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Property of Lear Siegler 7 out of 10 Atmosphere & Airmasses, Pressure & Winds, Stability and Clouds 7 out of 10Frontal Weather 7.

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Presentation on theme: "Property of Lear Siegler 7 out of 10 Atmosphere & Airmasses, Pressure & Winds, Stability and Clouds 7 out of 10Frontal Weather 7."— Presentation transcript:

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13 7 out of 10 Atmosphere & Airmasses, Pressure & Winds, Stability and Clouds 7 out of 10Frontal Weather 7 out of 10Weather Hazards 7 out of 10Weather Reports & Forecasts 7 out of 10Weather Charts Avn Weather Exam – June 4

14 Why is weather important? Weather affects everything we do!

15 What is weather? The state of the atmosphere with respect to temperature, moisture content, turbulence, and cloudiness. Air temperature Humidity Clouds Precipitation Atmospheric Pressure Wind

16 Terminal Learning Objective ACTION: Plan a flight for weather considerations CONDITION: Acting as an aviator and given an IFR or VFR flight mission and available weather information. STANDARD: In accordance with (IAW) Army Regulation (AR) 95-1, and Field Manual (FM) 1- 230

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19 Property of Lear Siegler Atmosphere and Air Masses Action: Identify the characteristics of the atmosphere and the air masses that will assist in predicting weather conditions for an assigned flight mission. Condition: When given pertinent information in a classroom environment. Standard: Answer questions pertaining to the composition of the atmosphere, characteristics of the troposphere, factors affecting the theory of circulation, types of heat energy transfer, temperature change with relationship to altitude, air mass characteristics, semi- permanent pressure areas affecting North American continents weather, air masses by their classification, stability of air masses, air mass movement, and typical weather associated with a specific type of air mass. Receive a GO by correctly answering the required number of questions on criterion referenced examination 011-0052 as defined in the test instructions.

20 ELO # 1 ACTION: Identify the composition of the atmosphere and its effects on weather. CONDITION: Given pertinent information about the atmosphere. STANDARD: IAW FM 1-230 para 2-2

21 78% NITROGEN OXYGEN 21% OTHER GASES 1% Property of Lear Siegler Dry Air

22 Natural Air = Dry air + Condensation Nuclei and Water Vapor

23 ELO # 2 ACTION: The student will identify the layers of the atmosphere, height, and in which layer weather occurs. CONDITION: Given pertinent information about the atmosphere. STANDARD: IAW FM 1-230 para 2-3

24 Layers of Atmosphere - Troposphere - Tropopause - Stratosphere

25 Property of Lear Siegler

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29 Stratosphere

30 ELO # 3 ACTION: The student will identify the atmospheric circulation, Coriolis force, and the three-cell theory. CONDITION: Given pertinent information about the atmosphere. STANDARD: IAW FM 1-230 para 6-2, 3, 4

31 Property of Lear Siegler Atmospheric circulation begins with uneven heating.

32 H H L L L Property of Lear Siegler

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35 Uneven heating from the sun Atmospheric circulation is modified by…

36 Uneven heating from the sun Coriolis Force – The apparent force caused by the unequal speed of rotation of the earths surface. This force deflects non-steerable bodies to the right in the Northern Hemisphere. Atmospheric circulation is modified by…

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38 Uneven heating from the sun Coriolis Force – The apparent force caused by the unequal speed of rotation of the earths surface. This force deflects non-steerable bodies to the right in the Northern Hemisphere. Tilt of the earth Atmospheric circulation is modified by…

39 Coriolis Force

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43 Uneven heating from the sun Coriolis Force – The apparent force caused by the unequal speed of rotation of the earths surface. This force deflects non-steerable bodies to the right in the Northern Hemisphere. Tilt of the earth Atmospheric circulation is modified by…

44 H H L L L H H H H H H H H L L L L Property of Lear Siegler

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48 H H L L L H H H H L L L L L L L H H H H

49 H H L L L H H H H L L L L L L L H H H H Global Circulation

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51 Local circulation discussed in future classes

52 ELO # 4 ACTION: The student will identify the four types of heat transfer. CONDITION: Given pertinent information about heat energy. STANDARD: IAW FM 1-230 para 3-5

53 METHODS OF HEAT TRANSFER RADIATION Property of Lear Siegler

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55 METHODS OF HEAT TRANSFER RADIATION Property of Lear Siegler CONDUCTION CONVECTION Strongest thermal currents created over landmass during daylight hours

56 METHODS OF HEAT TRANSFER RADIATION Property of Lear Siegler CONDUCTION CONVECTION ADVECTION

57 Insolation

58 Terrestrial Radiation

59 Conduction Insolation

60 Conduction

61 Convection Advection

62 Sea Breeze Effect

63 Land Breeze Effect

64 RADIATIONINSOLATION

65 TERRESTRIAL RADIATION

66 CONDUCTION L H H CONVECTION ADVECTION

67 Be back prior to arrival at OZR. (ETA 00+10)

68 ELO # 5 ACTION: The student will identify the relationship of temperature with altitude change, to include temperature inversions. CONDITION: Given pertinent information about the temperature. STANDARD: IAW FM 1-230 para 3-7b

