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North Dakota Title I, Special Education, and 21 st CCLC Fall Conference Visual Tools for Teaching At-Risk Students the Common Core Language Arts Standards.

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Presentation on theme: "North Dakota Title I, Special Education, and 21 st CCLC Fall Conference Visual Tools for Teaching At-Risk Students the Common Core Language Arts Standards."— Presentation transcript:

1 North Dakota Title I, Special Education, and 21 st CCLC Fall Conference Visual Tools for Teaching At-Risk Students the Common Core Language Arts Standards Edwin Ellis, Ph.D. Professor, Special Education, The University of Alabama (205) © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved You may download this presentation from Part 2: 6-12 Reading and Writing about Literature, History and Science

2 Visual Tools for Teaching At-Risk Students the Common Core Language Arts Standards © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved You can support this research by pre-ordering (at a considerable discount) the instructional materials featured in this presentation Differentiated Visual Tools: Literature Differentiated Visual Tools: History Differentiated Visual Tools: Science Vocabulary Smart Visuals Pre-order discount offer expires 11/11/13

3 © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved Generic graphic organizers …very effective for simple Core standards …not so great as standards get more complex BIG IDEAS about differentiated visual tools The core of effective special education is… …Clear, explicit instruction …Scaffolded assistance (gradual release) …Differentiated (not a one-size-fits-all thing) …Graduated practice (simple complex)

4 © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved NOT generic, rather are individually designed to address specific Core Standards Allow teachers to SEE how to address complex standards Allow students to SEE the thinking processes involved in learning specific Core Standards The core of effective special education is… …Clear, explicit instruction …Scaffolded assistance (gradual release) …Differentiated (not a one-size-fits-all thing) …Graduated practice (simple complex) BIG IDEAS about differentiated visual tools

5 Four big challenges… 2. Attempting to teach grade-level standards when critical prerequisite skills havent been gradually developed over time 1.Some of the Common Core standards are really complex 4. Access to CCS instructional resources that have a compelling research base 3. Balancing instruction in content-literacy skills (Common Core Standards) with instruction in content standards (social studies & history) © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

6 Extensive research VISUAL TOOLS are very powerful devices for teaching these thinking & communication skills * Reading comprehension * Vocabulary acquisition * Writing fluency & ideation * Content-area learning High-achieving Typical-achieving Low-achieving Learning Disabilities © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

7 This is where differentiated visual tools enter the picture So is this about graphic organizers? These are your PARENTS graphic organizers GRANDPARENTS For many of the more complex CC Standards, they dont work all that well © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

8 Webs can be excellent visual tools for teaching basic summarization skills …but are they effective when addressing complex C/C-R standards? © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

9 Whats the difference between… THIS Lets say you are attempting to teaching this standard… RL Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. …and THIS? © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

10 T arget topic & theme Topic = what story is about Theme = authors opinion / message about the topic C onnections * Connections to EVENTS * Connections to CHARACTERS * Connections to SETTING E vidence © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

11 TITLE TOPICTHEME (authors opinion about topic / message about life) Betraying your friends will lead to your own downfall.Loyalty (or lack of it!) The Pardoners Tale by Geoffrey Chaucer The three rioters have been in a bar all night long and are very drunk. Because they have all gotten drunk together they say they are loyal to each other when theyre not. (False friends often turn on each other.) Evidence from literary text This ryotoures three of which I telle / Long erst er pryme rang of any belle, / Were set hem in a taverne for to drinke and Lat eech of us holde up his hand til other, / And eech of us bicomen otheres brother. EVENT in the story CHARACTER feature(s) SETTING feature(s) CONNECTION to the story theme... Literary device evident in theme Irony Mood Motivation Imagery Symbolism Other The gold under the treeThe gold symbolizes greed and show how it can make people turn on each other. Evidence from literary text But mighte this gold be carried fro this place / Hoom to myr housor elles unto yourself-- / For wel ye woot that al this gold is oures-- / Thanne were we in high felicitee. EVENT in the story CHARACTER feature(s) SETTING feature(s) CONNECTION to the story theme... Literary device evident in theme Irony Mood Motivation Imagery Symbolism Other The three robbers end up killing each other.Because they all turned their backs on each other to try and keep more of the gold, they all ended up dead. Evidence from literary text Thus ended been thise homicides two. / And eek the false empoysoner, also. EVENT in the story CHARACTER feature(s) SETTING feature(s) CONNECTION to the story theme... Literary device evident in theme Irony Mood Motivation Imagery Symbolism Other X X X X X X

