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Model Railroading Operations 101: Part 1 – Basic Switching Moves Tom Crosthwait President, Mogollon & Southwestern RR & Fred Bock, MMR, Chief Dispatcher,

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Presentation on theme: "Model Railroading Operations 101: Part 1 – Basic Switching Moves Tom Crosthwait President, Mogollon & Southwestern RR & Fred Bock, MMR, Chief Dispatcher,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Model Railroading Operations 101: Part 1 – Basic Switching Moves Tom Crosthwait President, Mogollon & Southwestern RR & Fred Bock, MMR, Chief Dispatcher, M&Sw

3 What is operations? Fun Running (sometimes called round and round) is running a locomotive and cars over a layout for the fun of watching the trains go. Most model railroaders, even expert model builders, are fun runners (source: Kalmbach Pub. Co.). Operations is simulating (in miniature) the day-to-day activities of real railroads -- picking up freight, assembling trains, delivering cars to consignees, sorting arriving freight cars by their future destinations, returning empty cars.

4 Famous model railroad operators Frank Ellison – 1940s & 50s –Delta Lines, O-scale John Allen – 1950s & 60s –Gorre & Daphited, HO / HOn3 Whit Towers – 1950s – 1980s –Alturas & Lone Pine, HO scale W. Allen McClelland – 1960s - present –Virginia & Ohio, HO scale Bruce Chubb – 1950s – present –Sunset Valley Lines, HO scale Gil Freitag – 1960s – present –Stony Creek & Western, HO/HOn3 David Barrow – 1960s – present –Cat Mountain & Santa Fe, HO

5 A typical freight train Locomotive Caboose Freight Cars Normal direction of travel (front) A train: –Has a locomotive at the front end. –May have 0, 1 or more cars behind. –Displays markers at the end of the train Historically: marker lamps were on the caboose Today: a FRED is mounted on the last car. Marker Lamps (flashing rear-end-device)

6 What is a Spur? A spur is a track where cars are set out and left for a while for either loading or unloading of freight.

7 Spurs Trailing Point Spur (the turnout points are behind the locomotive) Facing Point Spur (the turnout points are in front of the locomotive)

8 Spurs Facing Point Switchback Spur (the turnout points connected to the mainline are in front of the locomotive; a car will be dropped off from behind the locomotive) (car will be set-out here)

9 Spurs Trailing Point Switchback Spur (the turnout points connected to the mainline are in front of the locomotive; a car will be dropped off from the front of the locomotive) (car will be set-out here)

10 Spurs Double-Ended Spur (There is a set of turnout points behind and ahead of the locomotive.) (Normally used for setting-out cars to be unloaded or loaded) Repeat

11 Spurs and Sidings This is a passing siding. This is a double-ended spur. (This train has taken the siding to meet an oncoming train). Note: This is a meet between two trains. (The freight car is being unloaded) [Rule S-89]

12 Spurs and Sidings This is a passing siding. This is a double-ended spur. (This slower train has taken the siding so that it may be passed by a faster train behind). Note: This is a pass between two trains. [Rule S-89]

13 Spurs and Sidings A spur is a track on which cars are left for loading, unloading, or (sometimes) storage. A siding is a track which is used by one train to meet or pass another. Normally, cars to be loaded or unloaded are NOT left on sidings... sidings are kept clear. An empty double-ended spur may be used as a temporary or emergency passing siding. Repeat

14 Hand Signals for Switching With modern DCC sound systems, the noise in an operating session is high. Some operators have hearing problems. Implication: its better to use hand signals between conductor-brakeman and engineer than to try to talk above the noise of locomotives and other operators. [Rule 7]: Hand signals must be given sufficiently in advance to permit compliance...

15 Common Hand Signals Back-up (reverse) Slowly (inching) Controlled stop Stop You are coupled up Go forward OK Highball (leave town) - beckon toward self with circular motion. - fingers come together - hands come together - hold closed hand up. - make closed fist, shake once. - move open palm, fingers closed, up and down away from you. - thumbs-up /or/ circle - pull imaginary steam whistle twice (Toot – Toot) [Rule 8] Model Railroading

16 Using the M&Sws throttles Keep the antenna vertical. Dont touch the antenna. Hold the case in your left hand*... at least 1 from your body. Rotate the speed control knob with your right hand. * [use two hands] Rotate GENTLY – it breaks. Dont MASH down on the keys; be GENTLE – they break. Turn Throttle OFF when done.

