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Published byCedric Whetham
Modified over 2 years ago
Andrew Newbound © Andrew Newbound 2013
Universe Huge space which contains all of the mater and energy in existence Big Bang Theory that universe started in a big explosion from a single point Steady state Theory that universe has always existed and matter is being created all the time Cosmology Scientific study of theories about history & future of universe © Andrew Newbound 2013
Evidence Something that helps you form a conclusion Organisms Living things Darwin Created the theory of evolution and explained it through the mechanism of natural selection Evolution Slow change in a population of living things over many generations © Andrew Newbound 2013
Comparative anatomy Study of similarities and differences in body structures Fossils Remains/impressions of living things, mostly found in rock Geographical Isolation Natural arrangements of plants and animals in particular regions Homo sapiens Scientific term form modern humans © Andrew Newbound 2013
Lamarck Suggested that evolution was caused by organisms acquiring variations as they lived their lives, that were then inherited by their offspring. Natural Selection When only organism best adapted to their environment will survive and transmit their genes to their offspring Hominid Early human-like fossils that walked upright on 2 legs and were more like humans than apes © Andrew Newbound 2013
1929 Edwin Hubble Red Shift 1933 Big Bang Theory 1948 Steady state theory © Andrew Newbound 2013
1965 Robert Wilson & Arno ]] Discovered microwave radiation in the universe 1992 COBE (Cosmic Background Radiation Explorer) © Andrew Newbound 2013
Astronomer Studies objects in space & info that can be derived from them Cosmologist Studies theories about the universe Formation, history & future of universe Astronomers & Cosmologists Use telescopes + satellites + space probes Computer simulations & models Big Bang Before = nothing Started space, energy & time © Andrew Newbound 2013
Origin of Universe TheoryForAgainst Big Bang Microwave energy detected from Big Bang (background radiation) Red shift (universe expanding) Ripples in universe Starting point Steady state Starting point explained Galaxies cant be made of nothing © Andrew Newbound 2013
Universe runs out of energyStops expandingUniverse shrinksBack to size of Big Bang © Andrew Newbound 2013
1924 Aleksanr Oparin Life originated in pools of water 1953 Stanley Miller Showed how earth could have started Wrong quantities of gases Fred Hoyle Life originated in space Molecules that make up life – on comets & dust of nebulae © Andrew Newbound 2013
1969 September Meteorite flashed across sky in Victoria 4600 million years old 1997 ALH84001 Confirmed come from mars Microscopic patterns similar to bacteria colonies © Andrew Newbound 2013
Bacteria sent into space Spacecraft STARDUST collected samples from Comet Wild 2 in Jan 2004 Evidence for life on earth Fossils Oldest = bacteria Use hydrogen sulphide as an energy source Bacteria in harsh conditions Archaea © Andrew Newbound 2013
Planetary scientists Bacteria that can live in other places in the solar system Mars Most probable planet to support life Evidence for water has been detected Best place to find bacterial life Moon surrounding Jupitor/Saturn © Andrew Newbound 2013
Born: England 1809 Loved nature studies Large collection of beetles Sorted them Catalogued the varieties of pigeons Studied to be a doctor Left when witnessed a child in surgery Screaming with pain © Andrew Newbound 2013
Heard father & grandfather talk about evolution Unpaid naturalist on voyage around world Survey parts of world Draw biological specimens + descriptions of them South America Large fossil bones of extinct animals Resembled bones in living animals © Andrew Newbound 2013
After earthquake Mussels moved to 3m above high tide mark Showed environments change Galapagos island finches Each had different: Shaped beak Source of food Similar to each other Like once same type of bird © Andrew Newbound 2013
Beetles Small differences between living things are important Pigeons Living things change over time Finches Populations change over time and grow apart when separated Findings Reluctant to publish Alfred Russel Wallace had same findings Darwins theory publicised & well known © Andrew Newbound 2013
Study of similarities & differences in body structures Similarities Determine evolutionary relationships Limb adapted by evolution for use in different environments © Andrew Newbound 2013
Embryology Study of embryos All similar during early development © Andrew Newbound 2013
Comparative anatomy Some bones can be used for different purposes Pentadacyl limb Bones that are not used may still be around Comparative embryology Common ancestors changed to form different species Split further along than embryos Comparative DNA sequencing Measuring how long ago 2 species were 1 species Similarities compared Humans & chimpanzees 5-6 million years ago (98% similar) © Andrew Newbound 2013
Fossils Minerals replaced by carbonates Impressions/casts Chemicals cant break down Horse evolution using fossils Come from N. America Had 4 digits per limb Changed to graze tough grasses 3 rd digits nail = hoof © Andrew Newbound 2013
Dating Fossils Position in layers of rock Law of superposition Potasium 10 Argon 40 Older fossils up to 1,000,000 years ago Measure amounts of argon Carbon 14 dating Ratio of carbon14 to carbon12 50,000 years ago © Andrew Newbound 2013
Bio-Geographical Distribution Ratites (flightless birds all related) Emu, Kiwi etc. Continental drift © Andrew Newbound 2013