12 The Pardoners Tale The Pardoners Tale by Geoffrey Chaucer is a story about loyalty, or rather the lack of it. I think Chaucers message about life is Betraying your friends will lead to downfall. For example, one of the ways Chaucer communicates this message is by his use of characters and irony. Three rioters have been in a bar all night and have gotten very drunk. They talk about how loyal they are to each other: And eech of us bicomen otheres brother (…and each of us becomes the others brother). In reality, they just met each other in a bar and are not loyal to each other at all. Theyre just drunk. Basically Chaucer is saying that false friends will turn on each other. Chaucer uses irony to set the stage in this part of the story to establish that the so-called loyal friends are about to betray each other later in the story. Chaucer also uses the setting of the story and symbolism to communicate the betrayal theme. Theres a particular setting where there is a bag of gold under a tree. The gold symbolizes greed and shows how it can make people turn on each other: But mighte this gold be carried fro this place / Hoom to myr housor elles unto yourself-- / For wel ye woot that al this gold is oures-- / Thanne were we in high felicitee (…If we take this gold we will be very happy). In other words, the greed of the riotors will far outweigh any false loyalty they may have toward each other. Each wants the gold for himself. The three robbers end up killing each other. Here, Chaucer uses an event in the story and motivation as a literary device to illustrate the betrayal theme. Because they all turned their backs on each other to try and keep more of the gold, they all ended up dead: Thus ended been thise homicides two. / And eek the false empoysoner, also (All three died). Chaucer use of irony, symbolism, and motivation all relate to the storys theme of loyalty. A theme is a message about life, and the message here is that false friends turn on each other. If the thieves were true friends, they wouldnt have killed each other because of greed for the gold. © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

13 Whats the difference between… THIS…and THIS? Its all about the prompts! * Clear & explicit* Guide thinking* Simple* Standard-specific © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

14 …rather, we build up to it Thus, we dont start with something this complex… BIG IDEA Differentiated Visual Tools are scaffolded IMPLICATIONS? Instruction can be DIFFERENTIATED based on the sophistication of the learner & the complexity of the Visual Tool © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

15 CONCLUSION: So what? What is important to understand about this? LATER LITERARY WORK CHARACTER EARLIER LITERARY WORK CHARACTER Personal qualities Challenges How dealt with challenges How character changed © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

16 LITERARY WORK (title of story, chapter, song, poem, etc.) Dramatic irony is when the words and actions of the characters have a different meaning for the reader than they do for the characters. This is the result of the reader having a greater knowledge than the characters themselves. Something you (the reader) knows about what is happening or why or what the character is talking about that character(s) in the story dont know CHARACTERS WORDS OR ACTIONS How does knowing more about the meaning or implications of a characters words or actions that character)s) do make the story more suspenseful or funny? Something you (the reader) knows about what is happening or why or what the character is talking about that character(s) in the story dont know CHARACTERS WORDS OR ACTIONS How does knowing more about the meaning or implications of a characters words or actions that character)s) do make the story more suspenseful or funny? © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

17 Ways the interactions between these characters affect the story Description of how these characters interact with each other LITERARY WORK (title of story, chapter, song, poem, etc.) Personal Qualities CHARACTER Personal Qualities © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

18 BIG IDEA Differentiated Visual Tools are differentiated because each one is designed to address the unique dimensions of each different standard Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision. Analyze how characters vs. readers PoV (e.g., created through use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.. © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

19 E xpose authors position (thesis) on the issue and/or purpose for addressing it SOURCE D efine the issue or topic T arget a response to the conflicting evidence or alternative viewpoint B ack-up the position with reasoning and/or supporting evidence A cknowledge conflicting evidence or alternative viewpoint Summarize the issue / topic addressed by the author AND why is it important Reasoning and/or supporting evidence the author provided The authors position on this issue / topic seems to be… AND/OR The authors purpose for writing about this issue seems to be... E xplain your conclusion What author indicated was an alternative view of the issue or topic OR conflicting evidence Key point supporting the alternative viewpoint or evidence that conflicts with the authors view AND How the author responded to the key point or conflicting evidence © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

20 Inclusion or omission of info Choices author makes to include or omit specific info about a topic can reflect bias A reporter may express opinion (approval, ridicule, etc.) via tone of voice used when discussing the topic Tone Placement of info The position in a report (beginning, middle, end) that an idea is presented may cause people to view its importance differently. Word choice The choice of words an author uses to describe something (gathering vs. mob) or name something / someone (child vs. brat); use of words that express positive / negative value. Balance Degree that author explains different sides or views of topic Impartiality Degree that authors opinion about topic is obvious vs. neutral Picture / video selection / captions How something / someone appears in a picture or video, as well as picture captions or video narrations, can dramatically sway perceptions Substantiation of info Degree that author provides multiple-sources of information in the report that can be independently verified Exaggerating the characteristics of something/ someone often reflect bias. Exaggeration Title Titles wording may reflect the authors opinion about the topic Evidence of Author Bias Analyzing text, forming & expressing opinions © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

