High Pressure to Low Pressure Differences Push air from High Pressure to Low Coriolis Force: Rotation of Earth causes winds to move around High and Low Pressure zones Coriolis Force: Rotation of Earth causes winds to move around High and Low Pressure zones

17 5.Clouds Cloud TypeAppearanceAltitude CumulonimbusThunderheads Near ground to above 50,000 feet Cirrostratus Thin, wispy, above thunderheads Above 18,000 feet CirrusThin, often with "mare's tail"Above 18,000 feet CirrocumulusSmall puffy cloudsAbove 18,000 feet Altostratus Thin, uniform, sometimes with "wide wale corduroy" appearance 6, ,000 feet AltocumulusMedium-sized puffy clouds6, ,000 feet Stratocumulus Broad and flat on the bottom, puffy on top Below 6,000 feet CumulusPuffy cloudsBelow 6,000 feet Stratus Uniform, thick to thin layered clouds Below 6,000 feet

18 5.Clouds (High) Cirrocumulus Cirrostratus Cirrus

19 5. Clouds (Med) Altocumulus Altostratus

20 5. Clouds (Low) Cumulus Fog Stratocumulus Stratus

21 5. Clouds (Rain) Cumulonimbus Nimbostratus

22 6. Water Cycle

23 7.Acid Rain Acid rain is rain, snow or fog that is polluted by acid in the atmosphere and damages the environment. Two common air pollutants acidify rain: sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxide (NO X ). When these substances are released into the atmosphere, they can be carried over long distances by prevailing winds before returning to earth as acidic rain, snow, fog or dust. When the environment cannot neutralize the acid being deposited, damage occurs.

24 8.Most Dangerous Weather to Saint Joseph Freezing Rain Freezing Rain Affects Entire Population Affects Entire Population Severs Power Lines Severs Power Lines Makes Travel Hazardous Makes Travel Hazardous Destroys Trees Destroys Trees

25 9. 5 Minute Talks To Finish the Merit Badge you need to write and present a 5 minute presentation to your troop about camping safety rules in the event of lightning, flash floods, and tornadoes. To Finish the Merit Badge you need to write and present a 5 minute presentation to your troop about camping safety rules in the event of lightning, flash floods, and tornadoes.


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