All organisms contain chemicals that are based primarily on carbon DNA Structural and chemical similarities between things suggest relationships © Andrew Newbound 2013
Study of fossils Evidence of evolution because oldest fossils are simples animals & plants As rocks get younger the fossils get more complex © Andrew Newbound 2013
Australia has its own distinctive kinds of living things E.g. waratah Endemic to Australia Explanations Begin as inferences Make hypothesis Produce theories Best scientific explanation at the time for the available evidence © Andrew Newbound 2013
Carbon Dating = Absolute Dating 1000s of years ago Relative dating Only tell whether fossil is older or younger Layer of rock found in © Andrew Newbound 2013
Artificial selection Farmers selecting largest/strongest animals for breeding Slight advantage More likely to survive Natural selection Slow Many generations E.g. Insect resistance to pesticides © Andrew Newbound 2013
Use it or lose it Acquired characteristics WRONG © Andrew Newbound 2013
Survival of the fittest All individuals have different characteristics (variations) All individuals struggle to survive Find food, shelter and mates Avoid danger Some individuals born with variations help to survive Survive best and reproduce to pass successful variations onto offspring Population changes so that it has characteristics that make it best suited to the environment © Andrew Newbound 2013
Hominids Closer to humans than apes Pre-hominids Closer to apes than humans Humans different to other animals Large brain for reasoning & language Opposable thumb Incomplete fossil records of human evolution © Andrew Newbound 2013
AustalopithecusHomo habilisHomo erectusNeanderthals Cro-Magnon man Homo Sapien © Andrew Newbound 2013
Hominid fossil changes Brains grew Face became vertical Brow ridges rose Teeth shrunk Neanderthals & Cro Magnons Lived in caves Shelter & protection Preserved from elements Lots of fossils Super species Able to destroy all other living things on earth © Andrew Newbound 2013
Topic 2 © Andrew Newbound 2013
Mass The amount of matter in something Weight The force of gravity pulling on a mass Force A push, pull or twist applied to an object Acceleration The rate at which an object changes its speed Net Force The directional sum of all forces acting on an object © Andrew Newbound 2013
Friction A rubbing force that slows moving objects Distance How far it is between 2 points Speed How quickly an object is moving Time How long it takes between 2 events Average Speed The total distance travelled divided by the total time taken © Andrew Newbound 2013
Velocity Speed in a given direction Ticker timer A device that produces a series of dots on paper Inertia The tendency of an object to stay still or keep moving Momentum The product of mass and velocity Newtons laws The 3 laws proposed by Sir Isaac Newton that describe motion © Andrew Newbound 2013
Velocity Important for ships at sea etc. Instantaneous speed Speed the moment you look at it Measured: Speedometer, laser/radar speed gun Average Speed Speed if same speed constantly over journey Average speed velocity, instantaneous velocity Same as speed but with distance also © Andrew Newbound 2013
m/skm/h © Andrew Newbound 2013
If go back to start, average velocity is 0 © Andrew Newbound 2013
Gradient tells speed Steeper = faster Flat = 0 (object not moving) Straight line = speed not changing Time along bottom Distance along side Scale must be constant © Andrew Newbound 2013
Use video camera Use pause button on VCR to analyse motion If picture contains ruler + clock Flashing light Disco – motion appears jerky Photographed = multiple images of moving dancers Stroboscopic light Flashes at regular intervals Multiple images of moving object Multiflash photography Movement in 2 dimensions (up & down, left & right) © Andrew Newbound 2013
Vertical axis = distance Horizontal axis = time Straight line sloping upwards Motion at a constant speed Horizontal dine Stationary object w/ no motion Zero speed At rest Curved line sloping upwards Acceleration © Andrew Newbound 2013
Shows acceleration Slope of graph Horizontal = constant speed Down= decelerating Up= accelerating © Andrew Newbound 2013
Acceleration Change in motion over time Circular motion Changing direction but not speed Still accelerated Acceleration Increase in speed Deceleration Decrease in speed © Andrew Newbound 2013
Jump from aeroplane Keep accelerating until hit terminal velocity Due to air resistance Car stopping at traffic lights Decelerates until hits 0 speed Satellite orbiting earth Constant speed but accelerating due to change in direction Weightlessness No gravity E.g. being in space © Andrew Newbound 2013
Speed How fast something is moving Acceleration Going faster, slower or changing direction Data Information in numerical form Graph Visual way of displaying data Ticker timer Leaves dot on a paper tape to record motion © Andrew Newbound 2013
Velocity Speed in a given direction Circular Motion Motion of an object round and round Harmonic Motion of an object going to and fro Pendulum Swinging object that can be used to measure time Weight Downwards force due to gravitational acceleration © Andrew Newbound 2013
Gravity affects objects at the same rate Heavy stone, light stone fall at same time Moons gravity < earths gravity Can jump higher Gravity causes objects to accelerate towards earth Air resistance slows falling objects near earth Terminal velocity Constant speed Same time to travel same distance © Andrew Newbound 2013
Closer together = slower speed Farther apart = faster speed Moving apart = accelerating Moving together = decelerating © Andrew Newbound 2013
Force Push/pull/twist Can change motion, shape of an object Measured in Newtons (N) Contact force Push/pull/twist through touching an object E.g. hammering a nail, lifting a book Weight force Movement caused by gravity © Andrew Newbound 2013