21 © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

22 vocabulary smart visuals Vocabulary Smart Visuals for terms with CONCISE definitions Vocabulary Smart Visuals for terms with ELABORATED definitions For terms that address broad concepts that have multiple essential understandings Feature use of metacognitive strategies… For terms that address very specific concepts (often technical terms) that have a limited set of distinguishing characteristics Feature 4 types of vocabulary knowledge… Class Critical features Relationship Connections Applications Forming inferences & predictions Self-evaluation Analyzing & summarizing Questioning © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

23 TOPIC Is about … TERM CLAS S DISTINCTIVE FEATURES RELATIONSHIPS / APPLICATION / CONNECTIONS TO TOPIC TERM CLAS S TERM CLAS S TERM CLAS S Many Jews were so distraught about what the Nazis were doing to Jews that they couldnt think of ways to save themselves. sullen …unpleasant, irritable, sour - some act sullen on purpose as a way to punish people they are mad at or to get what they want Dussel was acting very sullen – he didnt speak to Ann for two days and avoided her whenever he could. extremely emotionally upset to the point of being disabled or unable to act an emotion a young Jewish girls life in Amsterdam, Holland as she and her family hide from the Nazis during World War II. The Diary of Anne Frank distraught a behavior incorrigible …so bad that others think the person will never learn to behave Nazis viewed all Jews as incorrigible people who were dirty and dishonest and would pollute their master race. immigrate …move from one country to a new country and settle there permanently Many Jews tried to immigrate to other countries, but most of the countries would not let them come. They had nowhere to go. a behavior an action features * connections vocabulary smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

24 TIPS… Use at the BEGINNING of a lesson to pre- teach or review key vocabulary. features * connections Use DURING a lesson for guided note- taking Use at the END of the lesson to review and anchor key terms taught during the lesson. Good choice for first-time users of Vocabulary Smart Visuals Most difficult = identifying the CLASS (dictionary definitions often omit this component) Ideally, each feature should be noted on a separate line, (assuming space allows) Immigrant = person who… moves from one country to a new country and settles there permanently features * connections vocabulary smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

25 Features * ConnectionsEssential Understandings SIMPLESOPHISTICATED vocabulary smart visuals © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

26 TOPIC Is about … TERM CLASS CRITICAL FEATURES Content and/or Personal Connections CONNECTIONS How author used term, how term applies in other situations or real world APPLICATIONS TERM CLASS TERM CLASS TERM CLASS In cell nucleus contains hereditary info essential for life A coding system that is passed from parents to offspring that provides detailed instructions about not just traits but also how organs are developed and how everything in the body works Genetic fundamentals NUCLEIC ACIDS Provide information for regulating body functions like digestive system NUCLEOTIDE type of monomer Makes up a nucleic acid- 3 parts: * 5-carbon sugar * nitrogen-containing base, * phosphate Cells Nucleus Nucleic acids Nucleotides Code in a nucleic acid that creates a blueprint of instructions in DNA & RNA DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) type of nucleic acid Contains sugar deoxyribose 2 strands of nucleotides Spiral staircase shaped Contains these bases: adenine, quinine, cytosine, thymine Cells Nucleus Nucleic acids Nucleotides DNA Carries instructions controls cell activities DNA inherited =instructions passed to offspring DNA molecules duplicate themselves RNA (ribonucleic acid) type of nucleic acid Contains sugar ribose Single-stranded nucleic acid molecule Contains these bases: adenine, quinine, cytosine, uracil Messenger RNA caries coded instructions for protein synthesis from DNA to ribosome order Transfer RNA brings amino acids to ribosome in correct order to be built into protein Ribosomal RNA make up structure of a ribosome type of molecule Cells Nucleus Nucleic acids essential understandings vocabulary smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

27 TIPS… Easy to add pictures essential understandings GOOD idea to have students draw the pictures Scaffolding instruction is REALLY important! gradual release I do itWe do itYall do itYou do it essential understandings vocabulary smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

28 TOPIC Is about … Class Distinctive Features Relationships Applications Blood cells Three types of cells found in mammals blood, their roles, and what happens when there are problems PlateletsWhite Blood CellsRed Blood Cells Pieces of cells found in blood Surface contains proteins that allow them to stick to breaks in blood vessel wall & stick to each other. Contain granules that secrete proteins - creates firm plug to seal blood vessel breaks If # of platelets is TOO LOW, excessive bleeding can occur. If # too high, blood clots can form obstruct blood vessels stroke, heart attack or the blockage of blood vessels 2 roles… (1) Platelets form blood clots by clumping together and sticking to the edges of the cut, which helps stop bleeding. (2) Affect growth + repair of connective tissue Type of cell found in blood Found both blood & lymphatic system Most produced in bone marrow Live 3-4 days 1% of the total blood volume Change according to situation # of white blood cells in the blood can indicate disease. Leukemia (type of cancer) can result when they do not form correctly & their numbers increase too quickly 2 roles in the immune system… (1) Fight bacterial, fungal & parasitic infections (2) Deal with allergic and antigen (immune) responses Type of cell found in blood Rich in hemoglobin, an iron- containing molecule that binds oxygen (why they are red) All produced in bone marrow Live days About 25% of cells in body Sickle cell anemia = deformed red blood cells shaped like crescents…. hard for them to get through the blood vessels, & do not carry oxygen well. Absorb oxygen in the lungs & release it while squeezing through the body's capillaries. Lack a nucleus & most organelles, in order to allow maximum space for hemoglobin. essential understandings matrix vocabulary smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

