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www.musashi.com.au Information Session Dr Stephen Bird (Chief Investigator) Fatigue and Physical Activity Research Group School of Human Movement Studies,

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Presentation on theme: "www.musashi.com.au Information Session Dr Stephen Bird (Chief Investigator) Fatigue and Physical Activity Research Group School of Human Movement Studies,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Information Session Dr Stephen Bird (Chief Investigator) Fatigue and Physical Activity Research Group School of Human Movement Studies, Charles Sturt University Bathurst NSW Australia . Nutrient timing for strength athletes: Mechanisms & adaptations

3 Nutritional supplementation strategy to promote the anabolic response Window of opportunity associated with each exercise bout Nutrient supply critical to net skeletal muscle protein balance and subsequent muscle growth and strength expression? To maximise recovery, ingest small amounts of PRO and AA pre-, during and post-training Bird, S. P. (2009). Protein/amino acid supplementation and resistance training: A research update. Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning, 17(3), Lean body mass, 1-RM strength and muscle growth greater ingestion pre and post resistance exercise Cribb & Hayes. (2006) Med Sci Sports Exerc, 38(11): Liquid CHO+EAA ingestion during resistance training maximises hypertrophy compared to CHO or EAA Bird et al. (2006) Eur J Appl Physiol. 97: Ivy, J.L., & Portman, R. (2004). Nutrient Timing: The future of sports nutrition. North Bergen: NJ: Basic Health Publications, Inc. What is nutrient timing

4 1.Pre-workout (PW) 30min prior to training Muscle priming 2.Intra-workout (IW) During the exercise bout Muscle delivery 3.Immediate Post-workout (IP) 0-15min Muscle replenishment Nutrient timing: Phases Ivy, J.L., & Portman, R. (2004). Nutrient Timing: The future of sports nutrition. North Bergen: NJ: Basic Health Publications, Inc.

5 1. nutrient delivery to muscles 2. muscle glycogen stores 3. protein synthesis 4. muscular recovery 5. immune system suppression (cortisol) 6. muscle damage (CK; cortisol; 3-MHIS) 7. catabolic processes Nutrient timing: Goals Ivy, J.L., & Portman, R. (2004). Nutrient Timing: The future of sports nutrition. North Bergen: NJ: Basic Health Publications, Inc.

6 1.Mero A et al. (2009). Effect of strength training session on plasma amino acid concentration following oral ingestion of leucine, BCAAs or glutamine in men. Eur J Appl Physiol, 105(2), Cornish, S.M. et al. (2009). Conjugated linoleic acid combined with creatine monohydrate and whey protein supplementation during strength training Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metabol 19(1), Smith, T. J., Montain, S. J., Anderson, D., & Young, A. J. (2009). Plasma amino acid responses after consumption of beverages with varying protein type International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 19(1), Claessens, M., Calame, W., Siemensma, A. D., van Baak, M. A., & Saris, W. H. (2009). The effect of different protein hydrolysate/carbohydrate mixtures on postprandial glucagon and insulin responses in healthy subjects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63(1), Antonio, J. (2008). Timing and composition of protein/amino acid supplementation. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 30(1), Dreyer, H. C., Drummond, M. J., Pennings, B., Fujita, S., Glynn, E. L., Chinkes, D. L., et al. (2008). Leucine-enriched essential amino acid and carbohydrate ingestion following resistance exercise enhances mTOR signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 294(2), E Drummond, M. J., & Rasmussen, B. B. (2008). Leucine-enriched nutrients and the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin signalling and human skeletal muscle protein synthesis. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 11(3), Spriet, L., Perry, C., & Talanian, J. (2008). Legal pre-event nutritional supplements to assist energy metabolism. Essays in Biochemistry, 44(1), Schumm, S. R., Triplett, N. T., McBride, J. M., & Dumke, C. L. (2008). Hormonal response to carbohydrate supplementation at rest and after resistance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 18(3), Farnfield, M. M., Trenerry, C., Carey, K. A., & Cameron-Smith, D. (2008). Plasma amino acid response after ingestion of different whey protein fractions. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition What about the research: Nutrient timing research has gained popularity Bird SP. Supplementation strategies for strength and power athletes: carbohydrate, protein and amino acid ingestion. J Strength Cond Res. In review, 2009.