Reaction force Pushes against your force Stops you from crashing through the floor Friction Force that slows movement Pushes against moving objects Ice = low friction surface Need to ride bike © Andrew Newbound 2013
Mass Amount of matter inside an object Measured in kg Weight Downwards force Depends on your bodys mass + strength of gravity Measured in Newtons (N) Lift accelerates upward Floor pushes upwards Feet push harder against floor Extra weight © Andrew Newbound 2013
Weightlessness Occurs when there is no gravity Neutron star = 10 million x mass © Andrew Newbound 2013
Vector Arrow used to draw force Longer = more force © Andrew Newbound 2013
Upwards push of road Thrust Weight Resistance forces © Andrew Newbound 2013
Newtons First Law of Motion states that an object will remain at rest, or will not change its speed or direction, unless it is acted upon by an outside, unbalanced force. Constant speed = balanced forces Seatbelt Keeps passenger moving with vehicle Prevents law of ineria © Andrew Newbound 2013
Newton's Second Law of Motion describes how the mass of an object affects the way that it moves when acted upon by one or more forces. Larger objects accelerate less rapidly than smaller object acted upon with the same force. Inertia Property of object that makes them resist change © Andrew Newbound 2013
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. OR If one object pushes on another object, then the other object pushes back with equal force. Stand on floor Weight force (downwards)=upward force of floor actionreaction Unbalanced Move in dirrection © Andrew Newbound 2013
Slippery floor Move foot, lower force reaction slip Moving in space Cylinders of compressed gas attached to space suits © Andrew Newbound 2013
Reducing number of accidents Reducing injuries Seatbelts Hold occupants in their seas Absorb inertia Headrest Reduce whiplash from inertia Crumple zone Crumples to absorb energy © Andrew Newbound 2013
Air bags Absorb inertia & deceleration forces of occupants Anti-lock brake systems (ABS) Stop wheels from skidding Friction lost with road Deep tread Maximum friction Twice as fast = 4 times longer to stop © Andrew Newbound 2013
Reaction time Time taken for driver to react to danger Moving from accelerator to the brake Reaction distance Distance car travels during reaction time Braking distance Distance taken for car to stop when brakes are applied Stopping distance Total distance © Andrew Newbound 2013
Alcohol & fatigue Lower concentration Increase reaction time Stop. Revive. Survive. Law 1 Seatbelts Headrests Law 2 Airbags Crumple zones Law 3 ABS Tire tread © Andrew Newbound 2013
Topic 3 © Andrew Newbound 2013
Alleles The alternative forms of each gene Chromosome A length of DNA, containing many genes Dominant The one of a pair of opposite characters that appears when both are inherited Gametes The sex cells – sperm and ova © Andrew Newbound 2013
Genetics The study of inheritance and variation and the factors controlling them Genotype The genetic make-up of an individual Heredity Passing on characteristics from one generation to the next Heterozygous Different alleles for a gene © Andrew Newbound 2013
Homozygous 2 of the same alleles for a gene Meiosis Cell division resulting in daughter cells with half the chromosome number of the parent cell. (makes the sex cells) Mendel An Austrian monk who carried out experiments on pea plants The father of genetics © Andrew Newbound 2013
Mitosis Cell division resulting in in 2 daughter cells each an exact copy of the parent cell Mutation Results when a mistake is made in copying of DNA Phenotype How living things appear and function Recessive Appearing in offspring only when not masked by a dominant characteristic Zygote The 1 st cell of a new individual, formed when a sperm fuses with the ova during fertilisation © Andrew Newbound 2013
All living things made of cells/product of cells Cell theory Unicellular Only have 1 cell E.g. bacteria Multicellular All familiar plants & animals © Andrew Newbound 2013
Functions Take in substances (assimilate) Extract energy from food Excrete their wastes Grow Reproduce Respond to things Parts Nucleus Control centre Cell membrane Controls what gets in/out Cytoplasm Liquid containing various structures (organelles) © Andrew Newbound 2013
Additions Chloroplasts Make food Cell wall Strengthens structure Vacuoles Store water & dissolved substances Smaller/none in animal cells © Andrew Newbound 2013
CellsTissuesOrgans Body systems © Andrew Newbound 2013
All cells = same size Just diff quantity Cells need body systems Need food, water & oxygen Delivered by body systems © Andrew Newbound 2013
cytoplasm © Andrew Newbound 2013
Eyepiece lens Bends the light to make the object look bigger Microscope tube Light travels through it to the eyepiece Coarse focus & fine focus knobs Moves the lens up/down so that the object can be seen clearly Objective lens Can be changed so that the object can be magnified more or less © Andrew Newbound 2013
Stage Holds the slide with the object you are looking at in place Mirror Makes light bounce through the slide into the lens Base Holds the microscope up © Andrew Newbound 2013
Cell tissue e.g. Muscle, nerve, skin Multi-cellular Large groups of cells which specialise Cell membrane Outside of cell Cytoplasm Liquid inside cell All except nucleus Semi-transparent Includes cytosol, various organelles © Andrew Newbound 2013
Organelles Nucleus = most prominent Mitochondria Cytoskeleton Ribosomes Golgi complex Lysomes Nucleus Contains DNA & runs the cell © Andrew Newbound 2013