29 TIPS… essential understandings matrix Side-by-side comparisons less cognitively demanding than similarities & differences, so EU Matrix is preferable when… * Terms being compared are really complex * Ideas have little in common other their CLASS or relationship to the topic of the lesson Use … * BEGINNING of a lesson when reviewing previously taught terms * DURING the lesson via guided note taking * END of the lesson to anchor the essential understandings of new vocabulary taught during the lesson. essential understandings matrix vocabulary smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

30 Class Distinctive Features Relationships Applications Democracy Laws, policies, & regulations based on desires of the majority of voting citizens. Supreme government power is in possession of the people (or their elected representatives) System of government where… System of government where… leaders believed to have a direct connection to God & interpret His will accordingly. Both may use constitutions or other documents (Bible, Koran) as their system of laws. Ultimately, both forms of government serve at the will of the people. Citizens vote for representatives who in turn vote on new laws & policies True Democracy All citizens vote on every new law or policy Ayatollah Khomeini. The Vatican City is technically a country ruled by the Catholic Pope Effectiveness of a Democracy based on degree of citizens involvement, education & knowledge of true current events and news. Gov. leaders are changed when new ones are voted in. Gov. leaders are changed when they die, deposed (over- thrown) by dissatisfied revolutionaries or competitors, or are selected by a group of religious leaders. Some democratic government constitutions incorporate religious principles (US Constitution incorporates Christian & Jewish principles). Some leaders attempt to create illusion of democracy by rigging elections (e.g., Iran, 2013) Some democratic countries elect religious leaders to be their government head of state Theocracy © Edwin Ellis essential understandings venn vocabulary smart visual

31 TIPS… essential understandings venn Best used when comparing a new concept with a familiar concept Terms compared on a Venn must be parallel or from the same category of information.) Terms being compared on a Venn should share multiple similarities. EXAMPLE DEMORACRACY vs. THEOCRACY (both are a form of government) NON-EXAMPLE PRESIDENT (a type of leader) vs. THEOCRACY (a form of government) 1 st focus on differences (brain is wired to look for contrast) © Edwin Ellis essential understandings venn vocabulary smart visual

32 DISTINCTIVE FEATURES CONTEXT (how author used term) TERM CLASS TERM CLASS TERM CLASS TERM CLASS Is about … Something that is quickly developing adjective describing How the US government started supporting the development of manufacturing industry in US American History, Chapter 8 Burgeoning Congress also acted to promote the burgeoning manufacturing section of America's economy that the war had stimulated. Protectionists wanted to protect US industry from foreign competition Protectionists in Congress passed a tariff law that limited competition abroad on a wide range of items (including cotton cloth). Group of Congressmen Tariff Fee on imported goods to make them more expensive in order to help local producers sell similar goods at a fair price While local producers (farmers, manufacturers) liked tariffs, importers were angry about tariffs because it cut into their profits Kind of tax enabled Created ability to do something Steamboats stimulated the agricultural economy of the West and South, as they enabled eastern manufacturers to send finished goods to these places much more easily. Action people do features & context vocabulary smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

33 TIPS… Best used DURING an in-class text-to-notes reading activity. features * context Best to have students compose original sentences about context rather than copying the sentence from the text. Also effective to use at the END of the lesson to review and anchor key terms Excellent tool for addressing Common Core Standards related to… * Summarizing key ideas * Drawing Conclusions * Citing text evidence features & context vocabulary smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

34 Class Critical Features TERM Term: Is related to this idea because… Term: Is related to this idea because… Term: Is related to this idea because… Term: Is related to this idea because… Term: exploitation people / groups with power take advantage of others with less power to get what they want Examples… Powerful countries exploit weaker countries to get their natural resources…Management exploits workers to get cheap labor… racists exploit minorities, men exploit women… An act that occurs when… Progressive Era Period when many tried to stop widespread exploitation in US. …believed that social problems (poverty, violence, greed, racism, class warfare) best addressed by good education & safe environment Suffrage Movement Organizations supporting womens suffrage (right to vote) became much more powerful – resulted in 19 th Amendment (prohibits any US citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of gender). Immigration Many immigrants were exploited by businesses (very low pay, long hours, unsafe conditions, etc.). Relief societies tried to help by getting immigrant children in school, access to hospitals, better living conditions, etc. TR Roosevelt He was a president who supported anti- monopoly legislation to open up competition – results would be higher quality products at lower prices. Also supported use of arbitration b/w unions & management during labor disputes Muckrakers Social-reform journalists /reporters reported facts about problems, abuses, etc. to get the public to support changes …Published corporate greed, abusive child- labor practices, etc.- encouraged citizens to vote to force politicians to pass better laws Labor Unions Individual workers have little power = easily exploited, but when they organize in unions, they create the power to force management to improve working conditions. Unions aggressively advocated radical social reform to reduce worker exploitation. related words web vocabulary smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