17 USE TWO (2) HANDS! Hold the throttle case in your left hand* Rotate the speed control knob with your right hand.

18 Turnouts – Ground Throws Main route – usually straight Diverging route – usually curved HAND SIGNAL: Throw Turnout -- Tap top of head with hand several times; point at turnout to be thrown.

19 Turnouts – Ground Throws Main route – usually straight Diverging route – usually curved Rule 104: Train crews are responsible for the position of turnouts used by them and members of their crew, except when control is remote. Turnouts must be properly lined (to the main track) after having been used.

20 Uncoupling – HO Kadees Electro-magnetic – above or under the ties »Safest for uncoupling on mainline or passing sidings Permanent magnet – above or under the ties. »Works OK for most spurs – single or double-ended Manual using an uncoupling pic between knuckles. »Any place you can easily reach with one hand Manual using a pic to separate glad hands with slack between couplers. »Especially for passenger cars with diaphragms. Manual – grasping cars by hand. »CAUTION – can damage car details, especially steps.

21 Kadee Uncoupling Pic Kadee Product #241 – Uncoupling tool and spring pic Pointed end for uncoupling #118 SF Shelf Couplers Flat end for uncoupling standard Kadee couplers.

22 Using the pic To manual uncouple the #118 coupler with the pointed end of the #241 "Dual Tool: First, push the cars together where the coupler knuckles compress against each other (put slack between the coupler knuckles); Then, insert the pointed end against the "outside" of the hooked tip of the knuckle as illustrated (the knuckle is the moving part of the coupler head). As the point slips into the coupler it will push the knuckle past the hook of the opposing knuckle. (It helps to gently twist the pic clockwise about 1/8 th of a turn). To assist the uncoupling you can push the knuckle tip outward with the point, when the knuckle tips are past each other you can now separate the uncoupled cars.

23 Rix Magnetic Uncoupler The Rix Uncoupling Tool is Designed to work with the Kadee® style Couplers. Place the Rix Uncoupling Tool down between the cars until the magnets rest against the rails, Push one of the cars towards the other and the two magnets will cause the couplers to release.

24 Trailing point spur – set-out (freight house)

25 Trailing point spur – set-out (freight house) Our task: Set this boxcar out... In front of the freight house.

26 Trailing point spur – set-out (freight house) #1: Uncouple boxcar from train

27 Trailing point spur – set-out (freight house) #2: Pull ahead of turnout points (clear)

28 Trailing point spur – set-out (freight house) #3: Throw turnout to spur

29 Trailing point spur – set-out (freight house) #4: Reverse; back up until boxcar is in front of freight house.

30 Trailing point spur – set-out (freight house) #5: Uncouple boxcar.

31 Trailing point spur – set-out (freight house) #6: Locomotive pulls forward past turnout

32 Trailing point spur – set-out (freight house) #7: Throw turnout back to mainline

33 Trailing point spur – set-out (freight house) #8: Locomotive backs up and couples to train.

34 Trailing point spur – set-out (freight house) #9: Train leaves town. Replay

35 Facing point spur – set-out (freight house) This is where we want the refrigerator car to be set out. This move is not possible without a run-around move first. (This requires a double-ended siding or spur nearby).

36 Facing point spur – set-out (freight house) #1: Uncouple caboose

37 Facing point spur – set-out (freight house) #2: Pull forward; uncouple reefer

38 Facing point spur – set-out (freight house) #3: pull forward; throw turnout.

39 Facing point spur – set-out (freight house) #4: Run around reefer

40 Facing point spur – set-out (freight house) #5: Push train clear of facing point run-around siding turnout.

41 Facing point spur – set-out (freight house)

42 Facing point spur – set-out (freight house) #6: Throw turnout; uncouple locomotive from rest of train.

43 Facing point spur – set-out (freight house) #7: Go forward; grab reefer.

44 Facing point spur – set-out (freight house) #8: Throw turnout; push reefer into spur.

45 Facing point spur – set-out (freight house) #9: Uncouple reefer

46 Facing point spur – set-out (freight house) #10: Back onto main.

47 Facing point spur – set-out (freight house) #11: Throw turnouts for main line.

48 Facing point spur – set-out (freight house) #12: Couple onto train.

49 Facing point spur – set-out (freight house) #13: Pull out of town Replay

50 Other run-around situations (freight house) (distant industry) (end of branch line) (branch line) (spur off siding) (nearby spur off main)