Animal Muscle cellMuscleArtery Circulatory System Horse Plant Epidermal cellEpidermisLeaf Photosynthesis system (leaves & stem) Whole plant © Andrew Newbound 2013
Energy is needed for Growth Reproduction Other functions © Andrew Newbound 2013
Nucleus Contains DNA Control centre of cell Nuclear membrane Surrounds the nucleus Lets in and out RNA Chemical copy of DNA Used to make protein Cell membrane Controls entry and exit of chemicals © Andrew Newbound 2013
Protoplasm All contents of cell Cytoplasm All contents of cell except nucleus Mitochondria Produces energy from food Ribosomes Manufactures protein Endoplasmic reticulum Moves products through the membrane © Andrew Newbound 2013
Chloroplasts Contains chlorophyll Used for photosynthesis Lysosomes Stores enzymes Microfilaments/cytoskeleton Holds organelles in place Vacuoles Stores food & minerals © Andrew Newbound 2013
Nucleic acids DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid Stores coded instructions Double helix Watson and Crick RNA Ribonucleic acid Allows DNA to read coded instructions Generally located in nucleus Prokaryote It is located in an area of the cell Not in a membrane © Andrew Newbound 2013
Nucleus Control centre Nucleus=programmed by DNA Instructions For making all parts of cell Way cell behaves How carry out functions Transmitting Nerve impulse Supplying energy Contracting (muscle cells) Carrying out photosynthesis © Andrew Newbound 2013
Nuclear membranes pores Connect with endoplasmic reticulum Transport material in and out of nucleus Nucleus need to be stained to be visible under a microscope © Andrew Newbound 2013
Shorted and coiled forms of DNA made when the cell is about the divide Only visible when stained Human cell 23 pairs 46 individual Sex chromosomes Information for sexual characteristics Autosomes Non-sex chromosomes © Andrew Newbound 2013
Process of sorting chromosomes into their matched pairs Important in investigating chromosomal disorders © Andrew Newbound 2013
1. Parent cell Chromosomes appear as long thin threads 2. Chromosomes duplicate (chromatid pairs) Become shorter and thicker 3. Chromatid pairs line up Along the equator of the cell 4. Chromatids separate Move to opposite ends of cell Starts to split into 2 cells 5. Daughter cells Chromosomes become longer, thinner and less distinct © Andrew Newbound 2013
Homologous Pair Chromosomes exist in pairs in each body cell. One pair from the mother, one pair from the father Diploid 2 of each type of chromosome Haploid Genetes (ova/sperm) contain only 1 of each type of chromosome Daughter cell Cell that is an exact copy of parent cell due to MITOSIS © Andrew Newbound 2013
Occurs in all body parts except sex cells Multicellular organism purpose Growth and repair Single-celled organism purpose Reproduction © Andrew Newbound 2013
Very complex form of cell division Begins same as mitosis Occurs only in reproductive organisms Ovaries & testes in humans After duplication of chromosomes From half-cells ½ of correct number of chromosomes for organism Fertilisation Recombine to give correct no. of chromosomes © Andrew Newbound 2013
Ova 23 Sperm 23 Zygote © Andrew Newbound 2013
1. 2 pairs of chromosomes are visible 2. Chromosomes double Joined at centromere 3. Homologous pairs line up along equator 4. One of each pair moves to ends of cell 5. Chromosomes line up along equator 6. Chromosomes separate + move to ends of cell 7. Membranes form to produce 4 daughter cells © Andrew Newbound 2013
Made of many nucleotides Joined like links in a chain Made of sugar – deoxyribose + phosphoric acid + nitrogenous base 4 bases Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine Order determines chemical code © Andrew Newbound 2013
Copied Unzips along bases RNA Like DNA In every cell Sugar = ribose Base uracil instead of Thymine Used to make copies of DNA Genome Sequence of bases in the DNA/RNA of a living thing Human = 3100 million base pairs © Andrew Newbound 2013
Gene Length of DNA Sequence of bases Code for 1 protein Chromosome Length of genes DNA Carries all instructions for cell to function Copied onto carrier molecule Messenger RNA M-RNA © Andrew Newbound 2013
m-RNA Moves out through nuclear membrane Into cytoplasm of cell At ribosomes Translated into protein Cells differentiate As multicellular organisms grow Specialise into different roles & tasks Stem cells Cells which arent specialised Take on any task © Andrew Newbound 2013
DNA The material that genes are made of Deoxyribonucleic acid Gene Coded instructions that control our development & body function Chromosome Collections of genes Wound in double helix 23 from each parent © Andrew Newbound 2013
Mutation Changes in the code of genes Biotechnology The exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other prospects Clone Any organism with identical genes to their parent organism © Andrew Newbound 2013
Completely decode human blueprint Fund laps to map genes of humans Physical + gene maps Needs 15 years 3 billion bases in genome © Andrew Newbound 2013
Pros Prevent genetic conditions Testing genes early on Cons Insurance companies could use info Introduction of new genes could make others worse Parents may not want to know their condition © Andrew Newbound 2013
Foods derived from genetically modified organisms E.g. soybean, corn, canola & cotton seed oil © Andrew Newbound 2013
Advantages Lower price Reduces use of toxic chemicals Prevents wasted crops Solve hunger Grow foods in different climates Improve vitamin & mineral content Faster growth Disadvantages Lasting effects on other species Natural immunity of insects to GM plant changes Ownership of food Allergens © Andrew Newbound 2013