35 TIPS… related words web Best used at the END of the lesson to review and anchor key terms and their relationships. Can also be used at the BEGINNING of the lesson to review previously taught terms Phase 1: Students work in pairs or teams of four as they collaborate to complete the web. Phase 2: Students practice explaining to each other… …the definition of the target term (class & critical features) …why/how the words they noted as related words are connected to the targeted term. related words web vocabulary smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

36 So what? What is important to understand about this? Is about … Order Main Idea Details Designed to address broader concepts than terms with precise definitions While a single sentence might effectively define terms with concise definitions, broader concepts have multiple subtopics or main ideas, each of which often require multiple sentences to define. 4 elaborated ideas smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

37 Order Main Idea Details So what? What is important to understand about this? Is about … The Structure of the Tropical Rain Forest …the four layers of plants and animals that all together form a tropical rain forest. The highest layer of the rain forest is the… emergent layer Tallest trees in the rain forest live here. They can reach heights of 300 ft. (as tall as some sky scrapers) and are scattered throughout the forest. Trees have long thin trunks & tops shaped like umbrellas. They get most of the sunlight, but also strong winds. Harpy Eagles, parrots and other birds and many kinds of butterflies and insects live there. Only a few monkeys dare to travel to this height. The majority of the treeswhich are between ft. tallare found here. They grow so close that their leaves form a canopy, and rain can only reach the rest of the forest by traveling down their trunks. Air plants, called epiphytes, are common here. Animal species include howler monkeys, hummingbirds, bats, and tree frogs. Below the emergent layer, lies the rain forests… canopy Small trees with woody vines called lianas wrapped around them, ferns, and palms all exist in this level. Because the canopy traps most of the heat and moisture, it is very hot and humid here. Since so little light reaches this level, leaves are very large to absorb as much light as possible. Common animals are spider monkeys, kinkajous, and many types of insects. The layer below the canopy is the understory Only about one percent of sunlight ever reaches the forest floor. Because of this, many of the plants are parasitic they feed off other plants. It is covered with leaf litter. This, combined with the fact that dead plants and animals rot quickly, creates a nutrient rich soil. Common animals are leaf-cutter ants, anteaters, and tarantulas. The lowest layer of the rain forest is the forest floor Although it is a single ecosystem, the fact that the tropical rain forest has so many environments within itself, creates a phenomenal amount of diversity elaborated ideas smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

38 Is about … Connected shapes and figures with a definite amount of vertices & sides but no curves POLYGONS So what? What is important to understand about this? Both regular and irregular polygons are closed-sided figures (no openings). The number of sides and angles vary. Order Main Idea Details Pentagon -- An enclosed figure with equal sides and angles Square -- Enclosed figure of four equal sides and angles Octagon -- Eight equal sides and angled shape Regular Polygons Closed figure that have the same sides & equal measured angles Trapezoid -- A quadrilateral that has a pair of equal but parallel sides and 2 to 4 different angles Isosceles triangle -- 2 sides the same length + one different length AND 2 equal angles + 1 different angle Hexagon – Shape with irregular 6 sides and 6 angles shape Irregular Polygons Closed figure where all sides are not equal and all angles are not equal 2 elaborated ideas smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

39 Hawaiian Type Plinian Type Order Main Idea Details So what? What is important to understand about this? Different types of volcanic eruptions cause different kinds of damage. All are VERY dangerous. Strombolian volcanoes cause the most damage due to lava flows AND ash clouds Is about … Volcano-vents in the earth's crust through which lava, steam, gases, and/or ashes, etc. are expelled. There are three basic types. Types of Volcanic Eruptions Occur along fissure vents in earth crust – usually start as crack in ground. Lava steadily comes out of the main vent as well as from boccas on the sides of the volcano. Eruptive column is very low. Dont contain a lot of gasses, so not explosive.. Lava can flow for miles and destroys everything in its path. Example: the active volcano on the big island of Hawaii. 3 Inside, gas bubbles grow, rise through the magma column – decrease in pressure near top causes them to burst out throwing magma into the air. Heavy rock thrown out by eruptions causes volcano to have steeper sides + heavy lava flows. Ash may be blown several miles away from volcano. Can be very long lasting (e.g., Mexicos Parícutin volcano erupted continuously for 9 years) 1 Strombolian Type Eruptions very violent & powerful have columns of gas & volcanic ash that extend to stratosphere - over 12 miles high. No lava, but fine minerals and ash may fall to the ground over 600 miles away from volcano. The eruptive column can collapse to form a red-hot cloud of ash and gas that can be very destructive. (e.g., Mount Vesuvius that destroyed Pompeii) 2 Hawaiian Type PlinianType 3 elaborated ideas smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