69 A MEASUREMENT OF THE LEVEL OF INTENSITY OF HEAT ENERGY MEASURED IN DEGREES CELSIUS Property of Lear Siegler Temperature

70 Warmest temperatures near ground Decreases with altitude Standard Lapse Rate OLR – Observed Lapse Rate

71 100212 45 113 40 104 37 98.6 30 86 20 68 15 59 10 50 5 41 0 32 -5 23 -15 -5 -40 CELSIUSFAHRENHEIT BOILING POINT BODY TEMP STANDARD SL TEMP MELTING POINT SAME Property of Lear Siegler

72 C° = (F° - 32) / 1.8 F° = C° 1.8 + 32 C° = 5/9 (F°+40) - 40 F° = 9/5 (C°+40) - 40 CONVERSION FORMULAS Property of Lear Siegler comp

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74 Property of Lear Siegler Troposphere

75 TEMPERATURE INVERSIONS WARMER AIR ABOVE COLDER AIR NOCTURNAL FRONTAL Property of Lear Siegler

76 Best conditions for nocturnal inversion - clear and cool night

77 Property of Lear Siegler Overcast Sky / Greenhouse Effect prevents a temperature inversion

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88 ELO # 6 ACTION: The student will identify the characteristics, classification, stability and movement of an air mass. CONDITION: Given pertinent information about air masses. STANDARD: IAW FM 1-230 Chapter 9

89 AIR MASS - A LARGE BODY OF AIR WHOSE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ARE HORIZONTALLY UNIFORM TEMP 2° C DP -10° C TEMP 30° C DP 25° C Property of Lear Siegler

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94 North American High Siberian High Icelandic High Bermuda High Pineapple High

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97 AIR MASS CLASSIFICATION c = CONTINENTAL AIR MASS (DRY AIR) m = MARITIME AIR MASS (MOIST AIR) Property of Lear Siegler

98 AIR MASS CLASSIFICATION A = ARTIC AIR MASS (70° TO 90°) P = POLAR AIR MASS (40° T0 60°) T = TROPICAL AIR MASS (10° TO 30°) E = EQUATORIAL AIR MASS (O° TO 10°) Property of Lear Siegler

99 AIR MASS CLASSIFICATION cP Continental Polar Maritime Polar mT Maritime Tropical warm, moist cT Continental Tropical warm, dry cold, moist cold, dry mP Property of Lear Siegler Continental Artic Equatorial cA E coldest, dry warmest, moist

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102 AIR MASS STABILITY w = Stable k = Unstable Property of Lear Siegler

103 20°c 35°c 0°c 15°c Stable air mass: air is warmer than the ground indicated by the symbol - w Property of Lear Siegler

104 AIR MASS CHARACTERISTICS W TYPE AIR MASS STRATUS CLOUDS FOG LOW CEILINGS POOR VISIBILITY SMOOTH FLYING CONDITIONS LIGHT OR CALM WINDS CONTINOUS LIGHT RAIN USUALLY IFR CONDITIONS Property of Lear Siegler

105 Unstable air mass: air is colder than the ground indicated by the symbol - K 35°c 20°c 15°c 0°c Property of Lear Siegler

106 AIR MASS CHARACTERISTICS K TYPE AIR MASS CUMULUS CLOUDS HIGH CEILINGS GOOD VISIBILITY TURBULENCE GUSTY SURFACE WINDS THUNDERSTORMS, HEAVY RAIN SHOWERS, HAIL, LIGHTNING Property of Lear Siegler

107 Hailstone size MeasurementUpdraft Speed in.cm.mphm/s bb< 1/4< 0.64< 24< 11 pea1/40.642411 marble1/21.33516 dime7/101.83817 penny3/41.94018 nickel7/82.24621 quarter12.54922 half dollar1 1/43.25424 walnut1 1/23.86027 golf ball1 3/44.46429 hen egg25.16931 tennis ball2 1/26.47734 baseball2 3/47.08136 tea cup37.68438 grapefruit410.19844 softball4 1/211.410346

108 AIR MASS CLASSIFICATION cPk mPk Maritime Polarunstable mTw Maritime Tropical stable Continental Tropical unstable Continental Polar unstable cTk cPk cTk mPk mTw Property of Lear Siegler

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111 ELO # 7 ACTION: The student will identify the typical weather associated with air masses. CONDITION: Given pertinent information about a type of air mass. STANDARD: IAW FM 1-230 Chapter 9

112 FM 1-230 References for today Atmosphere 2-1 thru 2-3 Temperature 3-1 thru 3-5 Atmospheric Circulation 6-1 thru 6-5 Air Masses 9-1 thru 9-11

113 FM 1-230 References for tomorrow… Pressure 5-1 thru 5-7 Atmospheric Circulation 6-6 thru 6-8

114 Safety First… Nothing we do is worth an accident.

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116 STOP Abandon hope all ye who enter here You are entering the hidden slide Zone

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121 QUESTIONS?

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