51 Some special-purpose spurs Industry spur: a normal spur–serves 1 or more industries Interchange track: used by two RRs to exchange cars Team track: used by off-line customers with no spur. House track: used by station agent for LCL, express, mail. RIP track: stores cars needing light repairs. Locomotive pocket: temporary storage for a locomotive. Caboose track: stores cabooses ready for service. (repair-in-place)

52 Example: typical Texas town AT&SF SP Public Team Track End Unloading Ramp Main Line Passing Siding House Track SP-AT&SF Interchange Track Main Track Texas Hwy 92 SP N Local Industry Tracks Fort Clarke, Texas El Paso San Antonio

53 Example: typical junction AT&SF SP Public Team Track Passing Siding House Track Main Track Texas Hwy 92 SP N Fort Clarke, Texas End Unloading Ramp SP-AT&SF Interchange Track Local Industry Tracks El Paso San Antonio

54 Southern Pacific Common Standard Station Layouts C.S. 1910 + + + + Length of longest freight Length of longest freight Main Line Passing track Main Line House Track + + Length of longest freight train between clear points. Main Line Passing tracks Main Line House Track + + [Main & passing tracks on 14 centers] A B

55 Caboose Run-Around Move If you reach the end of the line, and have to return back to the terminal the way you came, then you must do a caboose run-around. (Or, push your caboose and train backwards all the way back!! Not good!). Objective: swap the locomotive(s) and caboose to the opposite ends of the train. So that: the caboose (with its marker lamps) is at the end of the train on the return trip.

56 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #1: Uncouple locomotives

57 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #2: Pull forward to clear turnout points.

58 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #3: Throw turnout points

59 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #4: Run onto run-around track

60 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #5: Line turnout to main track

61 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #6: Run-around entire train

62 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #7: Throw turnout

63 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #8: Grab caboose.

64 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #9: Uncouple caboose from rest of train

65 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #10: Pull caboose clear of turnout points.

66 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #11: Throw turnout points.

67 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #12: Push caboose onto run-around track clear of main

68 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #13: Uncouple caboose

69 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #14: Pull forward to clear points

70 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #15: Throw turnout

71 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #16: Pick up train

72 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #17: Pull forward past points

73 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #18: Pull forward past points

74 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #19: Throw points; reverse; pick up caboose

75 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #20: Pull forward clear of points; line turnout to main track.

76 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #21: Depart out of town back down the branch.

77 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) Replay

78 Trailing point Pick-ups Trailing Point Pickups – two versions Some cars should be entrained (positioned) at the FRONT of a train: –cars that will be set out at towns sometime later during the remainder of the trip. –heavy cars – loaded hoppers, ore cars –stock cars – far ahead of caboose – smell!! –chemical tank cars – far ahead of caboose –loads that can shift – not next to loco or caboose

79 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #1: Train arrives – stop behind turnout. (our task: pick-up the boxcar located at the freight house).

80 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #2: Locomotive uncouples and runs forward past points.

81 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #3: Throw turnout to spur.

82 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #4: Locomotive backs up into spur

83 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #5: Couple onto boxcar.

84 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #6: Pull forward onto main clear of turnout

85 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #7: Throw turnout to main line.

86 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #8: Back up and couple to train.

