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Weather & Climate Intro to Weather Clip.

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Presentation on theme: "Weather & Climate Intro to Weather Clip."— Presentation transcript:

1 Weather & Climate Intro to Weather Clip

2 Weather by Brainpop 1) What cycle is the basis of our weather?
2) What causes precipitation to occur? 3) Where do storms usually occur?

3 Weather Temporary behavior of atmosphere (what’s going on at any certain time) Small geographic area Can change rapidly

4 Weather --The study of weather is meteorology
--Someone who studies weather is called a meteorologist

5 Climate Long-term behavior of atmosphere (100+ years)
Large geographic area Very slow to change

6 POLAR 90o -60o latitude Cool summers, cold year-round Dry

7 TEMPERATE 60o-30o latitude True Seasons Variety of climate patterns
Moderate precipitation (rain/snow)

8 TROPICAL 30o - equator No winter, warm year-round
High temp, rainfall, humidity

9 Climate Types by Brainpop
.What is climate? .Where are tropical climates most likely to be? .What does “arid” mean?

10 What Factors Affect Weather & Climate?
The Sun The Water Cycle The Atmosphere The Ocean

11 How Does the Sun Affect Weather?
It warms the atmosphere & oceans It creates climate zones It keeps the water cycle going It affects weather patterns

12 The Water Cycle All the water on the planet is recycled in this manner!

13 Parts of the Cycle Evaporation—Water going from a liquid to a gas (gains energy from the sun)

14 Parts of the Cycle *Transpiration—evaporation of water from/out of plants. Locate this on the diagram! transpiration

15 Parts of the Cycle Condensation—Water going from a gas to a liquid (cools or loses energy) When this happens in the atmosphere, CLOUDS form.

16 Clouds by Brainpop

17 Parts of the Cycle Precipitation—when water falls out the atmosphere. Forms when the water droplets in clouds become too heavy to stay up.

18 Frozen water = snow or sleet or hail
Precipitation Liquid water = rain Frozen water = snow or sleet or hail Rain Clip

19 The Water Cycle Water Cycle by Brainpop

20 Water Cycle Advanced by Brainpop

21 The Water Cycle by Brainpop
What process must happen for clouds to form? What is “collection”? Name one way to conserve water.

22 How does the atmosphere affect weather?
The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth Has five different layers; each has different properties We’ll label them in just a minute… Air Temperature and Pressure change with altitude Weather occurs in the layer closest to Earth (troposphere)

23 Write in the labels! Exosphere Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere
Ozone layer Stratosphere Troposphere




27 Exosphere - the outermost layer of the Earth's atmosphere, where atmospheric pressure and temperature are low. Ionosphere - the atmospheric layer between the mesosphere and the exosphere; it is part of the thermosphere. Mesosphere - the atmospheric layer between the stratosphere and the ionosphere. Stratosphere - the atmospheric layer between the troposphere and the mesosphere. The stratosphere is characterized by a slight temperature increase with altitude and by the absence of clouds. Thermosphere - the layer of the atmosphere located above part of the ionosphere (starting at the coldest part of the atmosphere) and below outer space; it consists of the exosphere and part of the ionosphere. Troposphere - the lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere. The weather and clouds occur in the troposphere.

28 Earth’s Atmsophere by Brainpop
. What is ozone? . What layer of the atmosphere does weather occur in? . What 2 gases compose the most of Earth’s Atmosphere?

29 = body of air with a certain temperature and moisture level
Air Masses = body of air with a certain temperature and moisture level Can be warm or cold Can contain a lot of moisture or not a lot of moisture

30 Fronts = places where air masses meet
4 Types: Warm, Cold, Occluded, Stationary Each kind can bring different kinds of weather

31 Occluded Front: Stationary Front:


33 Science Saurus 221/222 & Reading a Weather Map Worksheet

34 How does Air Pressure affect weather?
How much the earth’s atmosphere is pressing down on us Measured with a BAROMETER If it CHANGES, then new weather is on the way: Falling Air Pressure = stormy weather coming Rising Air Pressure = fair weather coming Steady Air Pressure = no change is coming

35 Pressure Systems

36 Winds = created from differences in air pressure
Moves from areas of HIGH to LOW pressure Greater the difference in pressure, the FASTER the wind blows Measured with wind vanes and anemometers or you can estimate with the Beaufort Wind Scale ScienceSaurus 224/225

37 Beaufort Wind Scale

38 Global Winds Thousands of kilometers long; can cause weather to move in different directions Jet stream, prevailing westerlies, doldrums, horse latitudes, trade winds Big Winds Blowin’ Worksheet & Science Saurus Section 217

39 Global Winds Caused by the temperature difference in different regions
Hot Tropical Regions—causes air to rise Cold polar Regions—causes air to sink

40 Global Winds Also affected by Earth’s Spin
Coriolis Effect = causes winds to curve to the right in the N. Hemisphere; to the left in the S. Hemisphere

41 Big Winds Blowin’ Worksheet

42 Winds by Brainpop . What does warm air do?
. What do you call winds that blow all the time in the same part of the world? . What are jet streams?