7 11.Carlson, L. A., Headley, S., Debruin, J., Tuckow, A. T., Koch, A. J., & Kenefick, R. W. (2008). Carbohydrate supplementation and immune responses after acute exhaustive resistance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 18(3), Kraemer, W.J. et al. (2007). Effects of a multi-nutrient supplement on exercise performance and hormonal responses to resistance exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol, 101(5), Baty, J. J., Hwang, H., Ding, Z., Bernard, J. R., Wang, B., Kwon, B., et al. (2007). The effect of a carbohydrate and protein supplement on resistance exercise performance, hormonal response, and muscle damage. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(2), Koopman, R. et al. (2007). Nutritional interventions to promote post-exercise muscle protein synthesis. Sports Med, 37(10), Antonio, J. (2007). Pre and post-exercise feeding. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 29(5), Ratamess, N. A., Hoffman, J. R., Ross, R., Shanklin, M., Faigenbaum, A. D., & Kang, J. (2007). Effects of an amino acid/creatine energy supplement on the acute hormonal response to resistance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 17(6), Bloomer, R. J. (2007). The role of nutritional supplements in the prevention and treatment of resistance exercise- induced skeletal muscle injury. Sports Medicine, 37(6), Koopman, R. (2007). Role of amino acids and peptidesin the molecular signaling in skeletal muscle after resistance exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 17 Supplement S47-S Antonio, J. (2006). Sports nutrition and supplementation muscle building strategies. NSCA Performance Training Journal, Bird, S.P. et al. (2006). Independent and combined effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on hormonal and muscular adaptations following resistance training in untrained men. Eur J Appl Physiol, 97(2), What about the research: Nutrient timing research has gained popularity

8 21.Bird, S. P., Tarpenning, K. M., & Marino, F. E. (2006). Effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on acute hormonal response during a single bout of resistance exercise in untrained men. Nutrition, 22(4), Bird, S. P., Tarpenning, K. M., & Marino, F. E. (2006). Liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion during a short-term bout of resistance exercise suppresses myofibrillar protein degradation. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 55(5), Hawley, J.A., Tipton, K.D., & Millard-Stafford, M.L. (2006). Promoting training adaptations through nutritional interventions. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(7), Elliot, T. A., Cree, M. G., Sanford, A. P., Wolfe, R. R., & Tipton, K. D. (2006). Milk ingestion stimulates net muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(4), Cribb, P. J., & Hayes, A. (2006). Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 38(11), Cribb, P. J., Williams, A. D., Carey, M. F., & Hayes, A. (2006). The effect of whey isolate and resistance training on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab., 16(5), Cribb, P. J., Williams, A. D., Stathis, C. G., Carey, M. F., & Hayes, A. (2007). Effects of whey isolate, creatine, and resistance training on muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 39(2), Coburn, J. W., Housh, D. J., Housh, T. J., Malek, M. H., Beck, T. W., Cramer, J. T., et al. (2006). Effects of leucine and whey protein supplementation during eight weeks of unilateral resistance training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(2), Candow, D. G., Burke, N. C., Smith-Palmer, T., & Burke, D. G. (2006). Effect of whey and soy protein supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 16(3), Blomstrand, E., Eliasson, J., Karlsson, H. K. R., & Kohnke, R. (2006). Branched-chain amino acids activate key enzymes in protein synthesis after physical exercise. J. Nutr., 136(1), 269S-273. What about the research: Nutrient timing research has gained popularity

9 Kerksick, C. et al. (2008). International Society of Sports Nutrition Position stand: Nutrient timing. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 5, 17. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position stand: Nutrient timing Timing of the energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients are likely attributes which allow for enhanced recovery and tissue repair following high- volume resistance exercise, augmented muscle protein synthesis, and improved mood states when compared with unplanned or traditional strategies of nutrient intake.

10 –Greenwood, M., Kalman, D., & Antonio, J. (2009). Nutritional Supplements in Sports and Exercise. New York: Humana Press - Springer. –Antonio, J., Kalman, D., Stout, J.R., Greenwood, M., Willoughby, D.S., & Haff, G.G. (2008). Essentials of Sports Nutrition and Supplements. New York: Humana Press - Springer. What about the research: Nutrient timing research has gained popularity Stoppani, J., Scheett, T.P., & McGuiggan, M.R. (2008). Nutritional needs of strength/power athletes. In J. Antonio, D. Kalman, J.R. Stout, M. Greenwood, D.S. Willoughby & G.G. Haff (Eds.), Essentials of Sports Nutrition and Supplements (pp ). New York: Humana Press - Springer. Rasmussen, C. J. (2008). Nutrition before, during, and after exercise for the strength/power athlete. In J. Antonio, D. Kalman, J.R. Stout, M. Greenwood, D.S. Willoughby & G.G. Haff (Eds.), Essentials of Sports Nutrition and Supplements (pp ). New York, NY: Humana Press - Springer.