1 st mammal cloned from an adult cell 5 th July 1996 Produced 6 lambs 2003 Experienced progressive lung disease + severe arthritis Euthanized Possible cause of short life Born at age of 6 years Only had 6 left © Andrew Newbound 2013
Eliminate famine Eliminate STIs Social discrepancy Only few able to achieve © Andrew Newbound 2013
Born Feb Discovered in 1990 Treatment of cultivating skins from patient = ineffective Requires days Scaring likely to occur Burn wounds taking 21+ days to heal Scaring less likely to occur <10 days © Andrew Newbound 2013
Skin sheets produced in 10 days More could be done Spray on skin CellSpray Aerosol delivery system Apply cultivated skin to larger burn areas Treat burns victims quicker Noticeable during Bali Bombings © Andrew Newbound 2013
DNA Carries code for making proteins Form our bodies Made from proteins/products made by proteins Makes 20 diff amino acids 3 bases code for each amino acid + start and stop RNA/m-RNA Opposite to code for DNA Complementary Occurs during mitosis © Andrew Newbound 2013
Genetic fingerprinting Using someones DNA to establish their identity Relies on enzymes Break DNA into short lengths Separated by Chroma typing Uses: Forensic work Confirming pedigree of valuable animals Checking genetic diversity of endangered animals © Andrew Newbound 2013
Spontaneous change in gene/chromosome Alteration in related characteristic Increased rate due to mutagens Mutation-causing agents E.g. X-rays Gamma rays Ultraviolet light Range of chemicals including benzene Responsible for genetic variation we see today © Andrew Newbound 2013
Discovered + made detailed investigations of base principals of heredity How traits are inherited Used pea plants Started w/ pure breeding Hybrids Plants produced by crossing contrasting breeding plants © Andrew Newbound 2013
Dominant characteristic Strong form Recessive characteristic Weak characteristic Genes Small factors that controlled inheritance Alles Diff forms of a gene E.g. purple and white colours in flowers © Andrew Newbound 2013
Phenotype Appearance of new offspring Genotype Combination of genes that determine a phenotype © Andrew Newbound 2013
P generation (Breeding Parents) F1 generation (first filial generation) F2 generation (2 nd generation) © Andrew Newbound 2013
Ss sSsss sSsss Short hair hybrid dog (Ss) and long haired hybrid dog (ss) with long hair being recessive © Andrew Newbound 2013
Heterozygous Different alles Homozygous Same alles © Andrew Newbound 2013
23 pairs of chromosomes 100,000 diff genes Linked genes Lying near each other on the same chromosome Particular characteristic Determined by 1 dominant/recessive genes Incomplete dominance Halfway between 2 genes © Andrew Newbound 2013
Females 22 normal pairs of chromosomes + XX pair of sex chromosomes Males 22 normal pairs of chromosomes + XY pair of sex chromosomes © Andrew Newbound 2013
XY XXXXY XXXXY Genotype: XX : XY 50% : 50% Phenotype: Female : Male © Andrew Newbound 2013
Sex linked Genes found on the X and Y chromosome Y chromosome only has a few genes compared to the X chromosome Sex linked genetic diseases Caused by defective genes on X chromosome and occur more frequently in males than females E.g. colour blindness © Andrew Newbound 2013
Females Must contain 2, reate faulty genes to be colour blind X`X` 1 faulty gene = carrier Dominant normal gene = proper vision Males Need only one faulty gene to be colourblind X`Y © Andrew Newbound 2013
X`Y XXX`XY XXX`XY Normal mother and a colour-blind father GenotypeXX`:XY PhenotypeFemale Male Carrier Normal © Andrew Newbound 2013
X`Y XX`X`Y XXX`XY Normal mother and a colour-blind father GenotypeXX`:X`X`:XY:X`Y CarrierCarrier: Colour blind: Normal: colour blind PhenotypeFemale:Female:Male:Male © Andrew Newbound 2013
Topic 4 © Andrew Newbound 2013
Chemistry Scientific study of matter, its properties and its interaction with other matter and energy Model A representation of something based on a set of assumptions, usually determined through experiments Charge The net effect of losing or gaining atoms © Andrew Newbound 2013
Atom The smallest particle of an element Element A substance made up of only 1 part of an atom Molecule A group of atoms joined by bonds Compound A group of different atoms that are joined in a fixed ratio © Andrew Newbound 2013
Periodic table The arrangement of elements into a table of groups and periods Electron shells The arrangement of electrons around the nucleus, based on energy levels Chemical formula A shorthand way of writing the name of an element or compound © Andrew Newbound 2013
Word equation Shows the changes that occur in a chemical reaction using words Chemical reaction Interactions in which atoms exchange or share electrons forming new chemical compounds Reactant The chemical compounds that combine to start a chemical reaction Products The chemical compounds that are produced during a chemical reaction © Andrew Newbound 2013
All Substances Pure Substances Element Compound Mixtures © Andrew Newbound 2013
Element Cannot be broken down into simpler substances E.g. oxygen, argon and helium Compound Pure substance that can be broken down E.g. sodium chloride Combined elements Molecule Joined atoms © Andrew Newbound 2013
Element Not made of anything except self 92 in nature Many too unstable Cant look at atoms Too small Everything we look with is made of atoms Indirect evidence How it affects what is around it © Andrew Newbound 2013
Proton Define the element Positively charged In nucleus Neutron No charge Create diff isotopes of element Electron Negatively charged Orbiting nucleus © Andrew Newbound 2013
Ion Charged atom Different number of protons to electrons Isotype Atoms of element with different number of neutrons Nucleus Makes up 1/10,000 of space in atom Mostly empty space © Andrew Newbound 2013