40 Order Main Idea Details So what? What is important to understand about this? Edges of each layer is where the greatest changes in thermal (heat) characteristics, chemical composition, movement, and density occur. Is about … Different layers of air above earths surface are like envelopes of gas (everything else is inside it). Contains various gases like O 2 & CO 2, & dust from earth surface & space Layers of the Atmosphere Outer layer of the earths atmosphere… last layer before space…. very high up where the atmosphere is very thin… where atoms and molecules escape into space. 5 Exosphere Makes up only a small part of the atmospheres mass… temperatures are very high because gas particles are absorbing solar radiation. 4 Thermosphere Temperatures decrease with height until the atmosphere reaches its coldest temperature of -90˚C (-130˚F)… THE layer where many meteors burn up while entering the earth's atmosphere. 3 Mesophere Very stable part of the atmosphere so many airplanes often fly here… temperature increases with height… contains good ozone molecules that protect life on Earth by absorbing some of the sun's harmful UV rays. 2 Stratosphere Bottom layer of the atmosphere… where we live… much denser than the layers above it… temperatures decrease as you go higher… all of the earths weather takes place in the troposphere. 1 Troposphere All atmosphere is above earths surface 0 Earths surface 6 elaborated ideas smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

41 So what? What is important to understand about this? Biotechnology is the new frontier for the human race – some applications can be highly beneficial (e.g., improving hardiness of crops, medical break-throughs, but it can be very dangerous as well Is about … The application of biological science to practical problems (e.g., understanding & preventing birth defects, improving crops, developing new breeds of animals) Biotechnology (Chp 8) Type of gene that produces harmful traits or defects when homozygous (have similar characteristics because they are inherited from a common ancestor) Recessive allele Type of breeding - distantly related organisms mated to combine their good qualities (e.g., horse + donkey = mule) Can cause problems (e.g., aggressive / dangerous honey bees) Hybridization Specialized field of work where genes are identified, studied, and modified – e.g., changing genes of someone who has a specific cancer-causing gene). Genetic engineering Biochemical technique where DNA from different organisms are combined (e.g., transferring human genes into bacteria that then produce proteins useful to humans) Recombinant DNA A carrier of genetic material (small circular pieces of DNA) that can move DNA into cells Vector plasmid A practice that seeks to change human heredity by controlling mating (e.g., Nazis tried to create a super race via selective breeding of humans Eugenics Type of breeding - parents that have similar genotypes intentionally mated in order to maintain a specific traits in offspring (e.g., Golden Retrievers; Silver Queen Corn) Inbreeding The purposeful breeding of animals and plants to produce certain desired traits in the next generation of offspring. Selective breeding 8 elaborated ideas smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

42 Use at the beginning of lessons (e.g., students interview each other to form predictions about the meaning of the targeted terms) …and then again at the end of lessons (e.g., students check their original predictions about the definitions and then revise them as needed before & after smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved

43 BEFORE What we learned from each other AFTER What we know now Used when discussing… Means… Used in questions… Used when discussing… Means… Used in questions… Used when discussing… Means… Used in questions…. term End of lesson… students check their original predictions about the definitions and then revise them as needed exasperated Being mad at somebody Angry Pesky little brothers & sisters What caused you to be so exasperated at your little sister? Something that you could get stuck in Going in your 4 wheeler in the woods Is quicksand a quagmire? quagmire Concert? Classical music, violins, opera Did you go to the epiphany last night? epiphany Mad because youre frustrated or annoyed with someone OR something that happened Pesky little brothers & sisters Slow speed limits on 4-lane highways Do you ever get exasperated with your homework? The land is very low and stays wet so that it sinks. Swamps and other low-lying places Did you see lots of quagmires when you visited the Okefenokee Swamp? Sudden and powerful insight An I GET IT! moment Math problems. Suddenly realizing why things happen a certain way Figuring out how to get away from my little brother was an epiphany for me. before & after smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved

44 TIPS… Students can use different color font to indicate how close they came predicting the correct definition BLUE = Nailed it! Purple = Came close, but refined it Red = Not what we thought! ELABORATED DEFINITIONS: BEFORE & AFTER before & after smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved

45 Questions student formulate that include the term in the question should address a topic or context and not be about the meaning of the term. EXAMPLE: Did your truck get stuck in the quagmire after that heavy rain? NON-EXAMPLE: What does quagmire mean? TIPS… ELABORATED DEFINITIONS: BEFORE & AFTER before & after smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved

46 BEFORE What we learned from each other AFTER What we know now term Primary Productivity Used when discussing… Means… Used in questions… How much energy is available to consumers? Energy flow The energy made by plants How does usable energy diminish as it flows through an ecosystem? Energy pyramids It relates to the capture, conversion, and storage of solar energy. term Energy Pyramid Used when discussing… Means… Used in questions… How is usable energy arranged in an ecosystem? Ecological pyramids Amount of energy in an organism How is the energy in producers is different from that of top level consumers? Food chains An energy pyramid graphically shows the loss of energy from one trophic level to the next highest. term Biomass Pyramid Used when discussing… Means… Used in questions… How much weight is in all of the producers? Energy flow How much stuff is in an ecosystem What level of a food chain has the most or greatest mass? Ecosystem size The biomass pyramid is actual weight of organic material in every level in a food chain before & after smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved

47 ELABORATED DEFINITIONS: PREDICT CHECK vocabulary frames smart visual tools © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com CHAPTER Is about … Definition needs changing to … Definition = exactly correct Definition needs changing to … Definition = exactly correct Definition needs changing to … Definition = exactly correct Definition needs changing to … Definition = exactly correct Definition needs changing to … Definition = exactly correct Definition needs changing to … Definition = exactly correct Definition needs changing to … Definition = exactly correct WORD PREDICT the definition CHECK to see if your prediction was correct Chapter 4: The Long Walk Home Robin meet up with two guys that want him to go with them in their car. He gets in it, but realizes it was a mistake so he escapes when the car slows down to miss a deer. Elude I think it means someone that is crude or crazy. Dilemma I think a dilemma is a tough choice between 2 bad choices. Shard Paranoia When you think everyone is out to get you & dont trust anyone. Brusque This is a kind of meat that my parents like to eat. Credulity It means people can believe what you say. Hybrid This is a type of car. I think it is something sharp. To baffle or escape being found out or getting caught X A shard is an on-purpose broken piece or fragment of something so it would be sharp. X X Brusque means you are being very rude or short with people. It means that you believe things too easily- kind of like being naïve or gullible. Hybrid is a mixture of 2 different things resulting in something with a little bit of both X X X X

48 smart visual tools © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com TIPS… Predict Check Excellent tool for use at the BEGINNING of the lesson to activate background knowledge (PREDICT) Be sure to use think-aloud techniques to model how to form predictions about the definitions of words Revisit at the END of the lesson (CHECK) It is VERY IMPORTANT to model how to evaluate and refine definitions during the CHECK phase of using this frame. ELABORATED DEFINITIONS: PREDICT CHECK

49 always * sometimes * never Best used at end of lessons to anchor and review new vocabulary addressed during the lesson © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

50 TOPIC The Thief Lord by Cornelia Funke Term Definition * A comedian making fun of a politician * My brother imitating me to make me mad * How I treat my little brother * Your parents Mockery Way of talking or acting that scorns or ridicules something or someone Term Definition * Bullies * Racists & bigots * People who dis others * Terrorists * Some kids in my class * How some teachers treat students * My rabbi Contemptuous A feeling you have about something you hate or look down on Term Definition * How people get around in Venice (no cars allowed) * Tourists in Venice * A bus that goes on land Vaporette a motorboat used as a bus along the canals in Venice Term Definition * The school bell * Due dates for taxes! * Stores opening & closing * Me * The students coming to class * My school bus * My sister- She is never on time! * Granny Punctual An action that involves always being on time Term Definition * Stain glass windows in a church or synagogue * Pictures made of thousands of tiny photos * Bathroom floors * A large piece of stone Mosaics Type of art made by arranging many small pieces of things to into a large picture Term Definition * My dad * LaBron James a judge or politician * A criminal Venerable someone that you admire or respect a great deal Could ALWAYS use when discussing… Could SOMETIMES use when discussing… Would NEVER use when discussing… always * sometimes * never smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

51 Phenotype Traits in an organism that can be observed. Both alleles same (TT or tt) or one is dominant (Tt), WHAT is phenotype trait of yourself and WHY do you think so? I have red hair (you can see it), and my mom has red hair – I inherited the trait from her. Law of Segregation The separation of each pair of alleles during meiosis – half from each pair go to form a new gamete WHAT would happen is pairs of alleles didnt separate to form new gametes? The new organism would be a clone of one parent b/c it would have that parents original alleles Law of Dominance When two alles in a gene pair are different, one allele can control the trait & other can be hidden. WHAT is a hidden trait your sister may have that is NOT observable? (Tt) She has dark brown hair, but she may had a red hair hidden trait, so her children may have red hair. Heterozygous An organism that has two alleles for a particular trait that are NOT identical (Tt) HOW does an organism get two alleles that are not identical? Law of Segregation ensures things will continually get mixed up when it comes to inheriting traits Homozygous An organism that has two alleles for a particular trait that are ARE identical (TT or tt) If the alleles are identical (TT or tt) WHAT kind of trait will result? Phenotype (observable) Traits are characteristics that are passed from parents to offspring via genes. Is about … Genetic Traits Rank of Importance TERM Make up a WHO, WHY, WHEN WHERE or HOW question Answer to your question DEFINITION Alleles versions of a gene for the same trait that are different WHY are alleles important ? Alleles control what the observable traits in a person will be question & answer smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