11 However, No research has examined complete nutrient timing Nutrient timing: pre-exercise, during exercise, post-exercise

12 Purpose of study This research will examine the science behind nutrient timing; Four (4) combined studies over ~16 weeks Complete nutrient timing (pre-, during and post-exercise) Effects on hormonal and muscular responses in strength trained athletes Data collection shall include; Dietary recall Strength testing (1RM) Body composition Body composition Neuromuscular assessments Neuromuscular assessments Blood sampling Blood sampling Muscle biopsy (data) Muscle biopsydata

13 Science behind nutrient timing Acute Study: Cross-over Study 1 Effects of nutrient timing on acute responses to resistance exercise and recovery in strength trained athletes Researcher: Tom MabonTom Mabon Study 2Neuromuscular responses following nutrient timing in strength trained athletes Researcher: Sarah FeebrySarah Feebry Training Study: Placebo-controlled Study 3Effect of nutrient timing and resistance training on hormonal and skeletal muscle adaptations in strength athletes Researcher: Mitchell PrydeMitchell Pryde Study 4Effects of nutrient timing on muscle cell signalling and gene expression following resistance training in strength athletes

14 Strength training program Supervised, split-body part strength training protocol 4 x wk for 10-wks –Designed by Jon Davie progressive resistance training principle, load increased as necessary to maintain appropriate training intensity 5 sets to failure Hypertrophy phase [ reps per set] Strength phase [ reps per set]

15 Supplementation protocol 1.Pre-workout (PW) Minett, Duffield & Bird IJSPP,5(1), RE-ACTIVATE carbohydrate-based formula including EAA, arginine/alpha- ketoglutarate, Beta- alanine, caffeine and B-Group vitamins 2.Intra-workout (IW) Bird et al Nutrition, 22(4), ELEVATOR carbohydrate-based formula including 6g of EAA 3.Immediate Post-workout (IP) Bird 2010 JASC, 17(3), RE-GENERATOR protein fractions (whey & casein), carbohydrates, EAA, creatine monohydrate and glutamine

16 Study schedule May24/05 start 21d supplement washout (no supplements) June7/06 Testing session 17/06 Session 1 28/06 Session 2 July5/07 Muscle biopsy & testing session 12/7 Training study AugTraining wk 4 - wk 8 Sept16/09 Session 3 20/09 Muscle biopsy

17 Bird, S.P. (2008). Strength nutrition: The pathway of adaptation model. Network Magazine(Autumn), DOCUMENTATION: Information sheet and Informed consent

18 Questions & Answers Dr. Stephen Bird PhD, AEP, CSCS, RNutr Performance Nutrition Consultant Fatigue & Physical Activity Research Group School of Human Movement Studies Charles Sturt University Bathurst Campus NSW 2795 Australia

19 Bird, S.P. (2008). Strength nutrition: The pathway of adaptation model. Network Magazine(Autumn), Bird, S.P., Tarpenning, K.M., & Marino, F.E. (2006). Independent and combined effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on hormonal and muscular adaptations following resistance training in untrained men. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 97(2), BLOOD SAMPLING

20 Bird, S.P. (2008). Strength nutrition: The pathway of adaptation model. Network Magazine(Autumn), Bird, S.P., Tarpenning, K.M., & Marino, F.E. (2006). Independent and combined effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on hormonal and muscular adaptations following resistance training in untrained men. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 97(2), BLOOD SAMPLING

21 Bird, S.P. (2008). Strength nutrition: The pathway of adaptation model. Network Magazine(Autumn), Bird, S.P., Tarpenning, K.M., & Marino, F.E. (2006). Independent and combined effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on hormonal and muscular adaptations following resistance training in untrained men. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 97(2), BLOOD SAMPLINGBLOOD SAMPLING - Hormone analysis

22 Bird, S.P. (2008). Strength nutrition: The pathway of adaptation model. Network Magazine(Autumn), Bird, S.P., Tarpenning, K.M., & Marino, F.E. (2006). Independent and combined effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on hormonal and muscular adaptations following resistance training in untrained men. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 97(2), NEUROMUSCULAR ASSESSMENTNEUROMUSCULAR ASSESSMENT - Isokinetic Knee Extension & Knee Flexion

23 Bird, S.P. (2008). Strength nutrition: The pathway of adaptation model. Network Magazine(Autumn), Bird, S.P., Tarpenning, K.M., & Marino, F.E. (2006). Independent and combined effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on hormonal and muscular adaptations following resistance training in untrained men. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 97(2), DEXA ASSESSMENTDEXA ASSESSMENT - Body Composition

24 Bird, S.P. (2008). Strength nutrition: The pathway of adaptation model. Network Magazine(Autumn), Bird, S.P., Tarpenning, K.M., & Marino, F.E. (2006). Independent and combined effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on hormonal and muscular adaptations following resistance training in untrained men. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 97(2), MUSCLE CSAMUSCLE CSA: CHO+EAA and resistance exercise


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