Presentation on theme: "Hernias Dr. Saleh M. Aldaqal MBBS, FRCSI,SBGS"— Presentation transcript:
1Hernias Dr. Saleh M. Aldaqal MBBS, FRCSI,SBGS Assistant Professor and Consultant General And laparoscopic Surgery(france),Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University.
2What is a hernia Hernia is derived from the Latin for "rupture" It is the protrusion of an organ or part of an organ through a defecte in the wall of the cavity normally containing it.
3Types of hernia Inguinal Indirect or indirect Femoral Herniation through the femoral canal
4Types of hernia Incisional Herniation through an area weakened by a scarUmbilicalParaumbilicalAcquired defect above or below the umbilicusEpigastricin the midline of abdomen above the umbilicus caused by a defect in linea alba.
5Groin Hernias Incidence: - Groin hernias are found in 5% of male population.- Represents 86% of all hernia cases.- It occurs 5 times more often in males than females.- Inguinal 96% ( indirect 75%, direct 25%).- Bilateral in 20% of cases- Right sided hernias are more frequent than left sided ones- Femoral 4%.
6Indirect inguinal hernia Pathophysiologya. Nonobliterated processus vaginalis (congenital).b. Internal abdominal ring weakened fascia.Lateral to inferior epigastrics vessels .
8Direct Inguinal Hernia Incidence: 25% of hernia casesThe hernia contents enter the inguinal canal directly via a gap or defect in transversalis fascia, the floor of Hasselbach's Triangle.These hernias are generally considered to be acquired, and may be associated with heavy lifting, straining due to constipation, coughing, or prostatic enlargement.
9Boundaries of Hasselbach's Triangle A. Medial boundary: Rectus abdominisB. Lateral boundary: Inferior epigastric vesselsC. Inferior boundary: Inguinal ligament
10Bilateral HerniaDefinition: Simultaneous Right and Left Inguinal HerniaCommon in children and elderly menIf a left inguinal hernia is preesnt, there is a 25% risk of an occult right inguinal hernia
11SymptomsA. Often asymptomatic (especially in direct hernias)B. Pain or dull sensation in groin
13Sliding HerniaPosterior wall of sac is a viscous. Seen in 3% of hernia procedures. Great care must be taken to avoid visceral damage during the repair.
14Pantaloon Hernia Direct and indirect hernias co-existing on same side Etiology for some recurrences.
15Richter's HerniaAntimesenteric boarder only of the small intestine is incarcerated in the deep inguinal ring, therefore intestinal obstruction may be absent, but gangrene of the bowel wall may occur.
16FEMORAL HERNIA I. Epidemiology A. Accounts for 4% of Groin Hernias (96% are inguinal)B. More common in elderly womenC. Gender predisposition: Female by 3 to 1 ratio1. Femoral seen less than Inguinal Hernia even in womenII. PathophysiologyA. Associated with increased intraabdominalpressureB. Hernia sac bulges into femoral canal. Femoral canal lies immediately medial to femoral vein
17INCISIONAL HERNIA I. Pathophysiology A. Type of Ventral Hernia B. Develops in scar of prior laparotomy or drain siteC. Risks for postoperative hernia development1. Vertical scar more commonly affected than horizontal2. Wound infection3. Wound dehiscence4. Malnutrition5. Obesity6. Tobacco abuse
18Treatment OptionsAll hernias should be surgically corrected to remove the risk of incarceration and strangulation.If there are compelling co-morbid medical conditions that preclude surgery, then a truss, or support hernia belt may be employed. A truss does not repair the hernia defect, but will afford some relief of symptoms.Modern methods of repair include open primary closure of the defect with sutures (Shouldice or "Canadian" Repair, Bassini Repair); patch closure with prosthetic materials (Polypropylene or Gortex) tension-free (Lichtenstein-type) and laparoscopic repair.