Rutherford Fired alpha particles at gold leaf 2 protons + 2 neutrons Positive charge Expected to steer away & he would measure how much they changed direction Actually didnt change direction very much Many came back at him © Andrew Newbound 2013
Niels Bohr Electrons occupy own orbitals Colours in emission spectra Represent element giving off light Represents energy level Outer shell Valance shell Occupied by high energy electrons Predicts properties & reactivity © Andrew Newbound 2013
The Periodic Table Discovered by Mendeleev Patterns appeared periodically Gaps would be filled by elements Predicted properties © Andrew Newbound 2013
Chemical symbol Unique 1-3 letters E.g. C=carbon, Cl=Chlorine Atomic number Number of protons in 1 atom of element Atomic weight Average weight of 1 atom of element Different isotopes Carbon = © Andrew Newbound 2013
GroupNumber of electrons in outer shell (Valence electrons) Alkali metals1 Alkali Earth metals2 Noble gases8 Halogens7 © Andrew Newbound 2013
Only 1 electron in outer shell Very reactive Can be easily lost Wants to lose E.g. Lithium, sodium Needs 1 electron in outer shell Strongly attracts elements to fill shell E.g. Iodine, bromine, chlorine, fluorine © Andrew Newbound 2013
Ionic Bonding 1 positive (cation) & 1 negative (anion) Covalent Bonding Share electrons Not as reactive © Andrew Newbound 2013
~ 400BC Democritus All substances consist of indestructible particles called atoms 1808 John Dalton All matter consisted of atoms Could not be divided Same element = alike Combined in whole number ratios © Andrew Newbound 2013
1897 Sir J.J Thomson Plumb pudding 1911 Lord Rutherford Nuclear model for atom 1913 Niels Bohr Electrons orbit at different energy levels 1932 Sir James Chadwick Discovered neutrons © Andrew Newbound 2013
Protons + In nucleus ElectronsNeutrons Neither +/- In nucleus About same size as proton © Andrew Newbound 2013
Mass number No. of protons + neutrons © Andrew Newbound 2013
Shows trends in properties between elements Predict properties of elements Most elements are solids 2 elements are liquid at room temp (25º) Some melt just above 11 elements gases at room temp Heaviest natural = uranium © Andrew Newbound 2013
Electrons Determine chemical properties of element Orbit in layers/shells Same number as protons 2 fill 1 st shell 8 fill 2 nd shell 8 fill 3 rd shell (1 st 20 elements) 4 th shell = partly filled Jump to higher energy level when heated © Andrew Newbound 2013
Electron configuration E.g. aluminium = © Andrew Newbound 2013
Periodic table Chart showing all elements in order of atomic number Element Pure substances made of billions of same type of atom Compound Pure substance made of billions of same type of molecule Symbol Short way of writing chemical name © Andrew Newbound 2013
Formula Way of writing type & ratio of atoms in a compound Molecule Group of atoms joined in a fixed ratio Electrolysis Using electricity to cause a chemical change Decomposition Breakdown of compound into simpler substances Proton Part of nucleus of atom that determines identity of atom Electron Orbits nucleus of atom in energy shell © Andrew Newbound 2013
Chemical equation Shows more than word equation Ratios and types of atoms present Balanced equation Shows even more Atoms only change positions Not created/destroyed Not shown in chemical equation Energy changes Rate (speed) of reaction How reactants change into products © Andrew Newbound 2013
Salts Ionic compounds Hydrochloric acid Chloride salts Sulphuric acid Sulphates © Andrew Newbound 2013
Common acids Hydrochloric Sulphuric Corrosive = harmful Damage/eat away material it touches © Andrew Newbound 2013
Acid Sour Corrosive Lose hydrogen in water Base Bitter Slippery Eat away proteins Lose hydroxide in water © Andrew Newbound 2013
Indicator Changes colour in different conditions Acids & bases Litmus Red = acid Blue = base Water = neutral Neutralisation reaction Acid + base © Andrew Newbound 2013
Acids Citric acid Cola drinks Milk Shampoo Bases Laundry powder Soap Dishwashing detergent Oven cleaners © Andrew Newbound 2013
Change of chemical partners Cloudy mixture formed © Andrew Newbound 2013
Soluble Sodium salts Potassium salts Ammonium salts Most sulfates Calcium sulfate = slightly soluble Sodium carbonates Potassium carbonate Ammonium carbonate Insoluble Sulfates Lead Barium Most carbonates © Andrew Newbound 2013
Ionic Type of compound made from attraction of metal and non-metal ions Covalent Type of compound made from two non-metals that share electrons Ion An atom that has lost or gained electrons and now carries an electrical charge © Andrew Newbound 2013
Lattice Large array of atoms or ions that repeats itself millions of times Flame test Where the colours of the flame are used to identify the types of atoms present Equation A written record of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction © Andrew Newbound 2013
Limewater Reagent used to test for presence of carbon dioxide Limestone Type of rock dissolved away by carbon dioxide gas dissolved in rainwater Precipitate An insoluble substance that forms when ions come together Suspension An insoluble substance shaken in water © Andrew Newbound 2013
Element A pure substance made of only one type of atom Decomposition When a group of atoms breaks apart into smaller groups Neutralisation Reaction where an acid and a base react and destroy each other Precipitate An insoluble substance made from the reaction of any two soluble substances © Andrew Newbound 2013
Covalent Groups of compounds formed from atoms of non-metals Ionic Groups of compounds formed from metal and non-metal ions Compound A pure substance made of 2 or more different atoms joined in a fixed ratio © Andrew Newbound 2013