87 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #9: Train pulls out of town. Replay

88 Alternative Pick-Up Moves In some cases, the cars that are picked up should be entrained at the REAR of the train, just ahead of the caboose. Cars that should be on REAR of train: –cars returning all the way to final destination (not scheduled to be set out). –lightweight cars of all types –empty cars: flats, hoppers, ore cars –fragile cars: wooden flats, boxcars, ore cars [See Special Instructions, M&Sw Timetable #4]

89 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #1: Train arrives – stop caboose behind turnout. (our task: pick-up the boxcar located at the freight house). ALTERNATIVE PICK-UP MOVES

90 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #2. Uncouple caboose. ALTERNATIVE PICK-UP MOVES

91 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #3. Train moves forward to clear the turnout; caboose stays behind. ALTERNATIVE PICK-UP MOVES

92 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #4: Throw turnout into spur ALTERNATIVE PICK-UP MOVES

93 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #5: Back train up into spur and couple onto boxcar. ALTERNATIVE PICK-UP MOVES

94 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #6: Pull train out of spur clear of turnout. ALTERNATIVE PICK-UP MOVES

95 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #7: Throw turnout to main line ALTERNATIVE PICK-UP MOVES

96 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #8: Back-up and couple to caboose. ALTERNATIVE PICK-UP MOVES

97 Trailing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #9: Depart out of town. ALTERNATIVE PICK-UP MOVES Replay

98 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house)

99 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #1: Uncouple locomotive

100 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #2: Pull locomotive forward to spur

101 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #3: Throw turnout to spur

102 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #4: Pull into spur to couple onto car.

103 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #4: Pull into spur to couple onto car.

104 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #4: Pull into spur to couple onto car.

105 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #5: Pull car back onto main.

106 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #5: Pull car back onto main.

107 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #6: Throw turnout to main; uncouple locomotive.

108 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #7: Run around car.

109 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #7: Run around car.

110 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #7: Run around car.

111 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #7: Run around car.

112 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #7: Run around car.

113 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #7: Run around car.

114 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #7: Run around car.

115 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #7: Run around car.

116 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #7: Run around car.

117 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #7: Run around car.

118 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #8: Couple car to train.

119 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #8: Couple car to train.

120 Facing point spur – pick-up (freight house) #9: Leave town. Replay

121 Interchange – end of branch (freight house) (end of branch) Objectives: (1) Pick up cars on interchange track (2) Drop off the cars in the train on interchange. (3) Run-around train (4) Return back to terminal.: (connecting railroad) Interchange/run-around track

122 Interchange – end of branch (freight house) (end of branch) (freight house)

123 Interchange – end of branch (freight house) (end of branch) uncouple train from locomotives

124 Interchange – end of branch (freight house) (end of branch) throw turnout

125 Interchange – end of branch (freight house) (end of branch) throw turnout uncouple caboose

126 Interchange – end of branch (freight house) (end of branch) (leave turnout clear)

127 Interchange – end of branch (freight house) Replay (leave turnout clear)

128 End of Part 1 (to be continued)

129 Alternative Caboose Run-Around This is an alternative set of moves for a caboose run-around. It takes longer than the method shown earlier. It is safer to use with long trains where it is undesirable to back the train thru the points of a thrown turnout.

130 Caboose Run-Around Move If you reach the end of the line, and have to return back to the terminal the way you came, then you must do a caboose run-around. (Or, push your caboose and train backwards all the way back!! Not good!). Objective: swap the locomotive(s) and caboose to the opposite ends of the train. So that: the caboose (with its marker lamps) is at the end of the train on the return trip.

131 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #1: Uncouple locomotives

132 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #1: Uncouple locomotives #2: Pull forward to clear turnout points.

133 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #3: Throw turnout points

134 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #4: Run-around entire train

135 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #5: Throw turnout

136 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #6: Grab caboose.

137 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #7: Uncouple caboose from rest of train

138 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #8: Pull caboose clear of turnout points.

139 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #9: Throw turnout points.

140 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #10: Push caboose around train

141 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #11: Push caboose past turnout points.

142 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #12: Uncouple caboose.

143 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #13: Pull clear; throw points.

144 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #14: Run around rest of train until clear of points.

145 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #15: Throw points; couple up to rest of train

146 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #16: Back up; couple onto caboose

147 Caboose Run-Around (freight house) #17: Depart out of town back down branch Replay

148 (End of Presentation; turn off projector}


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