2 Overview of the two days Day One8.30am Registration and coffee8.45am Welcome and workshop overviewMax Wilson and Andrew Bryson, ACFIPS9.00am Session I: Fundamentals of fibre opticsFrom 2500 BC to 2011 AD: The key steps.Session II: Principles of optical communication10.15am Morning tea10.30 am Session III:Optical fibre types and optical networksFibre to the home and industrial networks12.00pm Lunch12.45pm Session IV:LAN and TelecommunicationsFusion and mechanical splicing2.45pm Afternoon tea3.00pm Session VFactors affecting loss in ribbon fibreMeasuring methodsDay Two8.30am Review and recap day one9.00am Session I:Cable Preparation, Enclosures and RacksConnecting and patching with fibre10.30am Morning tea10.45am Session II: Inspection and Testing12.00pm Lunch12.45pm Session lll:Fusing and splicing ribbon fibreSafe practice for fusing and splicingAll participants will have access to fusion slicing equipment2.45pm Afternoon tea3.00pm Session IV:Ribbonizing fiber and course review
3 AusOptic international Established in 1994Specializing in Fiber OpticsWide range of optical productsRegional responsibility for Fitel splicing equipmentLocal Complete service of Fitel fusion splicersLocal programming of SFP/XFPProduct training on OTDR’s, Power meters, Fusion splicersFull support for all productsMajor brands, Anritsu, JDSU, Fitel, Juniper, Cisco, Ideal, Miller, Norland, Nanometer, forte.
5 History1841Daniel Colladon demonstrates light guiding in jet of water120 years later we have lasersBy 1970 we finally have fiber that have a low enough attenuation to be of use in communications2010 The technologies keep coming giving us better distances , more stable systems and greater capacity.
6 Key Components Optical transmitters Optical receivers Optical fibers Dispersion‐compensating modulesFiber amplifiersOptical filters, fiber Bragg gratings and couplersOptical switches and multiplexers, reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers (ROADMs)Devices for signal regenerationVarious kinds of electronics e.g. for signal processing and monitoringComputers and software to control the system operation
14 from sand to a light pipe Silicon dioxide – SiO2One of our most abundant oxide in the worlds crustAs a point of interest Australia has a major producer “Simcoa Operations” in Western Australia.Silicon production commenced in December 1989.Today Simcoa is capable of producing in excess of 33,000 tonnes of high purity silicon annually.
15 from sand to a light pipe From is molten state glass can be produced with rapid cooling.Preforms manufactured using Vapour Deposition
16 from sand to a light pipe Draw towers convert the preform into the fiber before coating, preforms can make up to 30 km of fiber from one preform.When Telstra rolled out its network we had two draw towers in production. Today we only have research (small production) towers in Australia.
18 fiber configurationThe 125um raw fiber is coated wth 250um buffer first then 900um for cord and raiser applications. In ribbon it is only coated with 250um prior to bonding or lamination
19 Four main types of Ribbon Cable Cable StructuresFour main types of Ribbon CableLoose tubeSlottedUni TubePatch Cord
20 Prysmian Cable preparation video Cable preparation varies with depending on the manufacturer and the type of cable. The video from Prysmian is a resent run and give you a good idea of the accepted practice.Prysmian Cable preparation video
22 Connections in the Network Typical connection we have are Patch leads at both ends of the network, Fusion splicing in Universal enclosures, Field Pluggable network connections, Central office or exchange Pigtails.
23 Connections in the Network Starting at the Exchange, Central office or Field Access Node we have mass spliced pigtails in the racks
24 Connections in the Network The pigtails are presented on a ribbon fiber which enables us to splice 12 pigtails at a time.In the case of a 144 pigtails it would take about the same time as 10 single fiber pigtails.
25 Connections in the Network The Design of enclosure to suit Ribbon fiber has posed a few problems. Basically the fiber can not be laid up the same way as single fiber loose tube, ribbon does not have the same flexibility, as such corning took a new approach with the “spine” while others have designed new tray to accommodate the ribbon, in all cases the storage area once used to provide extra cable now accommodates fiber from the tray.
26 Connections in the Network Optitip and Optitap are a field ruggedized connection that is being used in FTTHWhile some applications need the tube fanned out in the rack, the unit shown has individual tubes for each fiber.
44 Loss on Optical FiberRayleigh scattering - Scattering of light caused by index of refraction variations in the submicroscopic structure of the glass.Absorption -A physical mechanism in fibers that attenuates light by converting it in to heatManufacturing irregularities - Such as geometric variations in core diameter or circularity, voids in the glass, defects at the core-cladding interface, and imperfect application of dopants, can cause scattering loss. However, these regularities are usually negligible in present day fibers.Microbending - Curvatures of the fiber that involve axial displacements of a few micrometers and spatial wavelength of a few millimeters. Microbends cause loss of light and consequently increase the attenuation of the fiber. Loss due to microscopic bends in the fiber.Macrobending - Macroscopic axial deviation of a fiber from a straight line, in contrast to microbending. Loss due to large bends in the fiber.
45 Factors that influence the loss in a Fusion Splice Loss on Optical FiberFactors that influence the loss in a Fusion Splice