43 Relative Humidity Measure of the amount of moisture in the air compared to what the air could hold How “full” of water the air is Expressed as % 100% relative humidity = saturated air Relative Humidity Test Applet

44 Relative Humidity Controlled by temperature
1. Warm air holds more moisture than cool air (more space for water vapor between air molecules) 2. As air warms, relative humidity decreases 3. As air cools, relative humidity increases

45 Dew Point =Temperature at which the air is saturated (100% relative humidity) Several events can occur when the dew point temp. is reached: 1. If dew point temp. is above freezing: a. water vapor condenses as liquid b. dew will form on surfaces

46 Dew Point c. cloud droplets will form in air
2. If dew point temp. is below freezing: a. water vapor condenses as a solid b. frost on surfaces c. snow (or hail) in the air

47 Humidity by Brainpop . What single factor controls humidity?
. What temperature air can hold the most water molecules? . What causes water to evaporate into the atmosphere?

48 Rainbows Caused by sunshine on raindrops
White light (all colors) is refracted (bent) into colors as it enters and exits the drop To see a rainbow you must have the sun behind you and raindrops in the air Diagram:

49 Rainbow by Brainpop

50 How does the Ocean affect weather?
Ocean currents affect the temperature of the land they pass by Cold ocean currents = cooling effect Warm ocean currents = warming effect Temperature changes affect pressure – which then creates WINDS Winds blow this cooling or warming effect over the land


52 Science Saurus Sections 203-204-205-206

53 Advanced Weather by Brainpop
Violent Weather

54 Types of Storms

55 Thunderstorms Requires a mature cumulonimbus cloud
Signs Sudden reversal of wind direction Noticeable increase in wind speed Sudden drop in temperature

56 Thunderstorms Possible weather: a. heavy rains (flash floods)
b. lightning (forest fires) c. thunder (frightens animals) d. hail (crop damage) e. tornadoes f. strong, gusty winds Thunderstorm by Brainpop

57 Safety Rules Stay indoors Prepare for lightning, strong winds
Listen on radio/TV for tornado watch/warning Thunderstorms don’t last long

58 Lightning Storm Cumulonimbus cloud becomes electrically charged and ground below has opposite charge


60 Lightning stroke: flow of current thru air (a poor conductor) from the – to the +
Lightning can flow from cloud to ground, cloud to cloud, and from ground to cloud Bright light is caused by glowing air molecules heated by the current Lightning follows the path of least resistance (easiest way to positive) Lightning rod offers lightning an easy, safe path to the ground (+)

61 Thunder is the shock wave caused by the explosive expansion of heated air
Sound about 1100 ft/sec in air 5,280 ft in one mile Distance from you to lightning = number of seconds between seeing the flash and hearing the thunder divided by 5. (5,280 ft / 1100 ft/sec = 5 seconds)

62 Types of Lightning Streak or bolt Single or branched lines of light
Common in Puget Sound area

63 Sheet a. shapeless flash over wide area
b. is cloud-to-cloud bolt hidden by the clouds c. common in Puget Sound area

64 Other types of lightning
a. heat, ribbon, beaded (types of bolt) b. ball (only other shape lightning can have)

65 Safety rules for lightning storms
Stay indoors Stay away from anything that conducts electricity (stove, sink, telephone, TV) Get out of the water and off of small boats Stay away from open doors, windows, fireplaces Stay in your car (very safe place to be) Don’t stand under lone trees or in open places Avoid hilltops If your hair stands on end, or your skin tingles, drop to the ground but try to keep as little contact with the ground as possible

66 Stories of people hit by lightning
Lightning Strikes (17 minutes) Stories of people hit by lightning

67 Tornado (a.k.a twister, cyclone)
Counterclockwise column of rotating air extending from cumulonimbus cloud Per square foot, is the most destructive atmospheric event Rated by wind speed (F1 to F5) “Tornado season” = April, May, June Tornadoes that form over water are called “waterspouts”

68 Behavior of a tornado is unpredictable Typical tornado will:
1. Occur between 3-7 pm 2. Travel 4 miles 3. Be m wide 4. Travel mi/hour 5. Have wind speeds up to 300 mi/hr 6. Produce extremely low pressure 7. Be dark due to debris picked up Tornado by Brainpop

69 Move away at a right angle
Safety Rules Rule #1: Take immediate action! Move away from tornado’s path Tornado’s path Move away at a right angle

70 Lie flat in nearest ditch, etc. At home a. open windows, doors
b. seek shelter in basement or under heavy table in middle of house On the trail of a tornado

71 Tropical Cyclone Nicknames 1. Atlantic: hurricane
2. SE Asia, Japan: typhoon 3. Australia: willy-willy 4. Indian Ocean: cyclone

72 Tropical Cyclone Rated by wind speed (category 1 to 5)
Starts and grows over warm ocean water Composed of bands of thunderstorms spiraling counterclockwise around a low pressure center

73 Characteristics Several hundred miles wide Last many days (even weeks)
Winds from mi/hr Contains an “eye” Small region of low pressure Surrounded by highest winds Calm, peaceful, sunny weather Last for about 1 hour as hurricane passes by Hurricances by Brainpop

74 Safety Rules Prepare for high winds
Prepare for flooding (greatest source of damage) Up to 20 in. of rain Flooding by coastal water 3. Prepare for thunderstorms 4. Have on hand stored food, water, blankets, candles, matches, radio, etc. 5. Seek shelter Hurricanes Clip


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