Electron The outermost part of an atoms that can be lost or gained in chemical reactions Calcium carbonate The chemical compound present in lime, limestone, caves, chalk and cement Flame test Procedure where atoms are heated and the colours they produce are recorded © Andrew Newbound 2013
Hydrochloric acid chloride salts Sulfuric acid sulfate salts Nitric acid nitrate salts Phosphoric acid phosphate salts © Andrew Newbound 2013
Oxygen Glowing split will burst into flames in oxygen Carbon dioxide Burning splint is put out Limewater turns milky Hydrogen Pop test © Andrew Newbound 2013
Moisture Often visible around top of a test tube when heating a substance that contains water Nitrogen dioxide Brown-orange coloured gas © Andrew Newbound 2013
Topic 5 © Andrew Newbound 2013
Waves & radiation Carries energy Formed when particles are pushed from normal/rest position Springs back to where they were Pushes on near particles Sound waves Longitudinal wave motion Move to and fro in the same & opposite direction to the wave Move in direction of wave & return to original position Energy is pushed © Andrew Newbound 2013
Compressions Particles move closer together Rarefactions Spread further apart Longitudinal waves e.g. Sound waves Explosions Some earthquake waves Force of explosion Pushes air away Transferred energy Strong enough to break windows © Andrew Newbound 2013
Water waves Ripples travel outwards Transverse waves At right angles Transverse waves Boat over water E.g. Water Pulse in spring Some earthquake waves © Andrew Newbound 2013
Progressive waves Move energy from one place to another Moving forwards E.g. soundwaves Standing waves Identical waves in opposite directions E.g. pulse in rubber tube Travel through substance E.g. water, sound Dont need substance to travel through Electromagnetic Light, radio © Andrew Newbound 2013
displacement © Andrew Newbound 2013
rarefaction © Andrew Newbound 2013
Crest Top of wave Trough Bottom of wave Amplitude Distance from normal position to crest/trough © Andrew Newbound 2013
Displacement Distance from crest to trough Wavelength Length of 1 wave Distance between 2 crests/2 troughs Frequency Number of waves in a certain time © Andrew Newbound 2013
Gamma Shortest wavelength Can go through lead and concrete Medical X-Rays Affect photographic film Medical Ultraviolet Beyond violet Black light Cause skin cancer & sunburn Sunbeds © Andrew Newbound 2013
Light Visible light Infrared Beside red light Heat radiation Passes through some gases and glass Greenhouses Trap Heating © Andrew Newbound 2013
Microwaves Telecommunications Make water molecules in food vibrate Television & Radio Waves Longest wavelength TV & radio signals © Andrew Newbound 2013
Laser Light Surgery Intense heat Cut away unwanted tissues Burn off skin blemishes Shopping Read barcodes Photonics Using light in electric appliances © Andrew Newbound 2013
Satellites cheaper than fixed lines 35880km above the earth Energy comes from solar cells Remote areas Receive all TV, radio and Internet services © Andrew Newbound 2013
Imaging Being able to see where you cannot normally see © Andrew Newbound 2013
Gamma radiation Patient given tiny dose of radioactive atoms Recorded through gamma camera Different types for diff parts of body Ultrasound Very rapid vibrations Not detected by our ears Sound is reflected (echo) off diff parts inside body Show unborn children, heart function, blood flow, treat kidney stones & gall stones X-Rays More absorbed by denser parts of body © Andrew Newbound 2013
CAT Scans CT scans X-Rays concentrated on small slices Computerised Axial Tomography Detector records intensity of X-Rays Treat Cancer Can kill cells Particularly rapid growth ones © Andrew Newbound 2013
Placed close to patient Not scattered by dust No-one else in room at time Machine placed in room with thick concrete walls Absorb X-Rays Entry to X-Ray room is along zig-zag hallway Stops X-Rays being reflected into busy corridors Radiation monitoring badges Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) Check radiation levels © Andrew Newbound 2013
Able to transmit energy Without moving matter Transverse waves E.g. waves on the surface of water Compression waves E.g. sound waves Vibrations Cause sounds Cause compressions & rarefactions © Andrew Newbound 2013
Waver blows over ocean Energy is transferred from wind to wave © Andrew Newbound 2013
Breaking waves Sucks up water to support itself Not enough since gets shallower Rips Move straight out Swim sideways if caught in one No waves breaking Used by surfers to get out quicker © Andrew Newbound 2013
Rays Lines used to show the path of light Beam Stream of light rays Visible Particles in substances scatter it Transparent Most light travels through a substance Translucent Let just enough light to detect objects on other side Cant see objects clearly © Andrew Newbound 2013
Opaque Substances which absorb or reflect all light striking them © Andrew Newbound 2013
Convex Mirror (Diverging mirror) Concave mirror (Converging mirror) © Andrew Newbound 2013
Image Something that we see that is not really where we see it Image in curved mirror Distorted Concave mirror Enlarged image Convex mirror Wide view © Andrew Newbound 2013
Piece of glass/plastic with curved sides Shaped to bend light rays in new directions Shape of lens Amount of refraction of light Size & type of image Simple camera lens - convex Focuses light to give sharp image on film Convex lens at front of eye Focuses light onto cells at the back of our eyes © Andrew Newbound 2013
Changes in speed at the boundary Bends towards normal © Andrew Newbound 2013
Rainbow A spectrum of light Light from sun = separated Dispersion Separation of light into its colours Filter Plastic sheet Absorbs some colours but lets others pass through © Andrew Newbound 2013