52 TIPS… Q & A Self-generation of questions and then responding to them is an important information processing learning strategy that promotes deeper thinking about the meaning of the term. Be sure to you use think-aloud techniques to model how to form meaningful questions and responses to them. The best time to use is at the END of a lesson when reviewing or anchoring the definitions of terms. Encourage students to vary questions posed (generate a WHY question, then generate a HOW question, etc.) Encourage students to generate questions that focus on real-life examples or applications of the term. e.g., WHEN might a hidden trait of your sisters become a dominant trait and thus become observable? question & answer smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

53 How attempts use political solutions deal with slavery led to increased emphasis on violent solutions TOPIC Is about … Politics of slavery & Violence RANK of Importance TERMDEFINITION (in understandable words) ESSENTIAL QUESTION What is THE most important question that could be asked about this term? SO WHAT? Why is this question so important? Nullification a theory that… States may reject, or nullify, federal laws that the States believe are beyond the fed. gov's constitutional powers (rejected by Supreme Court) Why was the theory of nullification so central to the issue of slavery in US? Cuts to the core of whether slave states or free states could ignore slavery-related laws they didnt like & whether states had right to succeed from US popular sovereignty a law that… Allowed states to states vote yes or no for slavery (Kansas Nebraska Act) – boosted expansion of slavery & led to Bleeding Kansas How did popular sovereignty increase the likelihood of a civil war? If you know how PS caused each side to begin using violence to solve political problems, you can see how this made notion of a civil war more acceptable Bleeding Kansas A sequence of violent events Pro- and anti-slavery elements moved into Kansas with the intention of voting slavery up or down, leading to a raging mini civil war How did individual peoples reaction to Kansas Nebraska Act lead to Bleeding Kansas? Understanding role of pot- stirrers -- Outspoken advocates of violence on both sides organized & motivated supporters into action Dred Scott Decision A Supreme Court Decision Blacks not U.S. citizens, no rights; slaves = property & congress could not deny the right to property anywhere, slavery cannot be banned anywhere How did the Dred Scott Decision increase the likelihood of a civil war? About understanding how one side (in this case, abolitionists) lost faith in political/legal solutions that made violent solutions more inevitable Nat Turner Slave preacher who wanted revenge against Southern plantation owners; led a revolt in Virginia killing 57 whites Why did Nat Turners Rebellion make violent solutions to the slavery question more likely? About understanding ratio of slave owners to slaves made them fear slave rebellions – not just matter of economics of slavery, but a matter of life or death John Brown Abolitionist -believed armed insurrection only way to end slavery - led Harpers Ferry raid on federal armory How did John Browns raid at Harpers Ferry increase the likelihood of a civil war? About understanding how HF Raid = HUGE treat to slave owners & made slavery issue even more personal safety issue essential questions smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

54 TIPS… The Essential Questions frame tends to require a LOT of guided assistance, especially when responding So What? prompt. The best time to use is at the END of a lesson when reviewing or anchoring the definitions of terms. Essential Questions Phase 1: Use Teacher-assisted routines to model and guide responses; be sure to use talk-aloud techniques. Phase 2: Have students collaborate to generate an Essential Questions, but then guide students as they develop So What? responses. Phase 3: Have students collaborate as they both generate Essential Questions and formulate So What? responses. Have each pair or team share and explain with the class what they noted. essential questions smart visual © Edwin Ellis All Rights Reserved MakesSenseStrategies.com

55 So how well do these work? Visual Tools research Large N quantitative studies (true- & quasi-experimental designs) Qualitative studies Program Evaluations Typical measures include… General performance on high-stakes tests Performance in specific skills (writing) and vocabulary Depth / Breadth / Accuracy of new content knowledge Social validity (teacher & student satisfaction) Fidelity & factors that affect it Results consistently show that visual tools… FAR better than business as usual (control groups) Significantly better than generic graphic organizers Teachers and students HIGHLY value them © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

56 Edwin Ellis, Ph.D. Professor, Special Education, The University of Alabama (205) © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved

57 Visual Tools for Teaching At-Risk Students the Common Core Language Arts Standards © 2013 Edwin S. Ellis All Rights Reserved You can support this research by pre-ordering (at a considerable discount) the instructional materials featured in this presentation Differentiated Visual Tools: Literature Differentiated Visual Tools: History Differentiated Visual Tools: Science Vocabulary Smart Visuals Pre-order discount offer expires 11/11/13


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