Tiny particles of dust & water vapour Scatter light Scatter blue better than red Reflected light from objects See objects © Andrew Newbound 2013
RedOrangeYellow GreenBlueIndigo Violet © Andrew Newbound 2013
Topic 6 © Andrew Newbound 2013
Allows things to happen & change Cannot be seen Can never be used and destroyed Changes into other types of energy Most cant be used again Energy efficiency Percentage of total energy that is used & not used Joules (J) Unit of measurement for energy 1000J=1 kilojoule © Andrew Newbound 2013
Fossil fuels Non-renewable Will be used up in the future Non-renewable fuels Cause many environmental problems Renewable energy sources Can be made again in the environment Sustainable Can be used in the future without problems: Economic Environmental Social © Andrew Newbound 2013
Dont cause pollution Cheap Readily available Renewable © Andrew Newbound 2013
TypeAdvantagesDisadvantages Hydroelectricity More rainwater is replenished in the dam Only sometimes suitable Disrupts the environment Tidal energy Works with environment Expensive Only some places are suitable Wave energy Works with the environment Cost Finding locations Wind energy Works with the environment Small power output per generator Solar Amount of suitable sites Geothermal Uses unutilised energy Very limited locations Biomass Can make more valuable fuels © Andrew Newbound 2013
Fermentation of plant matter Ethanol Electrolysis of water Hydrogen Methane & bacterial decay of animal matter Biomass © Andrew Newbound 2013
Greenhouse gases Gases which trap some of the energy leaving the Earths surface E.g. Carbon Dioxide Methane Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Nitrogen oxides Greenhouse effect Heat from earth radiated towards surface Supports life © Andrew Newbound 2013
Enhanced greenhouse effect Burning of fossil fuels more greenhouse gases Increase in amount of energy trapped in the atmosphere Rise in temp of atmosphere Clearing forests For agriculture, paper production © Andrew Newbound 2013
Greenhouse GasesMain Sources Carbon dioxide Burning of coal Burning of gas Burning of oil Methane Livestock E.g. cows Rice paddies Mining CFCs Aerosols Refrigerants in fridges and air-cons Production of plastic foal Dry cleaning Nitrous oxides Fertilisers Burning of fossil fuels Especially petrol © Andrew Newbound 2013
Contained inside nucleus of atoms Fission Splitting an atom into 2 Protons and neutrons join together at random Make 2 new atoms Not correct balance between neutrons, protons and binding energy Eject excess radioactive © Andrew Newbound 2013
Radioactive atoms Unstable Decay into stable atoms Excess energy/subatomic particles are ejected from nucleus Can damage surrounding cells Fusion Joining atoms of hydrogen to make helium Produces huge amounts of energy No radioactive waste products © Andrew Newbound 2013
Chain reaction Neutrons being thrown from an atom during fission triggers more fission Nuclear medicine Radioactive chemicals to view tumours etc. inside the body Nuclear radiation can cause tumours Makes cells change Including DNA © Andrew Newbound 2013
Fission of a uranium-235 atom produces A krypton atom Barium atom 3 neutrons Gamma rays Boron can absorb neutrons Used in nuclear power stations Control rods Change speed of reaction © Andrew Newbound 2013
Nuclear power station Heat from reaction Changes water to steam Steam drives turbines Turbines drive generators Generators produce electricity © Andrew Newbound 2013
Carbon-14 is radioactive Nucleus is unstable due to extra neutrons Compared to stable carbon-12 © Andrew Newbound 2013
2 protons and 2 neutrons Like helium nucleus Shoot out at high speed but slow down in air Paper and skin can stop them Alpha Particles © Andrew Newbound 2013
Fast electrons Neutron breaks up forming a proton and an electron Pass through thin sheets of metal Get through skin 20/30cm in air Beta Particles © Andrew Newbound 2013
High energy rays Through thick sheets of metal Except lead Can pass deep into our bodies Gamma rays © Andrew Newbound 2013
Geiger counter Detects radiation Half-life Time taken for ½ of radioactive atoms in a sample to decay Carbon dating Carbon atoms constantly being taken in when alive Including carbon-14 Decay slowly when die Age can be worked out © Andrew Newbound 2013
Resource Useful material/substance obtained from the Earth Metals Obtained from minerals called ores Ore Economically important mineral Useful quantities of a metal Most are impure Mixed with sand + other worthless materials Gangue © Andrew Newbound 2013
Concentrate Concentrated metal ore Carried to smelter Refined Through heating Refining Purification of metals Electrolysis Electrical energy used to deposit pure metal onto large electrodes © Andrew Newbound 2013
Froth flotation Method used to extract metals from impure minerals Make metals stick to kerosene bubbles © Andrew Newbound 2013
Stone age People used stone tools and implements Ancient Egyptians 1 st people to smelt copper Iron Age Began: BC Tech used to extract iron was developed Iron tools were widely used © Andrew Newbound 2013
Industrial Revolution Small workshops factories Hand made machine made Energy No longer animals + moving water Now steam engines burning coal Ceramics & plastics Replacing metals in many uses Creating new uses © Andrew Newbound 2013
New materials from biological molecules Ages started at diff times in diff places Availability of resources was diff New plastics Kevlar Polycarbonate Terram © Andrew Newbound 2013
BC Iron Age 3500BC- Bronze Age BC Copper Age yrs ago Stone age © Andrew Newbound 2013
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